dynamic simulation of a pv-diesel-battery hybrid plant

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  • DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF A PV-DIESEL-BATTERY

    HYBRID PLANT FOR OFF GRID ELECTRICITY

    SUPPLY

    By:

    Basem Idlbi

    A Thesis Submitted To The Faculty Of Electrical Engineering And Computer

    Science At The University Of Kassel And Faculty Of Engineering At

    Cairo University

    In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirements For The Degree Of

    MASTER OF SCIENCE

    In

    RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    REMENA

    March, 2012

    Faculty of Engineering

    Giza, Egypt Kassel, Germany

    Cairo University University of Kassel

  • DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF A PV-DIESEL-BATTERY

    HYBRID PLANT FOR OFF GRID ELECTRICITY

    SUPPLY

    By:

    Basem Idlbi

    A Thesis Submitted To The Faculty Of Electrical Engineering And Computer

    Science At The University Of Kassel And Faculty Of Engineering At

    Cairo University

    In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirements For The Degree Of

    MASTER OF SCIENCE

    In

    RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    REMENA

    March, 2012

    Reviewers Supervisors

    Prof. Dr.-Eng. Siegfried Heier

    Member

    Faculty of Electrical Engineering and

    Computer Science, University of Kassel

    Prof. Dr.-Eng. Martin Braun

    Head of Group Decentralized Ancillary

    Services, Department of systems Engineering

    and Grid Integration, Fraunhofer IWES, Kassel

    Prof. Dr.-Eng. Ahmed El-Koussi

    Member

    Department of Electrical Power and Machines,

    Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University

    M.Sc-Eng. Rodrigo Estrella

    Member

    Group Decentralized Ancillary Services,

    Department of systems Engineering and Grid

    Integration, Fraunhofer IWES, Kassel

  • DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF A PV-DIESEL-BATTERY

    HYBRID PLANT FOR OFF GRID ELECTRICITY

    SUPPLY

    By:

    Basem Idlbi

    A Thesis Submitted To The Faculty Of Electrical Engineering And Computer

    Science At The University Of Kassel And Faculty Of Engineering At

    Cairo University

    In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirements For The Degree Of

    MASTER OF SCIENCE

    In

    RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    REMENA

    March, 2012

    Approved by the Examining Committee:

    Prof. Dr.-Eng. Siegfried Heier

    Prof. Dr.-Eng. Ahmed El-Koussi

    Prof. Dr.-Eng. Mohammad El-Sobki

  • i

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................................. i

    LIST OF TABLES .......................................................................................................................... v

    LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................................... vi

    LIST OF SYMBOLS ..................................................................................................................... ix

    LIST OFF ABBREVIATIONS...................................................................................................... xi

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................................ xii

    ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................. xiii

    1. INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 2

    2. ACTIVE POWER - FREQUENCY CONTROL .................................................................... 5

    2.1. PARALLEL OPERATION WITH DROOP CONTROL ................................................ 5

    2.2. INERTIAL RESPONSE .................................................................................................. 7

    2.3. PRIMARY CONTROL AND GOVERNOR ACTION ................................................... 8

    2.4. SECONDARY CONTROL............................................................................................ 10

    3. MODELING OF THE PLANT ............................................................................................ 12

    3.1. POWERFACTORY SIMULATION SOFTWARE ....................................................... 12

    3.2. MODEL OF DIESEL GENERATORS ......................................................................... 13

    3.2.1. PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF DIESEL GENERATORS .................................. 13

    3.2.2. MODEL OF SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR IN POWERFACTORY ............. 13

    3.2.3. MODEL OF DIESEL GOVERNOR IN POWERFACTORY ............................... 14

    3.2.4. MODEL OF VOLTAGE CONTROLLER IN POWERFACTORY ...................... 15

    3.2.5. SIMULATION OF PRIMARY CONTROL OF DIESEL GENERATOR ............ 17

    3.2.6. SIMULATION OF PRIMARY CONTROL OF PARALLEL DIESEL

    GENERATORS .................................................................................................................... 19

  • ii

    3.2.7. ADJUSTING THE MODEL OF DIESEL GENERATORS TO APPLY

    DISPATCHING .................................................................................................................... 20

    3.2.8. DEVELOPING A MODEL OF FUEL CONSUMPTION MEASUREMENT ...... 21

    3.3. MODEL OF BATTERY ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM (BESS) ............................. 24

    3.3.1. PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE BESS ........................................................ 24

    3.3.2. ADVANTAGES OF THE BESS IN OFF GRID OPERATION ............................ 24

    3.3.3. MODEL OF THE BATTERY IN POWERFACTORY ......................................... 25

    3.3.4. MODEL OF VOLTAGE SOURCED CONVERTER IN POWERFACTORY ..... 29

    3.3.5. MODEL OF BESS CONTROLLER IN POWERFACTORY ............................... 29

    3.3.6. MODEL OF FREQUENCY CONTROLLER IN POWERFACTORY ................. 30

    3.3.7. MODEL OF VOLTAGE AND POWER CONTROLLER IN POWERFACTORY

    ..31

    3.3.8. MODEL OF CHARGE CONTROLLER IN POWERFACTORY ........................ 33

    3.3.9. DESCRIPTION OF THE IMPLEMENTED BESS IN THE HYBRID PLANT ... 34

    3.3.10. SIMULATION OF PRIMARY CONTROL OF THE BESS ............................. 34

    3.3.11. SIMULATION OF PRIMARY CONTROL OF BESS AND DIESEL

    GENERATORS IN PARALLEL ......................................................................................... 36

    3.4. MODEL OF PV FIELD ................................................................................................. 39

    3.4.1. PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PV FIELD ................................................. 39

    3.4.2. ACTIVE POWER REGULATION OF THE PV FIELD ....................................... 39

    3.4.3. MODEL OF PV STATIC GENERATOR IN POWERFACTORY ....................... 41

    3.4.4. MODEL OF PV CONTROLLER ........................................................................... 41

    3.4.5. SIMULATION OF PRIMARY CONTROL OF BESS AND DIESEL

    GENERATORS AND PV FIELD IN PARALLEL ............................................................. 43

    3.5. MODEL OF THE HYBRID PLANT............................................................................. 44

    3.6. DEVELOPING A MODEL OF SECONDARY CONTROLLER ................................ 46

  • iii

    3.6.1. PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE SECONDARY CONTROLLER .............. 46

    3.6.2. DEVELOPING A COMPOSITE MODEL FRAME OF SECONDARY

    CONTROLLER .................................................................................................................... 47

    3.6.3. DEVELOPING A COMMON MODEL OF SECONDARY CONTROLLER ...... 50

    3.6.4. DISTRIBUTION OF SECONDARY CONTROL ACTIVE POWER .................. 51

    4. SIMULATION AND RESULTS .......................................................................................... 54

    4.1. PROPOSED CONTROL STRATEGIES ...................................................................... 54

    4.2. DYNAMIC SIMULATION ........................................................................................... 56

    4.2.1. SIMULATION OF SECONDARY CONTROL OF THE PLANT ....................... 56

    4.2.2. SIMULATION OF FUEL CONSUMPTION ......................................................... 61

    4.3. CASE STUDY (SIMULATION OF ONE EXAMPLE DAY) ...................................... 62

    4.3.1. ASSUMPTIONS ..................................................................................................... 62

    4.3.2. LOAD PROFILE .................................................................................................... 62

    4.3.3. OUTPUT POWER OF THE PV FIELD ................................................................ 63

    4.3.4. OUTPUT POWER OF THE DIESEL GENERATORS ......................................... 64

    4.3.5. OUTPUT POWER OF THE BESS ........................................................................ 67

    4.3.6. ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF THE PLANT....................................................... 68

    4.3.7. ANALYSIS OF FREQUENCY DEVIATIONS .................................................... 71

    4.3.8. ESTIMATION OF FUEL CONSUMPTION ......................................................... 73

    4.3.9

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