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  • SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    Department GeologyGadjah Mada University

    SEQUENCESTRATIGRAPHY:CONCEPTANDAPPLICATION

    Compiledby:

    BudiantoToha

    Smester 12014/2015

    SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    Nevertheless,Ipersistintheclaimthatcratons,theirmargins,andtheirinteriorbasinsdonotjustliethere passively

    waitingtobeencroacheduponbyrisingsealevelsorlaidbaretoerosionassealevelsfall.

    Studentsandpractitionersofsequencestratigraphy are,forthebetterorworse,

    recordersandinterpretersoftectonicevolution.

    L.L.Sloss FortyyearsofsequencestratigraphyGeologicalSocietyofAmericaBulletin,v.100.p.16611665,Nov.1988

    WaterflowsdownhillG.P.Allen

    .andthesedimentsupplywithitaswell(adoptedfromIrfan Cibaj,June2011)

  • SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    GeorgesP.Allenspent20yearsstudying

    theMahakam deltaareasedimentology.

    Weowehimtheunderstandingofsedimentaryprocessesaswellas

    theirconsequencesinreservoirgeometry

    GeorgesP.Allen,25May1942 15October1998

    (adoptedfromIrfan Cibaj,June2011)

    SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    OBSERVASION INTERPRETATION PREDICTION

    Geometry

    Lithology

    Fossil

    Sedimentarystructure

    Paleocurrent

    DepositionalEnvironmentandPaleogeography

    Location,GeometryandEconomicAspects

    FACIESMODEL

    FACIESANALYSIS

    pointstoremember

    (comparewithrecentsediments)

  • SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    SequenceStratigraphy anditsapplicationforHCexplorationwithin~8hours??..justlikeanefforttoswallowabiggerpreythanthemouth..!!!!!

    NEVERGIVEUP TRYandTRYAGAIN,YOULLSUCCEEDATLAST !!!!!

    SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    EXPLORATION CONCEPT

  • SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    CONCEPTUALMODELOFPETROLEUMSYSTEMSOURCEROCKSPOTENTIAL:

    1. SYNRIFTINTERVAL LESSDEEPSUBBASIN2. SYNRIFTANDPOSTRIFTINTERVAL INTERMEDIATEDEEPSUBBASIN3. SYNRIFT,POSTRIFTANDBACKARCINTERVAL DEEPSUBBASIN

    SYNRIFTISTHEBESTPOTENSIALSOURCEROCKSPODS

    RESERVOIRPOTENTIAL:SYNRIFT:FLUVIAL,DELTAICLACUSTRINE,LACUSTRINEBEACHPOSTRIFT:FLUVIAL,DELTAIC,SHALLOWMARINE,CARBONATEBACKARC:SHALLOWMARINE,DEEPWATER?ANDFLUVIODELTAIC

    POSTRIFTINTERVALISTHEBESTKNOWNRESERVOIRINTERVAL

    SOURCEROCKSPOTENTIALTRAPSandSEAL/CAPROCKS

    SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    Itisconcernedwithallcharacters andattributes ofrocksasstrata;andtheir

    interpretationintermsofmodeoforigin and

    geologichistory

    STRATIGRAPHY:thescienceofrockstrata

  • SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    BASININFILLINGDYNAMICSSEDIMENTATIONSEQUENCESTRATIGRAPHY

    SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    CONCEPTSINSTRATIGRAPHY

    STENOSPRINCIPLES(1669)SuperpositionofStrata

    OriginalLateralContinuityofStrataOriginalHorizontalityofStrata

    Collate:VerticalAccumulationofStrata

    CROSSCUTTINGPRINCIPLEveins,dykesetcwereknowntocutacrossthe

    countryrock:therockscuttingacrossacountryrockareyoungerthanthecountry.

  • SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    Modifiedstatement:

    LawofSuperposition:Theyoungeststrataareattopinanundisturbedsequence(Anthony,1955,p.83)

    LAWOFSUPERPOSITION(STENO,1669)

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    StatementofPrinciple:Dippingbedswereoncehorizontal.

    (Woodford,1935,p.3)

    ModifiedStatement:Lawofhorizontality :Sedimentarystrataarelaiddownnearlyhorizontallyandessentiallyparalleltothesurfaceuponwhichtheyaccumulate.(Anthony,locopcit.,p.83)

    ORIGINALHORIZONTALITY(STENO,1669)

    1

    2

    3

    Note:Patternofsedimentaccumulationismostlyvertical(aggradations)

  • SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    Modifiedstatement:

    LawofOriginalContinuity:Theoriginalcontinuityofwaterlaidsedimentarystrataisterminatedonlybypinchingoutagainstthebasinofdeposition,atthetimeoftheirdeposition.(Anthony,loc.op.cit,p.83)

    HORIZONTALLATERALCONTINUITYSteno,1669)

    SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    Additionalsedimentsupplywillbeaccommodatedinthebasinsuchasprograding orretrograding

    fashion(sidegrowth)(progradation/retrogradation)

    PRINCIPALOFLATERALACCRETION

    Sedimentaryrocksareformedinadepositionalenvironmentwithinitialsurfacerelativelyinclinedtothecenter

    ofthebasin

  • SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    PROGRADATION

    RETROGRADATION

    Actually . DEPOSITIONAL DYNAMICSAGGRADATION

    SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    DEPOSITIONALDYNAMICS

    SL1 SL2

    SL3

    SL4SL5 SL6

    SL7

    EROSIONSURFACE

    PROGRADATION

    RETROGRADATION

    1

    23

    4

    566

    77

    899

    10 11

    1212

    13

  • SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    SEDIMENTARY FACIES AND ENVIRONMENT

    SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    SEDIMENTARYENVIRONMENTANDFACIES

    Asedimentaryenvironmentisapartofearthssurfacewhichisphysically,chemically,andbiologicallydistinctfromadjacentterrains,e.g.deserts,rivervalleys,lake,deltas,lagoon,shallowmarine(Selley,1985)

    Asedimentaryfacies isamassofsedimentaryrockswhichcanbedefinedanddistinguishedfromothersbygeometry,lithology,sedimentarysructures,paleocurrentpattern,andfossils(Selley,1985)

    PROCESS

    PRODUCT

  • SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    SEDIMENTARYFACIES:

    PHYSICAL,CHEMICAL,andBIOLOGICALASPECTSOFDEPOSITIONALENVIRONMENTWITHINSYNCHRONOUSINTERVAL

    (AfterSelley ,1985)

    CAUSE EFFECT

    Process

    PhysicalChemicalBiological

    SEDIMENTARYENVIRONMENT

    ErosionalNondepositionalDepositional SEDIMENTARY

    FACIES

    GeometryLithologySedimentary

    structuresPaleocurrentsFossils

    SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    DEPOSITIONALFACIESANDENVIRONMENT

    Variousdepositionalenvironmentsoccurringacrosstheedgeofacontinentalandtheadjacentmarginofanoceanbasin

    RSL1

    (AfterSkinnerandPorter,1987)

  • SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    Variousdepositionalenvironmentsoccurringacrosstheedgeofacontinentalandtheadjacentmarginofanoceanbasin

    DEPOSITIONALFACIESANDENVIRONMENT

    RSL2

    (AfterSkinnerandPorter,1987)

    SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    Variousdepositionalenvironmentsoccurringacrosstheedgeofacontinentalandtheadjacentmarginofanoceanbasin

    DEPOSITIONALFACIESANDENVIRONMENT

    RSL3

    RSL3

    (AfterSkinnerandPorter,1987)

  • SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    DynamicofSedimentationand

    SequenceStratigraphy

    Howsedimentaryrockisaccumulated Factorscontrollingprocess

    Stratigraphic Recordanditspattern

    SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    Stratigraphic record

    Stratigraphic Record DynamicofSedimentation

    (afterMatthews,1974)

  • SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    FactorsControllingSedimentation

    1. Subsidence2. Eustacy3. Sedimentsupply/sedimentflux4. (Climate)

    Sedimentflux Carbonatesedimentation Etc.

    References:

    Posamentier,H.W.,Jervey,M.T.andVail,P.R.,1988,Eustatic controlsonclastic depositionI conceptualframework,inWilgus,C.K.etal.,(eds.)Sealevelchanges:anintegratedapproach.SEPMSpec.Publ.42,p.109124.

    _____________andVailP.R.,1988,Eustatic controlsonclastic depositionII,inWilgus,C.K.etal.(eds),Sealevelchanges:anintegratedapproach.SEPMSpec.Publ.42,p.125154.

    SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    (AfterAllen,1997)

    FACTORSCONTROLLINGSHELFSTRATIGRAPHICPATTERNS

  • SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    DynamicSedimentation

    AccommodationSpace

    Theinteractionofeustacy,subsidence,sedimentsupply,basinphysiography,andclimatelargerly controlbasinsedimentation.Oneormorevariablesmaybedominant

    SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    DynamicSedimentationSed SupplyEustacyTectonics

    Sed SupplyEustacyTectonics

    Sed SupplyEustacyTectonics

    Sed SupplyEustacyTectonics

    Sed SupplyEustacyTectonics

    constant

    constant

    constant

    constant

    constant

    constant

    constant

    constant

    PROGRADATIONREGRESSION

    CONSTANTSHORELINE

    CONSTANTSHORELINE

    TRANSGRESSION

    AGRADATION

    AGRADATION

    CONSTANTSHORELINE AGRADATION

    RETROGRADATION

  • SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    DynamicSedimentation

    Sed SupplyEustacyTectonics

    Sed SupplyEustacyTectonics

    Sed SupplyEustacyTectonics

    Sed SupplyEustacyTectonics

    Sed SupplyEustacyTectonics

    Constant()

    constantconstant

    constant

    constant

    STARVEDBASIN

    TRANSGRESSION

    Constant()

    ???

    ???

    ???

    etc..

    RETROGRADATION

    CONDENSEDSECTION

    SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY : Concept AND APPLICATION BDT

    MarineSequenceStratigraphy

    Chronostratigarphy Stratal packages Controlsofsedimentation

    Accommodationspace Tectonics

    Eustacy (sealevelchanges)

    Basingeometry Physiography Sedimentsupply

    Provenance

    Climate

    NonmarineSequenceStratigraphy(Tectonostratigraphy)

    Chronostratigarphy Stratal packages Controlsofsedimentation

    Accommodationspace Tectonics

    Basingeometry Topography Sedimentsupply

    Provenance

    Climate

    Time

    Accom

    .Spa

    ce

    Initiation

    LocalSagging

    Cl