drawing, painting and printmaking

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Chapters 5, 6, and 7 from "Understanding Art, 9e"


  • 1.Drawing Everybodydraws. There can scarcely be a person above the age of two who has never made a drawing. Two qualities often associated with drawing are familiarity and intimacy. Drawing is familiar in that it uses the materials we are accustomed to the pencil, the pen, the stick of chalk.Drawing seems intimate because it is frequently the artists note-taking. We think of drawings as direct expression, from brain to hand.

2. Materials for Drawing

  • Dry Media
  • Pencil
  • Metalpoint
  • Charcoal
  • Chalk and Crayon
  • Wet Media
  • Pen and Ink
  • Brush and Ink

Supports ParchmentVellumPaperOther 3. Dry Media

  • Silverpoint
  • Uses agroundof bone or chalk mixed withgum , water andpigment .
  • Drag a silver tipped instrument over the surface and the partials stick to the ground.
  • Tom make a area darker you have to use cross hatching.
  • Very delicate in appearance .

4. Silverpoint Figure 5.3, p.108:ALPHONSE LEGROS.Head of a Man(19th century). Silverpoint on white ground. 5. Leonardo da Vinci- Silverpoint 6. Dry Media continued

  • Pencil
  • Most traditional media
  • Replaced silverpoint
  • Capable of creating a wide range of effects.
  • History:
  • Came into use in the 1500s
  • Mass produced pencils invented in late eighteenth century.
  • Uses a thin rod ofgraphiteencased in wood or paper.
  • The graphite is ground to dust, mixed with clay and baked.
  • The more clay, the harder the pencil.

7. Pencil Figure 5.6, p.109:ADRIAN PIPER.Self-Portrait Exaggerating My Negroid Features(1981). Pencil on paper.10 x8 . 8. Pablo Picasso-pencil 9. Charcoal

  • Also has a long history
  • Used by prehistoric man on cave walls!
  • Charcoal is burnt pieces of wood or bone.
  • Now charcoal is made from controlled charring o special hardwoods.
  • Ranges from hard to soft.
  • Can be smudged or rubbed.
  • Needs to be fixed with varnish, or can be rubbed off.
  • Will show the surface of the paper.

10. Charcoal Figure 5.7, p.110:KATHE KOLLWITZ. Self-Portrait (1924). Charcoal. 18 1/2 x 25 in. 11. Carracci-charcoal 12. Chalk and Pastel

  • Chalk and pastel are very similar to charcoal.
  • The compositions of the media differ.
  • Made or ground chalk mixed with powered pigments and a binder.
  • Relatively young, only introduced to France in the 1400s.
  • Comes in many colors
    • Ocher - dark yellow that comes from iron oxide in some clays.
    • Umber- yellowish or reddish brown color that comes from earth containing oxides or manganese and iron.
    • Sanguine - a earthy red color

13. Figure 5.9, p.111:MICHELANGELO. Studies forThe Libyan Sybil(15101511). Red chalk. 11 38 x8 38 . Chalk and Pastel 14. Figure 5.11, p.112:EDGAR DEGAS.Woman at Her Toilette(1903). Pastel on paper. 30 x30 12 . 15. Raphael-colored chalk 16. Pen and Ink

  • Used since ancient times
  • Earliest were s reeds
  • Quills , plucked from live birds, were sue in the Middle Ages.
  • Replaced in the nineteenth century with mass produced metalnib , which is slipped into astylus .

17. Pen and Wash

  • Wash- diluted ink that is applied withbrush.
  • Often combined with fine clear lines of pure ink to provide tonal emphasis.

18. Vincent van Gogh-ink and pen 19. Figure 5.18, p.115:GIOVANNI BATTISTA TIEPOLO.Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness(c. 17251735).Pen, brush and brown ink, and wash, over sketch in black chalk. 16 12 x11 18 . Pen and Wash 20. Tiepolo-ink wash 21. NewApproaches to Drawing

  • Drawing display endless versatility in:
  • Purpose
  • Media
  • Technique
  • So what is drawing?

22. Fig. 5-25, p.119 MARGARET HONDA. Exchange (2003-2004). Vinyl on Mylar. 50 Elements, Dimensions variable. 23. New Drawing Media 24. Richard Long 25. Richard Long 26. Beth Secor 27. Beth Secor 28. Purposes of Drawings

  • Preliminary Study
  • Leonardo da Vinci,Sketch for the Madonna of the Cat,~1480, Pen and Brown Ink.

29. Figure 5.1, p.106:REMBRANDT VAN RIJN. Copy of Leonardo da VincisLast Supper.Red chalk on paper.14 x18 14 . 30. Figure studies by Rembrandt 31. Purposes of Drawings

  • Illustration

32. Jason DAquino 33. Purposes of Drawings

  • Expression

34. Purposes of Drawings

  • Drawing as Final Work

35. Kathleen Gilje 36. Painting

  • Painting is the queen of the arts. Ask ten people to form a quick mental image of art, nine of them are likely to visualize a painting on a wall.
  • There are several reasons for the prominence of painting. For one thing, paintings are usually full of color which is an important visual stimuli. For another, paintings are often framed, some quite elaborately, so that one has the impression of a very special object.

37. Types of Painting

  • Fresco
  • Encaustic
  • Tempera
  • Oil
  • Acrylic
  • Watercolor
  • Spray Paint

38. Fresco

  • Fresco- the art of painting on plaster.
    • Was popular in the Renaissance
    • And was revived in Mexico after WWI.
  • Buon fresco or true fresco- done on damp, lime plaster.
  • Fresco secco- painting on dry plaster.
  • Problems with fresco:
  • Have to work fast, you can only paint what can be completed in one day. This can create visible seams.
  • Some color dont work well with lime.(like blue)

39. Painting Media

  • Fresco

40. Figure 6.1, p.122:GIOTTO.Lamentation(c. 1305). Fresco. 7 7 x7 9 . 41. 42. Encaustic

  • Encaustic- One of the earliest methods of applying color to a surface. Uses a pigment in a wax vehicle that has been heated to a liquid state.
  • Very old
  • Extremely durable
  • Colors remain vibrant
  • Surface will retain a hard luster
  • Used by the Egyptians and the Romans

43. Painting Media

  • Encaustic

Jasper Johns,Flag 44. Figure 6.2, p.123:Mummy Portrait of a Man(Egypto-Roman, Faiyum, c. 160179 CE). Encaustic on wood.14 x8 . 45. Tempera

  • Tempura- uses ground pigments mixed with vehicle of egg yolk or whole egg thinned with water
  • Popular for centuries the tradition composition is rarely used today
  • Used by the Greeks and Romans
  • Use the exclusive painting medium of artists in the Middle Ages.
  • Fell out of favor in the 1300s with the introduction of oil painting.

46. Advantages of Tempera

  • to Extremely durable
  • Pure and brilliant colors
  • Color did not become compromised by oxidation
  • Consistency and fluidity allowed for precision
  • Disadvantages :
  • Dries quickly
  • Hard to rework
  • Can not provide subtle gradation of tone.

47. Painting Media

  • Egg Tempera

48. Figure 6.5, p.125:FRANZ GERTSCH.Silvia(1998). Tempera on unprimed canvas. 9 6 14 x9 2 14 . 49. Tempera 50. Oil

  • Oil painting- consists of ground pigments combined with a linseed oil vehicle and a turpentine medium or thinner.
  • The transition from tempera to oil was gradual.
  • Naturally slow drying can be speeded up with agents
  • The first oils were on wood panels.
  • Glazing- the application of multiple layers of transparent films of paint to a surface.

51. Oils Advantages

  • Colors can be blended easily.
  • Slow drying lets you rework problem areas.
  • Can creates nice delicate colors.
  • The eventual use of canvas as a ground allowed paintings to get much bigger.

52. Painting Media

  • Oil

53. Figure 6.6, p.126:FOLLOWER OF REMBRANDT VAN RIJN.Head of St. Matthew(c. 1661). Oil on wood.9 78 x7 34 . 54. 55. Painting Media

  • Watercolor

56. Watercolor

  • Watercolor- originally defined as any painting medium that employs water as a solvent. Today refers to a specific technique really calledaquarelle .
  • Aquarelle- Transparent films of paint are applied to a white absorbent surface.
    • Egyptian artist used a form of watercolor painting.
    • Also used in the Middle Ages
  • Gouache- watercolor mixed with a high concentration of vehicle and opaque ingredients such as chalk primarily used during the Byzantine and Romanesque eras of Christian art.

57. Advantages and Disadvantages of Watercolor

  • White does not exist.
  • White


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