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  • 1. Presentation of Draft Thesis ProposalChallenges in Implementing e- Government in Korea: Lessons for Bangladesh AKM Moniruzzaman 4 December 2012 1
  • 2. Background1. Korean e-government Miracle2. The Bigger Picture (E-Governance is Good Governance)3. My Little Experience on E- government4. Most of the E-government Projects have failed5. Digital Bangladesh & Why Bangladesh Should Learn from Korea? 2
  • 3. Research Question1. What are the challenges faced by Korea in implementing e-government?2. How did the government overcome the challenges?3. What are the lessons Bangladesh can learn from Korea? 3
  • 4. Review of the Literature1. E-government faces several Challenges (Heeks, 1999; GAO 2001a).2. A shortage of IT Skills and Financial resources are two main barriers to e-government (Chen and Perry 2003).3. Some scholars anticipated resistance and failure in e- government (West 2004).4. Re-engineering of the internal structures and processes of the administration (UN 2008). 4
  • 5. Summary & Review of the Literature cont5. Many diverse assessments, solution and processes of e-government are propagated by different scholars (Mishra and Mishra 2011).6. Some scholars reported that e-government can create significant benefits for citizens, businesses, and governments around the world (Jaeger and Thompson 2003, Dawes 2008).7. The biggest challenge of introducing IT in government is how the government deals with lower-level bureaucrats (Im 2011). 5
  • 6. Summary & Review of the Literature cont8. Exploitation of IT in government can be very expensive and before its application its impacts need to be explored (Goldfinch 2007; Jho 2005)9. Civil societies in Korea have also showed their worries over technological innovation in government (Jho 2005).10. The history of the relationship between technology and administration is to be understood along with the integration of IT with the core activities of government (Yildiz 2007)10. Novel experiments on electronic-government have been conducted by the Korean government and Korea has established itself as a good model of technology innovation (Lee 2003, Ahn and Bretschneider 2011). 6
  • 7. Summary E-government challenges are:(1) Sustaining committed executive leadership,(2) Building effective E-government business cases,(3) Maintaining a citizen focus,(4) Protecting personal privacy,(5) implementing appropriate security controls,(6) maintaining electronic records,(7) maintaining a robust technical infrastructure,(8) addressing IT human capital concerns, and(9) ensuring uniform service to the people (U.S. General Accountability Office 2003) 7
  • 8. Summary of the Challenges1. (Organizational Challenge) A Paradigm Shift2. (Challenge of Equity) Slower Informatizaton than the private sector3. (Challenge of thinking Innovatively) Lack of information sharing and interoperability4. (HRD Challenges)Officials have been slow to adapt 8
  • 9. Summary of the Challengescont5. Adaptability ChallengesStructural, managerial and leadership.6. (Cultural Challenges)Hesitant to Open Administration to general Public7. (Take off Challenges)Lack of E-readiness/transition challenges8. (Security Challenges)Cyber Security 9
  • 10. Lessons for BangladeshKorean government is highly criticized as rigid, burdened with rules, regulations, and procrastination (Im 2011)Corruption, bureaucratic inefficiency, lack of competence and competitiveness of the public officials are the major challenges for implementation of e- government (Bhuiyan 2011)1. Bangladesh adopted a Model called Incremental Model of Technology Diffusion2. Whether it is worthy to learn e-government lessons from a developed country by a developing country? 10
  • 11. Methodology Secondary Sources Interviews with Open ended questions (written notes or a tape recorder) (Purposeful sampling of the Interviewee ) Official Documents Analysis 11
  • 12. Technology Adoption Models 12
  • 13. Models 1. Technology Diffusion ModelChallen Challenges ges Communication Information StrategyStrategy Challenges Strategies Challenges Transformation Transaction Strategy 13
  • 14. HypothesisThis is an explorative research, nohypothesis is drawn rather the paperwill attempt to develop a theory/theories 14
  • 15. Potential Sources of Information Journals (Journal Articles) United Nations publications, Survey, Index on e- government World Bank/IMF publications and Survey Government Websites of Korea Government websites of Bangladesh (A2I National Project) Books Official records 15
  • 16. Visiting Key Personnel of the Ministry Ministry of Information and Communication (MIC) Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs (MOGAHA) Ministry of Planning and Budget (MPB) Informatizaton Promotion Committee (Responsible for sketching out the e-government implementation plan) Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs (MOGAHA) 16
  • 17. Method of Analysis It is an exploratory research. Paper shall follow descriptive and qualitative method of analysis. 17
  • 18. Problems and Limitations1. Interviewing the high profile personnel would be a challenge (Who to Interview)2. Determining the Core Strategy (As other countries tried but failed)3. It may be difficult to draw lessons for Bangladesh (Too much dissimilarities) 18
  • 19. Possible PitfallsWhat is Important?Technology/Process/ManProcess 30%Technology 30%Man 40% 19
  • 20. References Ahn, Michael J., and Stuart Bretschneider. 2011.Politics of E-Government: E- Government and the Political Control of Bureaucracy Public Administration Review 71(3): 414-424. Bhuiyan, Shahjahan H. 2011.Modernizing Bangladesh public administration through e- governance: Benefits and challenges. Government Information Quarterly 28 (1): 54-65. Dawes, Sharon S. 2008.The Evolution and Continuing Challenges of E- Governance. Public Administration Review 68 (S): 86-102. Im, Tobin. 2011.Information Te