speech script | film-induced tourism wallander mixed reality
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DESCRIPTIONCan the 'Wallander' films be used to promote Skåne? What is the value of the ‘Wallander’ films, their exposure of Skåne and what effect does this have on the tourist industry? With remarks to the BBC productions of Wallander films with Kenneth Branagh in the lead role (2007-2008, 2009-2010).Speech by Joakim Lind at the Mixed Reality Conference in Ystad, September 10, 2009. http://www.mixedreality.info/about.html
Joakim Lind, speech script Mixed Reality September 10, 2009 Ystad, Sweden Can the 'Wallander' films be used to promote Skne? What is the value of the Wallander films, their exposure of Skne and what effect does this have on the tourist industry? With remarks to the BBC productions of Wallander films with Kenneth Branagh in the lead role (2007-2008, 2009-2010). A few years ago, in 2005, I was approached by representatives of the Municipal of Ystad, Region Skne, Oresund Film Commission and Tourism in Skne, asking: - Can you carry out a study that will provide an indication of the marketing value to Skne when it is promoted in films such as Wallander, and what this can mean for tourism? Prior to this analysis I had carried out media analyses for the Region of Skne summarising the media image of Skne in Sweden and abroad. - No problem of course!, I said, thinking there must be someone whos done this before. Research that I could look back on and refer to. I can have a look and make parallels to those studies. But back in 2005 I found almost nothing. Why this was the case was quickly revealed to me. It was quite difficult, not to say impossible, to estimate a marketing value for a location. Making expectations connected to the tourism industry is also difficult. Films and places are unique and experiences from one region may not be relevant for another context. The questions that I was to try and answer or reflect upon were: 1. What is the marketing or exposure value for Skne when the region is exposed in films? How can a region or locations exposure in films be valued? We all agree that films like The Lord of the Rings, Star Wars, Zorba the Greek, and Wallander have meant and continue to mean a lot for a locations brand and that in one way or another, our travel destinations are affected by reading a book or seeing a film. But can we find a way to quantify this value? (Anecdote: I actually met Anthony Quinn in Crete when, in 1996, they celebrated the 50th anniversary of the book Zorba the Greek, that became a film in 1964. Well, I say met; I was able to touch his arm. Cant say that I went to Crete because of
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Zorba but I understood that Anthony Quinn and Zorba the Greek was regarded as the best non-Greek ambassadeur Greece or Crete ever have had.) 2. The second question is as follows what does this mean for tourism development and tourism growth? What can be said in general, and about Ystad and the Skne region in particular? In late 2005 only three to four of the Wallander series had been released as films. My conclusions were based on projected scenarios of how many people would go and see the films in different markets, and the expectations of tourism development. When it came to the final effect on tourism, conclusions were based partly on experiences and studies from other film location regions, and partly on interviews with representatives from other regions with experiences from film-induced tourism. In the last year, I have carried out similar studies for the Gotland Film Fund. -----------------Since 2005, a lot has happened, as Itta said in her speech. Thirteen further Wallander films with Krister Henriksson in the lead role are being produced. Kenneth Branaghs first three Wallander episodes have been produced and, as you know, have been shot on location in Skne. Currently another three films starring Kenneth Branagh are being filmed on location. I will primarily talk about what impact Branaghs Wallander has, and what this will mean in terms of marketing of Skne and for Skne as a tourist destination. Films and locations what effect can these have on tourism? I created a model for how the value of regional exposure could be quantified and defined some assumptions. You have to make assumptions. There are so many factors that should be considered so you have to define some as static ceteris paribus. Accept these assumptions, which I believe to be reasonable, and a marketing value can be defined. The assumptions I defined are as follows:
Beautiful natural and environmental depictions in films attract tourists if the film is of the correct type, meaning that the locations can be identified in the real world. Through this, value is created. Sometimes a film is filmed on a location different
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from where it claims to take place (Lars von Triers Dancer in the Dark, Trollhttan/USA). Every film gives message about a location real or fictional. I think perhaps every film contributes to how we perceive the world and look on humanity. Many films contribute to the shaping of a locations brand. How would we perceive Gotland if legends like Bergman and Tarkovski wouldnt have filmed there? What would Ystad and Skne be without the Wallander books and films?
The depictions can be identified as scenes that are touristic, and where it is clear from the story that the scenes are from a certain location. This does not necessarily mean that the scenes must have been shot there.
The exposure value of a location can be calculated in the same way as a product (product placement).
In the case of Wallander, I obviously assume the books have at least the same marketing value as all the films. However, I have only analysed and valued the films. What can be said with the support of Sue Beeton from La Trobe University, Australia, among others is that it seems it is only when a book is first adapted into a film that it has an increased effect on tourism. Marketing Value Exposure Value The estimated marketing value is based on a model that shows cost of contact (the cost of creating and showing tourism advertising on the same channel and reaching the same audience with an advertising film). The so-called cost of contact differs, depending on whether TV, DVD or cinema is used. This is something we also took account of in the first studies. Cost of contact can then be multiplied by the amount of clear exposures (contacts) of the region in the film. What we have defined as contact are characteristic local environment pictures or images representative of the location (or when Skne and/or Ystad is mentioned) or the use of dialogue at the location in a way that reinforces the locations characteristics. This can mean scenes that are touristy in nature and could just as easily be found in a tourist brochure or advertising film. The amount of contacts obviously varies from film to film. In some films, the location is important for the plot. In such cases, the viewer knows where the film is set. In other films the location is not important.
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In the case of Wallander films, Skne is prominent. In an article, a Dagens Nyheter journalist stated that Wallander could take place anywhere. This isnt true. Wallander is closely associated with Skne. The early 1990s, when the first Wallander books were published, saw the fall of the Communist states, an uncertain global future etc. This meant that the location of Skne is of great importance and essential to the plots and events in the Wallander books and films. To avoid reaching pie in the sky figures, we continually used careful, conservative estimations of location contacts and calculations. We concluded that if you calculate cost of contact in a similar manner to product placement and accept that beautiful natural surroundings can have a positive effect on tourism, it is clear that films can have a major, lasting influence on marketing value. In each of Krister Henrikssons Wallander films, we identified on average, 17 clear tourism exposures to Skne. With an audience of 130 million contacts (here I got audience figures from all the distributors, or equivalent, from other films) in the countries in which the films were to be broadcasted, these 17 exposures were valued at almost 600 MSEK 50 million euros. On average, every individual exposure of Skne was valued at 2.7 cents, the equivalent of 0.5 euros (4.6 SEK) per viewer for the 17 clear Skne exposures the films were deemed to contain. It should be pointed out that the study was carried out over the winter of 2005 and deals with an anticipated audience. Today, with hard facts in hand and new markets where the films have been broadcasted, and other 13 films produced, advertising value is of course even higher. Furthermore, the impact that Wallander has in new markets following a successful BBC production will increase exposure value for Krister Henrikssons films even more. And I assume the BBC production will create interest for the Swedish Wallander films. The value reveals what it would cost the region to reach the same audience through advertising in the different markets. (Now I will comment the new Wallander films starring Kenneth Branagh.)
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If there was a lot of Skne in the Swedish versions, there is possibly even more in Branaghs. As an old Skning I didnt feel entirely at home (in Skne) in the earlier productions but in Branaghs films, in my opinion, the essence of Skne has been captured fantastically. There is a magic in the landscapes that adds another dimension to what are already exciting books and stories. This, I think, can make the films into tourism magnets even more. In scene after scene, I think this is so beautiful. Of course I am somewhat biased. But this has also been said in the reviews at least in Swedish. (Slide: Skne scenery in One Step Behind) If we look at One Step Behind, heres example how we counted. Scenes had to be at least 30 seconds in length to count as one exposure. Branaghs Wallander films contain on average 18-20 clear exposures of Skne including clear mentioning of location. Advertising value per film and contact is calculated at 4.86 SEK 5.40 SEK (appr. 50 cents, 0.5 euros). To calculate exposure value, we need to know how many millions of people the films will reach. Th