prof egon bech hansen qps idf list safety food microorganisms 11 slides

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Microorganisms with technologically beneficial use

Professor Egon Bech Hansen Chairman of the IDF UIM Task Force Head of DTU Systems Biology

IDF Task Force UIM Title: Update of the Inventory of Microorganisms with a Documented History of Use in Foods Background: IDF Bulletin 377 from 2002 has become a de facto reference paper for microbial species used in Microbial Food Cultures Scope of the task force: To update the list with respect to changes in taxonomy To update the list with species with a documented use Critical review of the species listed in IDF Bulletin 377 To widen the scope to include all fermented foods

Members of the Task Force / scientific experts Serge Casaregola Choreh Farrokh Jens C. Frisvad Monica L. Gerds Walter P. Hammes James Harnett Geert Huys Svend Laulund Arthur Ouwehand Ian B. Powell Jashbhai.B. Prajapati Yasuyuki Seto Eelko Ter Schure Aart Van Boven Vanessa Vankerckhoven Annabelle Zgoda Franois Bourdichon Sandra Tuijtelaars Egon Bech Hansen

Australia, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, India, Japan, The Netherlands, New Zealand, USA

Process of the TF UIM Sources of new input 2002 IDF inventory National Committees of IDF Members of EFFCA Literature on food fermentations - emphasis on microbial associations and food matrices not initially covered Selection of species to include Critically and somewhat conservative review of the literature for each species Contribution to the food fermentation must be desirable not without ambiguity taste preferences (spoilage or flavor) The dilemma between conservatism and completeness

Summary of outcome Up to date inventory of microbial species used in production of fermented foods The inventory covers species of starter cultures and "natural floras Species with a documented beneficial, technological purpose are included We present a history of use also for newly established taxonomic units The inventory consists of 185 bacterial species and 36 species of yeasts and moulds

Purpose of food fermentation Preservation of food Improving food safety Inhibition of pathogens Detoxification Improving nutritional value Enrichment of essential nutrients (vitamins, proteins, essential amino acid, fatty acids, etc) Enhanced bioavailability Organoleptic properties through effects on flavor, texture and color

Regulatory systems for Microbial Food Cultures Definition of MFC National and international regulations

Defining MSC MFC have not been defined legally EFFCA has proposed the definition: MFC preparations are formulations, consisting of one or more microbial species and/or strains, including media components carried over from the fermentation and components which are necessary for their survival, storage, standardization, and to facilitate their application in the food production process

Regulatory systems for Microbial Food Cultures USA Food Drug and Cosmetic Act (1958) introduced the status of Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) European Union EFSA Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS)

Denmark National legislation since 1974

GRAS Three ways to obtain GRAS status for an MFC in the USA: A GRAS notification with receipt of a no-objection letter from FDA A GRAS determination made by qualified experts GRAS due to a general recognition of safety based on experience from common use in food by a significant number of people before 1958.

Qualified Presumption of Safety QPS approach is a fast track for species for which there is a sufficient body of knowledge that all strains within a species are assumed to be safe The QPS list covers only selected groups of microorganisms which have been evaluated by the EFSA The absence of a particular organism from the QPS list does not necessarily imply a risk associated with its use

Microbial Taxonomy The definition of species of microorganisms lacks a theoretical basis In praxis a species is represented by a type strain Strains showing a high degree of phenotypic and/or genotypic similarity to that type strain are regarded as belonging to the same species Objective measures of relatedness have been proposed, but there is no simple definition of the species as a taxonomical unit Fungi are allowed to have two names one for teleomorph and holomorph state one for the anamorphic state

Taxonomy, up to date Prokaryotes: International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (http://www.the-icsp.org) International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (http://www.ijs.sgmjournals.org) The Taxonomic Outline of the Bacteria and Archea (http://www.taxonomicoutline.org) Eukaryotes International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (http://www.fungaltaxonomy.org)

History of Use Proposed definition according to Health Canada, 2003 Significant human consumption of food over several generations and in a large, genetically diverse population for which adequate toxicological and allergenicity data exists to provide reasonable certainty that no harm will result from consumption of the food

Undesired properties of MFC Infections and opportunistic infections Toxic metabolites Virulence factors Antibiotic resistance

The 2011 inventory in one slide

Bacterial Diversity in the 2011 list

Fungal diversity in the 2011 list

Microorganisms used in dairy fermentationsBacteriaArthrobacter arilaitensis Arthrobacter bergerei Arthrobacter globiformis Arthrobacter nicotianae Bifidobacterium adolescentis Bifidobacterium animalis Bifidobacterium bifidum Bifidobacterium breve Bifidobacterium longum Bifidobacterium pseudolongum Bifidobacterium thermophilum Brachybacterium alimentarium Brachybacterium tyrofermentans Enterococcus durans Enterococcus faecalis Enterococcus faecium Hafnia alvei Kocuria rhizophila Kocuria varians Lactobacillus acidipiscis Lactobacillus acidophilus Lactobacillus brevis Lactobacillus casei Lactobacillus coryniformis Lactobacillus delbrueckii Lactobacillus helveticus Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lactobacillus salivarius Lactobacillus tucceti Lactococcus lactis Lactococcus raffinolactis Leuconostoc citreum Leuconostoc mesenteroides Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides Macrococcus caseolyticus Microbacterium gubbeenense Micrococcus luteus Propionibacterium acidipropionici Propionibacterium freudenreichii

FungiCandida colliculosa Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum Debaryomyces hansenii Fusarium domesticum Geotrichum candidum Issatchenkia orientalis Kazachstania exigua Kazachstania unispora Kluveromyces marxianus Kluyveromyces lactis Lecanicillium lecanii Mucor plumbeus Mucor racemosus

Brevibacterium aurantiacumBrevibacterium casei Brevibacterium linens Carnobacterium divergens Carnobacterium maltaromaticum Corynebacterium ammoniagenes Corynebacterium casei Corynebacterium flavescens Corynebacterium variabile

Lactobacillus kefiriLactobacillus kefranofaciens Lactobacillus nodensis Lactobacillus parabrevis Lactobacillus paracasei Lactobacillus parakefiri Lactobacillus pentosus Lactobacillus perolens Lactobacillus plantarum

Propionibacterium jenseniiPropionibacterium thoenii Staphylococcus equorum Staphylococcus fleurettii Staphylococcus sciuri Staphylococcus succinus Staphylococcus vitulinus Staphylococcus xylosus Streptococcus gallolyticus Streptococcus salivarius

Penicillium camembertiPenicillium caseifulvum Penicillium chrysogenum Penicillium commune Penicillium nalgiovense Penicillium roqueforti Pichia fermentans Yarrowia lipolytica Zygotorulaspora florentina

Microorganisms used in cheese production

BacteriaArthrobacter arilaitensis Arthrobacter bergerei Arthrobacter globiformis Arthrobacter nicotianae Brachybacterium alimentarium Brachybacterium tyrofermentans Brevibacterium aurantiacum Brevibacterium linens Corynebacterium ammoniagenes Corynebacterium casei Corynebacterium flavescens Corynebacterium variabile Enterococcus faecalis Enterococcus faecium Kocuria rhizophila Lactobacillus coryniformis Lactobacillus parabrevis Lactobacillus pentosus Lactobacillus perolens Lactococcus raffinolactis Leuconostoc citreum Macrococcus caseolyticus Microbacterium gubbeenense Micrococcus luteus Propionibacterium acidipropionici Propionibacterium freudenreichii Propionibacterium jensenii Propionibacterium thoenii Staphylococcus equorum Staphylococcus fleurettii Staphylococcus sciuri Staphylococcus vitulinus

FungiCandida colliculosa Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum Debaryomyces hansenii Fusarium domesticum Geotrichum candidum Kluveromyces marxianus Kluyveromyces lactis Lecanicillium lecanii Mucor plumbeus Mucor racemosus Penicillium camemberti Penicillium caseifulvum Penicillium chrysogenum Penicillium commune Penicillium nalgiovense Penicillium roqueforti Yarrowia lipolytica

Microorganisms used in meat fermentationsSpecies Carnobacterium divergens Food Usage Meat, Fish, Cheese Species Micrococcus lylae Food Usage Meat

Carnobacterium piscicolaHalomonas elongata Kocuria rhizophila Kocuria varians Lactobacillus alimentarius Lactobacillus curvatus Lactobacillus dextrinicus Lactobacillus paracasei Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lactobacillus sakei Leuconostoc carnosum

MeatMeat Cheese Meat Dairy, Meat Fish, Meat Meat Meat Dairy, Meat Dairy, Vegetables, Meat Meat, Sake Meat

Pediococcus acidilacticiPediococcus pentosaceus Penicillium solitum Staphylococcus carnosus Staphylococcus equorum Staphylococcus succinus Staphylococcus vitulinus Staphylococcus warneri Steptomyces griseus Weissella paramesenteroides

MeatMeat Meat Meat Cheese, meat Meat Cheese, meat Meat Meat Meat

Soy fermentationsSpeciesAspergillus oryzae Aspergillus sojae Bacillus subtilis Enterococcus faecalis Enterococcus faecium Lactobacillus farciminis Mucor hiemalis Rhizopus oligosporus

Food UsageJapanese sake, Soy sauce, Miso Soy sauce, Miso Na