some quotes and summaries of the cpv construction (in japanese)...

33
連結詞的知覚動詞構文についての二次資料まとめ 中村文紀 最終更新日2014年 11月 16日 目次 1 知覚動詞全般 4 1.1 意義 ......................................................... 4 1.1.1 中右(1994)が考える知覚動詞の重要性 ................................... 4 2 連結詞的知覚動詞構文 4 2.1 定義 ......................................................... 4 2.1.1 Austin (1962) ................................................. 4 2.1.2 Grady (1965) .................................................. 4 2.1.3 Lakoff (1970); Flip verbs .......................................... 4 2.1.4 Postal (1970, 1971); Psych-Movement verbs .............................. 4 2.1.5 Rogers (1971, 1972, 1974); flip or psych-movement verbs ..................... 4 2.1.6 Quirk et al. (1985); the verbs of seeming ................................ 5 2.1.7 Caplan1972 .................................................. 5 2.1.8 Donald(1978, 1979, 1980 .......................................... 5 2.1.9 Viberg1984; Source-based Copulative (State) ............................. 5 2.1.10Chafe1985 ................................................... 5 2.1.11Jackendoff (1985, 2003, 2009 ....................................... 5 2.1.12Kemmer (1993); Stimulus-based perception verbs .......................... 5 2.1.13Levin ; stimulus subject perception verbs ................................ 5 2.1.14Taniguchi (1995); copulative perception verbs ............................ 6 2.1.15Whitt; object-oriented perception verbs ................................. 6 2.1.16Gisborne; verbs of appearance and SOUND-class perception verbs ............... 6 2.1.17Biber et al.; Sensory copular verbs .................................... 8 2.1.18Huddleston and Pullum 2002; verbs of perception and sensation (production) ........ 8 2.1.19安藤 (2005); 外見動詞と五感動詞 ...................................... 8 2.1.20Jackendoff ................................................... 9 2.2 特徴 ......................................................... 9 2.2.1 存在知覚の前提化 ............................................... 9 2.2.2 to前置詞句による経験者の明示とその周辺 .................................. 10 2.2.3 Transferred raising (negation) ....................................... 10 2.2.4 補語が義務項である ............................................... 11 2.3 Semantically bleached perception ...................................... 11 2.4 主語 ......................................................... 11 2.5 動詞 ......................................................... 11 2.6 補語 ......................................................... 11 1

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連結詞的知覚動詞構文についての二次資料まとめ

中村文紀

最終更新日2014年 11月 16日

目次

1 知覚動詞全般 41.1 意義 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.1.1 中右(1994)が考える知覚動詞の重要性 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2 連結詞的知覚動詞構文 42.1 定義 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2.1.1 Austin (1962) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2.1.2 Grady (1965) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2.1.3 Lakoff (1970); Flip verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2.1.4 Postal (1970, 1971); Psych-Movement verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2.1.5 Rogers (1971, 1972, 1974); flip or psych-movement verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2.1.6 Quirk et al. (1985); the verbs of seeming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

2.1.7 Caplan1972 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

2.1.8 Donald(1978, 1979, 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

2.1.9 Viberg1984; Source-based Copulative (State) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

2.1.10Chafe1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

2.1.11Jackendoff (1985, 2003, 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

2.1.12Kemmer (1993); Stimulus-based perception verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

2.1.13Levin ; stimulus subject perception verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

2.1.14Taniguchi (1995); copulative perception verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

2.1.15Whitt; object-oriented perception verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

2.1.16Gisborne; verbs of appearance and SOUND-class perception verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

2.1.17Biber et al.; Sensory copular verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

2.1.18Huddleston and Pullum 2002; verbs of perception and sensation (production) . . . . . . . . 8

2.1.19安藤 (2005); 外見動詞と五感動詞 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

2.1.20Jackendoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.2 特徴 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.2.1 存在知覚の前提化 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.2.2 to前置詞句による経験者の明示とその周辺 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2.2.3 Transferred raising (negation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2.2.4 補語が義務項である . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.3 Semantically bleached perception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.4 主語 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.5 動詞 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.6 補語 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

1

2.6.1 副詞句 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

2.6.2 形容詞句 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2.6.3 名詞句(相当句) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2.6.4 to-不定詞節 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2.6.5 定形節補部: as if (though), like . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

3 CPVCまわりの先行研究の主な理論と主張 173.1 共時的 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

3.2 通時的 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

3.2.1 通時に関するもの(Gisborne and Holmes, 2007, 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

4 seemとCPVCとの異同 174.1 seem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

4.2 seemとの類似点 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

4.3 seemとの違い . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

4.3.1 relating to complement patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

4.3.2 relating to that-clause . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

4.3.3 relating to the meaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

5 Perception verbs and Evidentiality 205.1 定義 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

6 Copy Raising 216.1 定義Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

6.2 先行研究Previous studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

6.2.1 Postal (1970) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

6.2.2 Donald (1978, 1979, 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

6.2.3 Potsdam and Runner (2001) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

6.2.4 Asudeh and Toivonen (2012) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

6.2.5 Jing-Bok (2012) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

7 主観性 217.1 Langacker式主観性 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

7.2 Traugott式主観性 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

8 評価的意味 21

9 文体論的特徴 219.1 As if (though) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

9.2 Like . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

10 その他二次資料からの引用 2210.1 The OED2からの引用 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

10.1.1Look . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

10.1.2Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

10.1.3Listen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

10.1.4Smell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

10.1.5Taste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

10.1.6Feel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

10.2 その他のReferenceからの引用 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

2

10.2.1Austin (1962) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

10.2.2Look . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

10.2.3Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

10.2.4Listen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

10.2.5Smell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

10.2.6Taste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

10.2.7Feel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

11 機能論的説明 29

12 説明 29

13 終わりに 29

14 各種概念Glossary 2914.1 Authentic data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

14.2 Colloquialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

14.3 Conceptual Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

14.4 Corpus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

14.5 Expandability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

14.6 Grammaticalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

14.7 Troponymy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

14.8 Xcomps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

3

1 知覚動詞全般

1.1 意義

1.1.1 中右(1994)が考える知覚動詞の重要性中右 (1994, 344)の考える知覚動詞を研究する意義

最後に、改めてくりかえすが、知覚動詞の用法は多岐多彩である。知覚作用は人間認知のありようを統率する決

定要因であることを考えれば、これは当然の成り行きである。人間知覚のありようは語彙・文法構造のなかに体系的

に反映されているとすれば、改めてこの視点から知覚動詞の全用法を洗い出し、その全体像を明確に描いてみるこ

とには格別の意味がある。

中右例文集

(1) a. I must have looked at that a dozen times, but I never saw it. (p.339)

b. I must have seen that a dozen times, but I never noticed it.

(2) I made visual contact, but the contents of my visual field did not enter my awareness. (p.339)

(3) a. I saw there looking at nothing. (p.340)

b. I saw there staring into vacant space.

c. I look out of the window, but it was dark and I saw nothing.

(4) a. I was looking at her all the time, but I didn't see her. (p.341)

b. I was watching her all the time, but I didn't see her.

中右(1994)の引用・要約である。

視覚的接触とは、もちろん、視覚対象が視野に収まっているという意味である。... 視覚的接触という意味側面

は、なにもlook atの定常的意味成分なのではなく、コンテクストに左右される語用論的な推論の結果なのである。...

[lookの意味は] いうなれば、見るという行為は遂行されたけれども、成就しなかったというわけである。... 見るとい

う行為はそれだけで独立して遂行されたのである。... 端的にいって、look atはtry to seeに同値である。しかし一

方、look/listenは前置詞at/for/toなどを媒体としてしか項をとらないので、知覚的接触の必然的含意はない。ただ

し、場面的に知覚的接触が含意として出てくるとしても、それはもちろん排除しない。

2 連結詞的知覚動詞構文

2.1 定義

2.1.1 Austin (1962)2.1.2 Grady (1965)2.1.3 Lakoff (1970); Flip verbs2.1.4 Postal (1970, 1971); Psych-Movement verbs後で埋める。

2.1.5 Rogers (1971, 1972, 1974); flip or psych-movement verbs(Rogers, 1971, 214)

There is another semantically cohesive set of physical perception verbs, sound, look, smell, taste,

and feel, which have been analyzed as Flip or Psych-Movement verbs by Postal (1971).

(5) a. Fotheringay sounds interesting to me.

4

b. Reuben looked stoned to me.

c. The meat tasted funny to me.

d. Ambergris smells awful to me.

e. Karnofsky's snout feels rough to me.

2.1.6 Quirk et al. (1985); the verbs of seemingQuirk et al. (1985, 1175)では、the verbs of 'seeming' として特徴づけられている。

The verbs of 'seeming' (cf 16.23) seem, appear, look, sound, feel, smell, and taste are complemented

by an adverbial clause beginning with as if (or less frequently as though) sic as the following:

(In a similar meaning, appear and seem can also be followed by a that-clause; cf 16.34)

(6) a. John looked as if she had seen a ghost.

b. It seems as if the weather weather is improving.

2.1.7 Caplan19722.1.8 Donald(1978, 1979, 19802.1.9 Viberg1984; Source-based Copulative (State)Viberg (1983, 124)では、連結詞的知覚動詞構文はSource-based Copulativeとして定式化されている。

A source-based (alternatively, phenomenon-based) verb takes the experienced entity as a subject

(e.g. A looks funny). A copulative expression is defined as a source-based state.

(7) a. Peter looked happy.

b. Peter sounded happy.

c. The cloth felt soft.

d. The food tasted {good/bad/of garlic}.

e. Peter smelled {good/bad/of cigar}

2.1.10 Chafe19852.1.11 Jackendoff (1985, 2003, 20092.1.12 Kemmer (1993); Stimulus-based perception verbsKemmer (1993, 136)では、認知言語学的類型論の立場からの中間態についての研究の中で、知覚動詞は経験者が

ビリヤードボールモデルのスタート地点initiatorになるものと刺激がInitiatorになるものがあり、前者を経験者基盤知覚

動詞experiencer-based perception verbs、後者を刺激基盤知覚動詞stimulus-based perception verbsと区別す

ることができるとし、後者の例として義務項つきのGarlic smells good.を挙げている。

Perception verbs, i.e. verbs designating experience via the perceptual modalities, are of two basic

sorts: those in which the Experiencer is conceived and marked as the Initiator (e.g. 'I smell gar-

lic') and those in which the Stimulus is the Initiator (e.g. 'Garlic smells good'). We can term these

Experiencer-based and Stimulus-based perception verbs.

2.1.13 Levin ; stimulus subject perception verbsLevin (1993, 187-8)では、各知覚モダリティひとつずつをClass memberとして掲載している。

The members of this set of verbs of perception, like the peer verbs above, are intransitive. But

unlike the other types of verbs of perception, they do not take the perceiver as their subject. Rather,

5

these verbs take the stimulus as their subject and express the perceiver in to prepositional phrase.

In addition, these verbs take an adjective phrase complement predicated of the stimulus.

(8) a. That pea soup tasted delicious.

b. That pea soup tasted delicious to me.

c. * I was tasted delicious to (by the pea soup).

2.1.14 Taniguchi (1995); copulative perception verbsTaniguchi (1997, 270-1)では、これを動詞の問題としてとらえCopulative Perception Verbsと呼ぶ。

...certain perception verbs in English which occur with adjectival complements.... These perception

verbs are copulative in nature, if one assumes a rough definition of copulas as verbs followed by a

complement denoting some property of the subject participant (Quirk et al. (1985: 54)).

(9) a. John looks happy.

b. This cake tastes good.

c. This cloth feels soft.

d. That sounds reasonable.

e. This flower smells sweet.

2.1.15 Whitt; object-oriented perception verbsWhitt (2010, 21)では、連結詞的知覚動詞構文はobject-oriented perception verbsに分類される。

It is useful to draw a two-way distinction among perception verbs, namely between subject-oriented

and object-oriented perception verbs.

(10) a. Karen Looks healthy.

b. Karen sieht gesund aus.

c. The cake tastes good.

d. Der Kuchen schmeckt gut.

2.1.16 Gisborne; verbs of appearance and SOUND-class perception verbsこの構文は三種類にわかれ、まずEvidential-1の意味 は主語対象の見た目から特性を判断することを意味する。

(Gisborne, 2010, 245)。

The first evidential use is one where the Subject’s referent has properties that provide the evidence

for the evaluation....

(11) a. He sounds foreign

b. He looks ill.

c. The fabric feels old.

d. The wine smells delicious.

e. The food tastes fantastic.

このことはto judge byで置き換えるテストを用いればわかる。(Gisborne, 2010, 246)

(12) a. To judge by his sound, he is foreign.

b. To judge by his look/appearance, he is ill.

c. To judge by its feel, the fabric is old.

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d. To judge by its smell, the wine is delicious.

e. To judge by its taste, the food is fantastic.

Evidential-2の意味は、主語対象からではない情報から主語対象の特性を判断することを意味する(Gisborne, 2010)。

The second use is also an evidential one, but the Subject is not the source of the evidence for the

proposition that the Xcomp expresses.

(13) a. (I've heard the forecast and) tomorrow’s weather sounds fine.

b. (I've seen the forecast and) tomorrow’s weather looks fine.

(14) a. To judge by what I've heard, tomorrow’s weather will be fine.

b. To judge by what I've seen, tomorrow’s weather will be fine.

Attributary useは推論を用いたない、むしろ証拠だけである。(Gisborne, 2010)

The final use is rather different. In Gisborne (1996), I called this the ‘‘attributary use’’, which is a

useful enough term to keep here.

(15) a. This music sounds lovely.

b. Peter's face looks lived in.

c. This cloth feels sticky.

d. This food smells spicy.

e. This food tastes rancid.

価値判断の時にはevidentialな読みは存在しない(Gisborneの属性読みとほぼ同じ)(Whitt, 2010, 119)。

When look is used only to denote some sort of value judgment on the part of the speaker, eviden-

tial meaning is absent. The speaker only makes a comment about some sort of physically tangible

attribute of the perceived object but does not use perception as a basis for inference

(16) The day was fine, and the grounds looked very pretty. (ARCHER Corpus: 1805knig.j5b, Ellis

Knight, The Autobiography of Miss Knight: Lady Companion to Princess Charlotte, ed. Roger

Fulford, London:Kimber, 1960)

低次知覚が属性読みになりやすいのは、経験者が直接知覚することを前提とする感覚だからである(谷口, 2005, 245)。

視覚・聴覚に比べ、味覚・触覚・嗅覚といった知覚では、経験者とその対象の関与性は高い。特に、味覚・触覚は

対象と身体的に直接コンタクトをとることを前提とする知覚である。従って、それらを通じた推論が間接的ではあり得

ず、to beを用いた場合の意味と相容れないのである。

(17) a. John looks to be a fool.

b. John sounds to be a fool.

c. * It tastes to be a fruit.

d. * It feels to be a blanket.

e. * It smells to be a rose.

Evidential-1もEvidential-2も認識的評価が関わっている。(Gisborne, 2010, 262)

My claim is that both the evidential-1 and evidential-2 senses of sound- class involve an epistemic

evaluation in the mind of an experiencer, in a force- dynamic transfer.

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2.1.17 Biber et al.; Sensory copular verbsBiber et al. (1999, 436)では、sensory copular verbsの名称が使わている。ここではevindentialityとおなじ分析が

なされており、``report sensory perception"と特徴づけられている。

Current copular verbs are mostly in the existence domain, except for a special sub-class that can

be labelled sensory copular verbs because they sensory perceptions: look, feel, sound, small, taste.

(18) a. I really do look awful. (CONV)

b. Ooh that feels good. (CONV)

c. They just sound really bad when they're recorded on. (CONV)

Whereas the evidential uses all mean something like ‘‘seem, with respect to a particular sensory

modality’’, the attributary uses mean ‘‘is, with respect to a particular sensory modality’’. (p.245)

...; look can refer to either a physical or mental activity or a state of existence. (p. 361)

2.1.18 Huddleston and Pullum 2002; verbs of perception and sensation (production)Huddleston and Pullum (2002, 169)ではVerbs of perception and sensationのPRODUCTION用法として紹

介している。

...evocation or production of the sensation by the stimulus for the experience as in The plum feels

hard (intransitive);....

The production situations are states, so that the aspect is generally non-progressive. The progres-

sive is found with waxing/waning situations (It's tasting sweeter everyday) or, mainly with look and

to a lesser extent with sound, for temporary situations (You're looking gorgeous; It's sounding omi-

nous*1).

2.1.19 安藤 (2005); 外見動詞と五感動詞安藤 (2005, 48)では、外見動詞(Gisborne and Holmes (2007)でいうVerbs of appearanceと同等?)とまとめ、

成因はappear, look,そしてseemである。これらはほぼ類義語辞典の見出し語seemと同じ。またappearの場合には小節

からの繰り上げは認められないとしているが、これは動詞が客観的な意味を表しているにも関わらず、構文全体が主観的

な意味合いを持っているからであると読み取れる。appearはseemよりも格式体であることもその一員だと思われる。look

の小節については問題を上げてはいないが、容認される例を挙げている。seemは、主観的なものと客観的な分析を行なっ

ているが、主観的な分析の場面には使える。

「外見がCに見える」の意味を表すもので、いずれもSとCとの間に「主語・述語」関係を明確にするため、Cの前に

連結動詞のto beを挿入することができる。CはAP(相当語句)、NP、及び疑問副詞のhowである。...

appear、seemは、表層的には補語を取る連結動詞の用に見えるが、厳密には繰り上げ動詞(raising verb)であ

る。連結動詞は、丸括弧でくくられた(to be)である。*2

(19) a. The baby appears (to be) hungry.

b. * It appears a pity to waste this food. [主観的]

(20) How does he appear?

(21) a. Mary looked (to be) tired.

*1 ominous; 不吉な(ウイズダム英和辞典)*2 繰り上げによる分析の大本は、変形しても意味は変わらないということではなかったのか?仮にこれが繰り上げだとすると、所々の場面で言われている主観性の問題をどう扱うのかが不明なので、これらは別の構文として認めるほうが安全なのではないかと思う。

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b. He looks (to be) a perfect fool.

(22) He looked a successful man.

(23) a. She seems/*appears a nice girl. [主観的]

b. He seems older than he is. [客観的]

(24) a. He seems to be/*seems a sailor.[客観的]

b. The murderer seems to be/*seems Jack Jones. [客観的]

その他の動詞は次の五感動詞としてカテゴライズされている(pp. 49-50)。

(25) a. The water feels warm.

b. Your hands feel cold.

c. It feels good to be on vacation.

(26) a. It feels like rain (=It seems likely to rain).

b. The wallet feels like leather.

(27) a. Her head felt as if it would burst.

b. It felt as though they had already wan the Ouidditch Cup.

(28) a. The coffee was poured. It smelled wonderful.

b. Doesn't the fish smell bad?

(29) a. The music sounded sweet.

b. Your plan sounds interesting.

c. That sounds a great idea. <英>

(30) That sounds like a great idea.

(31) It sounds as if the government is going to fall.

(32) The car sounds/is sounding a bit rough these days.

(33) a. The coffee tasted great.

b. Does it taste sour?

2.1.20 Jackendoff

2.2 特徴

2.2.1 存在知覚の前提化Rogers (1971, 214)が指摘しているように、連結詞的知覚動詞構文は、おなじ知覚モダリティの認知による対象の存在

認知を前提にする。

There is a clear logical relations among perception verbs. Sentences involving the flip verbs appear

to presuppose corresponding sentences involving the cognitive form [see].

(34) a. Reuben looked stoned to me.

b. Reuben didn't look stoned to me.

c. I saw Reuben.

d. I didn't Reuben.

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2.2.2 to前置詞句による経験者の明示とその周辺(Kemmer, 1993, 136)では、経験者は背景化されgenericな存在として存在している(存在していないわけではない)。

In the Stimulus-based type, the experiencer is generic and hence has a low degree of saliency: the

most salient participants given the semantics of the construction, is the Stimulus itself.

経験者は必須の要素ではないが、to前置詞句によって言語化することができる。(Levin, 1993, 188)

Doe to the use to a to phrase to express the perceiver, these verbs are sometimes discussed in the

context of psych-verbs; compare the use of the to phrase with psych-verbs to express an experiencer,

as in The outcome was perplexing to me. In fact, with this set of verbs the perceiver is often referred

to as the experiencer.

(Taniguchi, 1997)

Gisborne (2010, 261)では、(i)sound-classは認識論的モダリティを含み、(ii)主観性を示し、(iii)それに対してhear-

classだと、経験の主語役割に過ぎずモダリティ表現の経験者に類似したsound-classの経験者とは違うので、sound

classとhear classの経験者とは同じ経験者と言えども意味的な関係が違うことが指摘されている。

I am claiming that the ‘‘experiencer’’ of hear-class verbs is a different semantic relation from the

‘‘experiencer’’ of sound-class verbs.

There are three reasons for distinguishing between the experiencer of sound-class verbs and the

experiencer of verbs like see: (i) with the relevant senses, sound-class verbs are epistemically modal

as well as evidential; (ii) sound-class verbs are subjective; (iii) the Subjects of hear-class verbs simply

refer to participants which are Ers of predicates of experience. Sound-class verbs’ experiencers are

similar to the experiencers of other subjective modal predicates. The experiencer of hear-class verbs,

on the other hand, is the Subject referent. There is no subjectivity, and the verbs are not like modal

verbs in their semantics. The consequence of this position is that there is no single semantic relation

‘‘experiencer’’: what we understand as experiencers are diVerent semantic relations belonging to

diVerent classes of verb.

Huddleston and Pullum (2002, 263)でもseemとかappearなどと同じカテゴリーに入っており、また経験者がtoによっ

て明示されることも指摘されている。

The sense verbs and the verbs of seeming license a to phrase where the oblique NP expresses the

experiencer: The proposal looks very promising to me.

2.2.3 Transferred raising (negation)Rogers (1971, 215)では、Negative raisedが起こることが指摘されている。

(17) and (18) appear to be paraphrases, at least to the extent that Neg-raised and non-raised sen-

tences are for other Neg-raising verbs such as believe, think, etc., where (19) and (20) are not.

(35) a. It smells to me like Ermintrude hasn't had a bath in weeks.

b. It doesn't smell to me like Ermintrude has had a bath in weeks.

c. It surprises me that Ermintrude hasn't had a bath in weeks.

d. * It doesn't surprise me that Ermintrude has had a bath in weeks.

e. * Ermintrude has had a bath in weeks.

Transferred negationが起こることがQuirk et al. (1985, 1033)でも明記されている。

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Transferred negation, particularly common in informal style, is the transfer of the negation from a

subordinate clause (generally a that-clause), where semantically it belongs, to the matrix clause.

Perception: appear, seem;feel as if, look as if, sound as if [these three verbs are also used informally,

especially in AmE, with like in place of as if]

Note[a] Transferred negation has also been termed 'negative raising' and 'negative transportation'.

(36) a. It doesn't seem that we can get our none back. ['It seems that we can't get our money back']

b. The baby doesn't appear to be awake. ['The baby appears not to be awake']

c. It doesn't look like it's going to rain. ['It looks like it isn't going to rain']

2.2.4 補語が義務項であるHuddleston and Pullum (2002, 261)では、Obligatory depictiveである。

(37) They look fantastic.

2.3 Semantically bleached perception

Taniguchi (1997, 294) exemplifies in her analysis from a cognitive-gramatical point of view that look no

longer necessarily denote direct visual perception with the following example:

(38) Judging from her letter, she looks to be the best person for the job. (Longman Dictionary of Con-

temporary English, s.v. look)

She makes a comment on this matter:

..., the speaker's evaluation on the subject participant is made by inference, which is not necessarily

based upon direct visual experience. (294)

Her perspective is supported by the following comment made in Gisborne and Holmes (2007)that the

subject referent is ``not the source of the evidence for the proposition that the Xcomp [complement] ex-

presses”, as can be seen in the following examples:

(39) a. (I've heard the forecast and) tomorrow’s weather sounds fine.

b. (I've seen the forecast and) tomorrow’s weather looks fine.

There have been few examples presented with regard to other perception verbs except look and sound.

2.4 主語

Whitt (2010, 122)

Therefore, at least as far as evidential uses of object-oriented perception verbs are concerned, it

cannot be said that raising or non-raising affects the degree of (inter)subjectivity indicated by SP/Ws

[speakers or writers]

2.5 動詞

2.6 補語

英語基本動詞辞典では、補語について二つのコメントが書かれている小西 (1990, 893)。

11

NB 17 Cに過去分詞がくる場合、形容詞化したものに限る[Palmer, Verb, p.168]He looked (very) excited.

[cf. *He looked killed.]

NB 18 Cに名詞を用いるのはおもに英国語法。通例look likeを用いる:He looks [looks like] a perfect fool

[a clever fellow, an honest man]。これらの例でわかるように、この場合の名詞は性質・状態・程度を表す形容詞

を伴うのが普通 [cf. He looks like a gentleman].

Gisborne (2010, 243-4)では、多くの種類の補語が取れることが示されている。

The more grammatical or syntactic issues are equally complex. SOUND-class verbs can occur with

a range of Xcomps.

(40) a. Jane sounds nice.

b. Jane sounds a nice girl.

c. Jane sounds like a nice girl.

d. Jane sounds like/as though she's a nice girl.

e. Mr. Clark looks to have achieved the impossible.

それでもbeよりは狭いHuddleston and Pullum (2002, 530)

Predicative adjectives most often occur as complement to the verb be, but be allows such a wide

range of complements that its value as a diagnostic is quite limited. Much more useful from this point

of view are the verbs become andmake, and to a lesser extent seem, appear, look, sound, which take a

more restricted range of complements. In particular, they wholly or largely exclude PP complemens.

2.6.1 副詞句谷口 (2005, 224)では、連結詞的知覚動詞の義務的補語が通時的には副詞から生じた可能性を指摘している。

つまり、かつての英語では形容詞と副詞が形態的にも意味的にも曖昧だったのである。以上の事実から、「CPVの

形容詞補語が本来は副詞であった」という可能性が生じてくる。

(41) a. The flower smells sweet.

b. The flower smells sweetly.

c. The rags smelt unpleasantly. (Anstey, Vice Versa XVI, 305. Visser1963: 215)

d. His grace looks cheerfully and smooth. (1594 Shakespeare, Rich. III, III, iv, 50. Visser 1963;

210)

e. Good gentleman look fresh and merrily.

f. You look most shockingly (1773 Goldsmith, She Stoops I(168). Visser 1963: 210)

Poutsuma (1904-1929, 11)

Adverbial forms are not, however, unfrequent, especially in the older writers. They are even met

with when no distinct act of the visual organs is suggested. Sometimes an adjective seems to be

understood, to which the adverb really belongs. Observe also that well-looking is an occasional

variant of the ordinary good-looking. Compare Ch. LIX, 22.

(42) a. How charmingly he looks.

b. You look most shockingly.

c. Upon my word, a well-looking house.

d. This woman had once had red cheeks, and was well-looking enough.

e. He was ... well-looking, though in an effeminate style.

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f. Good gentlemen look fresh and merrily.

Gisborne (1998, 18)でも、もともと連結詞的知覚動詞構文の補語は、副詞であったことが報告されている。

The second, which I discuss in this section, deals with how the post-verbal element should be

analysed. It appears in the early history of these verbs that they require a post-verbal adverb. I ar-

gue that the grammatical similarity between xcomps and xadjuncts makes this a plausible analysis

of the constructions. ... Verbs like LOOK and SOUND move from being verbs that require adver-

bial modification to being verbs that mediate a relationship between the subject and the predicative

complement.

(43) a. As leene was his hors as is a rake

And he was nat right fat, I undertake

But looked holwe, and therto sobrely. (Gen. Prologue to C. Tales 286-8)

b. I warrant you Coach after Coach, letter after letter, gift after gift, smelling so sweetly; (E2

COME SHAKESP 45)

c. and there being another house pretty close to it hight built with such a tower and lanthorn

also, with the two churches towers and some other building pretty good made it appear nobly

at a distance; (E3 TRAV FIENNES 151-2)

d. it can receive no Light but at the Doors and Window of the Porch, whereby it looks most

solemnly; (E3 TRAV FRYER 1, 186)

2.6.2 形容詞句Quirk et al. (1985, 518)によれば、インフォーマルならば場所句をseemとappearはとることができる。

Informally, seem and appear permits spatial adjuncts as sole complementation, especially those

relating to distance or with general rather than specific reference:

(44) a. They seem further away.

b. ?The children seem upstairs, to judge from the noise.

Huddleston and Pullum (2002, 79)

Verbs such as seem, appear, look, remain take AdjPs as complement, but not participial clauses.

This is why broken in [10ii] is unambiguously an adjective, and why the ambiguity of [10iii] is resolved

in favor of the adjective (state) reading if we replace be by seem:

(45) a. The picture seemed excellent/ distorted.

b. * The boss seemed considered guilty of bias.

2.6.3 名詞句(相当句)(安藤, 2005, 51)

[Soundの補語について] CはAP(相当語句)。NPを取るのは<英>。

(46) That sounds a great idea.

2.6.4 to-不定詞節Huddleston and Pullum (2002, 263)では、directかどうかでto beが挿入されているかどうかでより直接的に知覚し

ているかどうかが違うと言われている。to beを挟むことで、より間接的な証拠に基づいた推論であることが記号化される。

13

Those marked 'INF' also take infinitival complements, so that there is alternation between, for

example, She appeared anxious and She appeared to be anxious. With look and sound the construc-

tions are not wholly equivalent. In She looked happy the signs of happiness are presented as more

immediately or directly visible than in She looked to be happy.

小西 (1990, 1350)

He seems (to be) happy.などではto beを省略する方が口語的。通例意味上大差ないとされるが、to beを省略

した型は、直接自分で観察した経験を述べている含みが感じられるのに対して、to beのある型は例えば人に伝え聞

いていう場合にも可能[Freidin(1975)]

しかし、Cが段階性を表さない「非程度形容詞」(non degree adjective)である場合には、to beは通例省略され

ない:His nationality seems to be American. *His nationality seems British. /*The music seems choral.

2.6.5 定形節補部: as if (though), likeQuirk et al. (1985, 1175)では、the verbs of 'seeming' としてas ifがとれることに言及している。

The verbs of 'seeming' (cf 16.23) seem, appear, look, sound, feel, smell, and taste are complemented

by an adverbial clause beginning with as if (or less frequently as though) sic as the following:

(In a similar meaning, appear and seem can also be followed by a that-clause; cf 16.34)

(47) a. John looked as if she had seen a ghost.

b. It seems as if the weather weather is improving.

Huddleston and Pullum (2002, 263)は、名詞句を述語補語としてとるよりはlikeを取るほうが好まれることを付記し

ている。

These same verbs also commonly occur with a like phrase instead of anNP: Kim felt like an intruder;

It seemed like a good idea.

Huddleston and Pullum (2002, 962)は、非人称構文impersonal constructionとしてas ifやlikeで導かれる定形

節のcomment clauseをとるものを分析している。ここではas ifは主語になることができない *3ことからextra posedという

分析はとらずinternal complementとして捉えているため、非人称として捉えるべきだと考えている。そして重要なことは、

この場合意味的にはthat節とas if節は意味の変化なし"without any perceptible change of meaning"に入れ替えが

可能であるという点である。

With seem and appear the content clause in what we are analyzing as the impersonal construction

can be replaced without any perceptible change of meaning by a phrase introduced by as if (or as

though or like), a type of phrase also found with such verbs as feel, look, small, sound, -- and be:

(48) a. It seemed that / as if he was trying to hide his true identity.

b. It looked/was as if he was trying to hide his true identity.

Huddleston and Pullum (2002, 1151)は、as ifがcomparisonからthe issue of whether the content clause is

trueへと変化していることを指摘している。

The shift from comparison to the issue of whether the content clause is true is carried a step further

in [40iv]. In the version with seem, as if could be replaced by that with virtually change in meaning.

*3 as if節が主語になることができないことはGisborne (2010, 276)でも指摘されている。

(1) a. That Peter had gone home seemed obvious to everyone.

b. * Like Peter had gone home seemed obvious to everyone.

c. That Peter had gone home looked obvious to everyone.

14

(49) a. Don't attach a mouth as if you're dipping a mop into a slop-bucket!

b. It was highly imprudent of him to drink as if he were a youngster like ourselves.

c. She acts as if she hates me.

d. It seems/looks as if we've offended them.

e. max seems/looks as if he's in difficulties.

f. As if this news wasn't bad enough, I found that the printer wasn't working either.

Huddleston and Pullum (2002, 1158)では、as if (though)とlikeが競合関係になっていることを示唆している。しかし

ここでは実証的な研究が行われているわけではない。

In [59] like is in competition with as if/as though, and its complement is structurally complete.

(50) a. It looked like the scheme would founder before it was properly started.

b. You look like you need a drink.

c. She clasped it in her hand like it was precious stone.

d. It was like I had lost something valuable in a vault*4 full of my own money.

しかし、同時に規範的にはlikeは名詞節を取るべきであり、定形節をとることにとても抵抗感をもっていることも示唆されて

る。

There is a quite strong tradition of prescriptive opposition to these constructions [like with a finite

clause]: it is alleged that like requires an NP complement and cannot take a finite clause (or, to put

it in terms of the traditional analysis, that like is a 'preposition', not a 'conjunction'). Undoubtedly

some speakers follow this rule, avoiding like in such examples as [58-59] in favor of the competing

forms. Such speakers are, however, very much in the minority: both constructions are commonly

used, though somewhat more widely in AmE than in BrE.

ARCHERを用いた分析ではas ifとas thoughが、likeよりも多い。(Whitt, 2010, 120)

One finds like used as a conjunction, but the phrasal conjunctions as if and as though are used

more often.

Copy raisingかどうかは(Rogers, 1974, 551)ではじめに議論された。

(51) a. It {look/sounds/tastes} like Richard is in trouble.

b. Richard {look/sound/tastes} like he is in trouble.

(52) a. It looks like the shit's gonna hit the fan.*5

b. The shit looks like it's gonna hit the fan.

c. * The fan looks like the shit's hit it.

(目的語からの繰り上げは不可能)

(53) a. It looks like there's gonna be a riot.

b. There looks like there's gonna be a riot.

(54) The soup tastes like Maude has been at the cooking-sherry. (そもそもどこにもない例)

Thatと違い、likeはcopy raisingに関わっている。(Gisborne, 2010)

*4 「金庫室」等 (ウィズダム英和辞典)*5 shit's hit the fan;ひどく面倒なことになる(ウィズダム英和辞典)

15

like/c can occur as the complement of seem when seem has a fully referential Subject. However,

when seem has that as its complement, there cannot be a fully referential Subject. (275)

As I have said earlier, copy raising is an analysis which claims that the Subject of seem or a sound-

class verb in (66) below derives from the subject of the Wnite clausal complement of like; that it

raises from subject position to matrix Subject position; and that it leaves a pronominal copy of itself

behind. (278)

(55) a. Jane seems like she is drunk.

b. Jane seems that she is drunk.

copy raisingに関わっていないものには、bridging reference *6 という概念を導入する(Gisborne, 2010, 281)。

The way to account for the relationship between the two arguments of like in (69b) is by invoking

bridging reference, as Gisborne (1996) did. The only way that an example like this can make sense

is if it is understood that the clutch belongs to the car.

(56) a. Your car sounds like it need a new clutch.

b. Your car sounds like the clutch has gone.

(=(69b))

反実仮想の場合には叙想法を使う(安藤, 2005, 375)。

as if/as though節中で「まるで...かのように」この形式は、当然事実に反する想像をするものである以上、叙想法

が使用されるのは当然である。

(57) He looked as if he would choke.

反実仮想で使われることがuncommonで(Whitt, 2010, 120)

With the latter, it is not uncommon to find irrealis semantics attached to the verb of the evidential-

ized clause.

(58) a. But I protest you look as if you had been in tears! you are melancholy, my dear.

b. The refugees from the terror looked as though they had been tramping through the night.

James (1986, 86)は、現代まで生き残った仮定法過去the past subjunctiveの用法の一つとして副詞節as if内での使

用を認めている。この用法は仮想的な類義hypothetical similarityを表すとしている。

The past subjunctive has one other important surviving use in adverb clauses: in clauses expressing

hypo thetical similarity, as in the sentence,

(59) He looks as if he were sick.

(Gisborne, 2010)

When it is the complement of a sound-class verb, or of seem, its meaning is restricted to the hypo-

thetical meaning and it seems as though the resemblance being described is always rather abstract.

(p.273)

We shall also see that clausal like has two semantic variants—a hypothetical comparison variant

and a direct comparison variant—whereas preposition like only has the direct comparison variant.

(p. 268)

The examples in (64a,b) show how the ‘hypothetical’ element of the meaning of like is arrived at.

(p.278)

*6 この概念は、Pustejovsky (1995)のクオリアでなんとかできないだろうか。特に構成クオリアなどで関連性を制限できるような気がする。

16

(60) a. Giving up smoking sounds like it is a hard thing to do. (=(64a))

b. Jane sounds like she is a bit mad. (=(64b))

(Gisborne, 2010, 272)

like/c has the same two senses as like/p. The first is the same as the sense of direct comparison,

given for both like/p and like/c in (52). The second is the sense of hypothetical comparison which

is shown in (53).

(61) a. Jane looks like Peter. (=(52))

b. Jane ran like Peter drives, fast.

(62) a. Jane looks like someone's walked across her grave. (=(53))

b. Jane looks like there's been a terrible accident.

(安藤, 2005, 375)

as if 節中で内容が事実であると話し手が考えている場合は、叙実法現在[indicative present]が用いられる。

(63) a. It looks as if/though it's going to rain.

b. It looks you're right.

(安藤, 2005, 376)

as if/as though節中で:節中の動詞が状態を表しているなら過去時制、完了相としてとらえれば過去完了が用

いられる。

(64) a. Theo felt as if she had been shot through the heart.

b. He looks/looked as if he had seen a ghost.

3 CPVCまわりの先行研究の主な理論と主張

3.1 共時的

3.2 通時的

3.2.1 通時に関するもの(Gisborne and Holmes, 2007, 6)Gisborne and Holmes (2007, 6)では、CPVsが意味漂白semantic bleachingを経験することによって命題的な項

propositional argumentsを獲得し、これが今度はevidential senseの発達を導いたと主張している。

The first is that these verbs acquire propositional arguments as their meanings undergo semantic

bleaching, and this in turn leads to the development of evidential senses.

Gisborne and Holmes (2007, 6)では、同時に主観性subjectivityにも関連した主張を行っている。彼らの主張では、英

語には主観性を文字通り直接文法化した文法パターン(構文)が存在し、その中で話し手は動詞の項となっている。

The second claim is to do with the nature of subjectivity. We are taking the view that there is a

grammatical pattern, or construction, which quite literally grammaticalises subjectivity, by making

the speaker an argument of the verb.

4 seemとCPVCとの異同

4.1 seem

小西 (1990, 1349)では、seemはbe動詞と比較対照される動詞であるとしている。

17

appear、lookなどと同じく、人や物事について話しての見方・判断を述べる基本的な語で「...であるとおもわれる」

という推定の意味を表す。事実や断言を示すbe動詞と対照され、必ずしも事実とは一致しないという含みをもつ。し

たがって断言をさける婉曲的な意味で使われることも多い。

4.2 seemとの類似点

Matushansky (2002, 221)は、seemがlike-CPを取る時直接知覚の意味なり、lookに近づくとコメントしている。

Importantly, to the extent like-cases are grammatical, they require direct visual perception (i.e.,

seem is roughly synonymous with look).

(65) a. Clarinda seems like she is in a bad mood.

b. It seems that Fernando is sick.

(66) a. It seems like Clanrinda is in a bad mood.

b. * Fernando seems that he is sick.

(67) a. She seems like her arms go on forever.

b. ?/?? Heremione seems like her teacher/Mr. Snape is giving her a hard time.

c. ??/* Hermione seems like Crookshanks is shedding.

Seemと近いのは、lookとsoundであり、その他がこの用法で用いられるのは難しい。(Gisborne, 2010, 247)

It is hard to find unequivocal examples of sound-class feel, smell, and taste that pattern like the

examples in (12) [evidential-2]. I take it that only sound and look/p have a straightforward reported

evidential sense.

(68) a. It seems unlikely that she will ever visit now.

b. It looks unlikely that she will ever visit now.

c. It sounds unlikely that she will ever visit now.

またImpersonal constructionを取ることができるという点でも共通している。Gisborne (2010, 276)

(69) a. It seems like/as though Peter has gone home.

b. It looks like/as though Peter has gone home.

Taniguchi (1997, 292) makes a comment on the similarity between look and seem as the following:

CPVs are akin to seem in that they all occur with adjectival complements which denote subjective

evaluation of an entity; therefore, it is quite reasonable to assume that CPVs might come to obtain

some formal properties of seem as an iconic reflection of their semantic similarities.

谷口 (2005, 245)では、連結詞的知覚動詞の補語分布の一部(e.g. to-infinitiveと定形節補部)はseemとの意味的類

似性から生じているとの立場をとっている。

... 本来ある種の知覚様式を通じての推論を表すCPVs(特に、推論に中心的な知覚である視覚・聴覚の場合)に

seem都の類推が起こり、その影響で共に類似した統語的振る舞いを示す傾向があると言える。

(70) a. John seems as if he's seen a ghost.

b. John looks as if he's seen a ghost.

c. John sounds as if he's seen a ghost.

d. This cake tastes as if it's a sort of fruit.

e. It feels as if it's made of wool.

18

f. This room smells as if it's not been cleaned recently.

Biber et al. (1999, 436)では、seemやappear、be等が属するcurrent copular verbsの一つとして、sensory copular

verbsを捉えている。Current copular verbs自体は``identify attributes that are in a continuing state of exis-

tence''と定義付けられている。

(71) a. I've just got to drink loads of coffee to keep awake. (CONV)

b. We are all human. (FIC)

c. I may have appeared a little short with my daughter that morning. (FICT)

d. David Elsworth seemed quite satisfied with the performance of Barnbrook. (NEWS)

4.3 seemとの違い

4.3.1 relating to complement patternsseemは不定詞補部や非人称用法が可能であるが、CPVsに関してはそれらの用法に制限が見られる(谷口, 2005,

215)

動詞seem及びappearは、...不定詞補部や非認証用法が可能であるが、CPVsの中でも、lookは(6b)のように不

定詞補部をとることが容認されるが、それ以外のものは(7b)のように容認されない傾向にある。ただし、補部が叙述

名詞である場合、look, feel, tasteに関しては(8)のように不定詞補部の方が好まれるとQuirk et al. (1985)では

指摘されている。

(72) a. John seems (appears) happy.

(=(5))

b. John seems (appears) to be happy.

c. It seems that John is happy.

(73) a. John looks happy.

(=(6))

b. John looks to be happy.

c. * It looks that John is happy.

(74) a. The cake tastes good.

(=(7))

b. * The cake tastes to be good.

c. * It tastes that the cake is good.

(75) a. It looks to be a fine day.

(=(8) p.216)

b. He feels to be a fool.

c. That sounds to be a great idea.

4.3.2 relating to that-clauseThat節が取れないことは、Gisborne (2010, 276)でも指摘されている。

It looks at first as though like in (58a,b) is behaving like that in (59a). However, (59b) shows that

that cannot occur with LOOK.

(76) a. It seems that Peter has gone home.

b. * It looks that Peter has gone home.

19

Gisborne and Holmes (2007, 20)では、結果的に現代英語では同じようにevidential useとevaluative useを持つ

verbs of lookingがseemとappearと異なる発達経路をたどってきたことが示されている。

When these verbs acquire evidential and evaluative meanings, they pass through a different route

from APPEAR and SEEM. First of all, there is no point in their history in which they are able to occur

with the complementizer THAT. ... Secondly, they are not able to able to occur with subject-tosubject

raising out of a TO clause.

4.3.3 relating to the meaning英語語義語源辞典(?)では、seemとappearとlookの違いについて述べられている(s.v. seem)。

seem; appear; look: seemが主に話し手の主観的な見方を含意するのに対して、appear、lookは外見上の判

断に基づく見方が意味される。ただし、appearは実際にはそうではないかもしれないという含みがあり、lookは逆に

そうであろうという意味が含まれる。

Poutsuma (1904-1929, 10-11)によると、その差は僅かであるが以下のように要約できる。

To look is often hard to distinguish from to seem. The difference may be formulated as follows:

To seem implies mere doubt about the correctness of our observation, to look does not imply doubt

about the correctness of our observation, but about the correctness of the conclusions that may be

drawn from it. Thus The man seems perplexed may be interpreted to stand for I think that the man

is perplexed, judging from his looks, but my observation may be deceptive, so that I am not justified

in stating this as a fact. The man looks perplexed, on the other hand, may be assumed to convey the

following train of thought: The man has, no doubt, the looks (or appearance) of a perplexed person,

but I am not certain that I am justified in concluding that he is really perplexed. There is, therefore,

some justification in admitting to look among the copulas and excluding to seem. There can, however,

be no doubt that the two verbs are to some extent would seem to be at least as appropriate:

(77) a. The man seems perplexed.

b. I think that the man is perplexed, judging from his looks, but my observation may be decep-

tive, so that I am not justified in stating this as a fact.

c. The man looks perplexed.

d. The man has, no doubt, the looks (or appearance) of a perplexed person, but I am not certain

that I am justified in concluding that he is really perplexed.

(78) a. She seemed almost like a religious. BUCH., WINTER NIGHT, CH. III, 30

b. You look to me like two great happy spirits. Ch. BRONT?, Shirley, I, CH. XIII, 297

5 Perception verbs and Evidentiality

5.1 定義

Gisborne and Holmes (2007, 3)では、Palmer (2001)のpropositional modalityとepistemic modalityの一つ

だとevidentialityを定義している。

Palmer (2001) describes evidentiality as one of the two kinds of propositional modality, epistemic

modality being the other. We adopt this definition. Evidentiality has also been discussed in the

papers in Chafe & Nichols (1986), Ifantidou (2001), Rooryck (2001a,b), de Haan (2001, 2003), the

papers in Aikhenvald & Dixon (2003), and Aikhenvald (2004), among others.

Whitt (2009, 1083)では、次のようなEvidentialityの定義が取られている。

20

the linguistic encoding of speaker's information source

how speakers linguistically encode their source of information

6 Copy Raising

6.1 定義Definition

6.2 先行研究Previous studies

6.2.1 Postal (1970)6.2.2 Donald (1978, 1979, 19806.2.3 Potsdam and Runner (2001)6.2.4 Asudeh and Toivonen (2012)6.2.5 Jing-Bok (2012)

7 主観性

7.1 Langacker式主観性

7.2 Traugott式主観性

8 評価的意味

Biber et al. (1999, 442)では、この構文が評価していることを表すような機能を有していることを明言している。これ

は、英語学会で分析を行ったコーパス分析とほぼ同じ結果であるし、その他の分析(Kaga (2007)を用いた分析とも合致

する)。

The sensory copular verbs---look. feel, sound, smell, taste---report positive or negative evaluations

associated with sense perceptions. The copular verb itself identifies the sense (e.g. sight, hearing,

etc.), while the adjective occurring as subject predicative reports the evaluation. These copulas are

less distinguished by their associated sets of predicative adjectives than the other current copular

verbs. In fact, the general evaluating adjectives nice, good, and bad commonly occur as subject

predicative to all five sensory copular verbs.

Ono (2004, 435)におけるCPVs評価的意味への言及。

(79) We saw John looking (*look) pretty sick (Akmajian, 1977, 440)

(80) I saw him resemble (*resemble) his father (Mittwoch, 1990, 67)

... In contrast, in the case of stative verbs, whose complements represent ‘fact’, the complement is

perceived not as pure perception but as cognitive perception, because a ‘fact’ is not what is perceived

but what is cognized. To put it simply, whether ‘John looks pretty sick’ or ‘he resembles his father’,

when we speak these sentences, we make a commitment to the truth-value of these propositions.

9 文体論的特徴

Biber et al. (1999, 437) look + adjectiveはCONVは比較的一般的relatively common、FICTはvery common、

ACADではrareとされている。

9.1 As if (though)

Asから発達したが、asそのものはすでにobsoleteな用法である。

21

9.2 Like

Likeは、アメリカ英語であることが各書で説明されているQuirk et al. (1985)。

like <informal, esp AmE> (998)

Perception: appear, seem; feel as if, look as if, sound as if [these three verbs are also used informally,

especially in AmE, with like in place of as if] (1033-4)

(81) a. It doesn't seem that we can get our money back. ["It seems that we can't get our money back"]

b. The baby doesn't appear to be awake. ["The baby appears not to be awake"]

c. It doesn't look like it's going to rain. ["It looks like it isn't going to rain."]

Ajunct clauses of similarity are predication adjuncts. They are introduced by as and like <informal,

esp AmE>. As and like are commonly premodified by just and exactly:.... (1110)

There is also, especially in informal AmE, a tendency to prefer a construction in which a copular

verb is followed by like (1173)

(82) It seems like the only solution.

Biber et al. (1999)でも同様のことが述べられている。

Like I'm pretty much in awe of it when I see it. (AmE CONV)(547)

like AmE>BrE (562)

Huddleston and Pullum (2002, 1158)でも、イギリス英語よりもアメリカ英語に多いということが指摘されている。

...both constructions are commonly used, though somewhat more widely in AmE than in BrE. In

BrE they are mainly restricted to informal style; in AmE they are also associated with informal style,

but less exclusively, as evident from such examples as:

(83) There is nothing to suggest that the brain can alter past impressions to fit into an original, realistic

and unbroken continuity like [we experience ( ) in dreams].

小西 (1990, 1892)では、seem likeはlook likeの類推であるということ指摘している。

look likeが、米国口語ではlook as if[as though]の意味に使われ、節を伴うことがある:You look like you've

been chased by a banshee, J.T. —McCullers, Clock

小西 (1990, 1351)では、seem likeはlook likeの類推であるということ指摘している。

NB 8 look likeの類推でseem like ということがある。It seems like a fairy tale.

10 その他二次資料からの引用

10.1 The OED2からの引用

10.1.1 Lookまず、OED2 (1989)によれば、以下のlook 1cから発達した用法だと言われている。

c.I.1.c To direct one's eyes in a manner indicative of a certain feeling; to cast a look of a certain

significance; to present a specified expression of countenance. With adv. or phr. Now only with the

22

object or direction specified as in a; otherwise this sense now merges in 9.

(84) a. c?1205 Lay. 2266 He stod bi-foren Locrine & la?elich him lokede on.

b. 1297 R. Glouc. (Rolls) 5348 Vre louerd mid is eyen of milce on ?e loke? ?eruore.

c. 1393 Langl. P. Pl. C. ii. 164 On ous he lokyde with loue.

d. 1483 Caxton G. de la Tour E?viij?b, He euer loked on her of a wantoun and fals regard.

e. 1500?20 Dunbar Poems lviii. 9 Bot, Lord! how petewuslie I luke, Quhen all the pelfe they

pairt amang thame.

f. a 1548 Hall Chron., Rich. III, 53?b, Least that it might be suspected that he was abasshed

for feare of his enemyes, and for that cause looked so piteously.

g. 1611 Bible Gen. xl. 7 Wherefore looke ye so sadly to day?

h. 1642 R. Carpenter Experience ii. i. 133 The man look'd bloodily when he spoke it.

i. 1842 Tennyson Talking Oak 116, I look'd at him with joy.

j. 1859 — Enid 1279 He turn'd and look'd as keenly at her As careful robins eye the delver's

toil.

連結詞的知覚動詞構文としてのlook自体は、まず次のように定義されている。

III.III To have a certain appearance. [App. in part developed from 1?c; but cf. the similar use in

passive sense of other verbs of perception, like smell, taste, feel.]

9. a.III.9.a intr. To have the appearance of being; to seem to the sight. (This sense when used

of persons often retains some mixture of the notion of 1?c.) Const. a predicative n. or adj., or a

predicative adv. (as well, ill = ‘in good, bad health’). For the fig. phr. to look black, blue, foolish,

small, etc., see the adjs.

(s.v. look )

(85) a. c 1400 Destr. Troy 8742 Ymages‥Lokend full lyuely as any light angels.

b. 1500 20 Dunbar Poems liii. 37 God waith gif that scho loukit sour!

c. 1526 Pilgr. Perf. (W. de W. 1531) 266 Resolueth all the grosenesse of the oyle, and maketh

it to loke clere.

d. 1658 Wood Life 5 Apr., He look'd elderly and was cynical and hirsute in his behavior.

e. 1697 Dryden Æneid xi. 99 All pale he lies, and looks a lovely Flow'r.

f. 1712 Hearne Collect. (O.H.S.) III. 486 'Twould have look'd vain, and ostentatious.

g. 1715 Pope Iliad iii. 208 She moves a Goddess, and she looks a Queen!

h. 1761 F. Sheridan Sidney Biddulph I. 18 He is grown fat, and looks quite robust.

i. 1788 Cowper Pity for poor Africans, You speak very fine, and you look very grave.

j. 1802 M. Edgeworth Moral T., Forester (1806) I. 65 Henry looked in great anxiety.

k. 1857 Ruskin Pol. Econ. Art i. 1, I see that some of my hearers look surprised at the expres-

sion.

l. 1871 M. Arnold Friendship's Garland v. 36 ‘You made me look rather a fool, Arminius’, I

began.

m. 1886 B. M. Butt Lesterre Durant I. xix. 304 London was certainly not looking its best.

n. 1888 Sarah Tytler Blackhall Ghosts II. xvii. 65 Kitty did not look the lady she was not.

o. 1897 Windsor Mag. Jan. 274/1 No. 1‥looked such a much larger house than it was‥No.

2‥was such a much larger house than it looked.

23

b. with adv. of manner (†or advb. phrase): To have a certain look or appearance. This use is often

indiscriminately condemned, but is justly censurable only where look is virtually equivalent to seem,

so that it requires a predicative complement and not a qualification of manner. (So, e.g., in quot.

1645.) Owing, however, to the prejudice excited by the inaccurate use, look now rarely occurs with

advs. of manner other than well, ill, badly. In some early instances the apparent adv. may possibly

be an adj. in -ly1.

(86) a. a?1300 XV Signa 56 in E.E.P. (1862) 9 Hi sul‥lok as bestis ?at cun no witte.

b. 1377 Langl. P. Pl. B. v. 189 So hungriliche [1362 A. v. 108 hungri] and holwe sire Heruy

hym loked.

c. 1542 Boorde Dyetary xxxix. (1870) 300 For that wyll cause a man to loke agedly.

d. 1546 J. Heywood Prov. 50 Though your pasture looke barreinly and dull.

e. c1586 C'tess Pembroke Ps. cv. viii, Watry Nilus lookes with bloudy face.

f. 1610 Shakes. Temp. iii. i. 32 You looke wearily. Ibid. iv. i. 146 You doe looke (my son) in a

mou'd sort.

g. 1611 — Wint. T. iii. iii. 3 The skies looke grimly.

h. 1645 T. Hill Olive Branch (1648) 40 This would make you look more amiably and smell more

sweetly.

i. 1683 Tryon Way to Health xix. (1697) 413 How base a thing it is, and how unnaturally it

looks, that men should value Money more than the Law of God.

j. 1712 J. James tr. Le Blond's Gardening 21 Points and Corners advancing‥look very ill upon

the Ground.

k. 1719 De Foe Crusoe ii. i. (1840) 7 The world looked awkwardly round me. Ibid. ii. xv. 314

To see who looked with most guilt in their faces.

l. 1781 Cowper Retirement 567 Nature indeed looks prettily in rhyme.

m. 1802 Mrs. J. West Infidel Father II. 188 Do I also look meanly in her eyes?

n. 1826 Cobbett Rur. Rides (1885) II. 57 Fields of Swedish turnips, all looking extremely well.

o. 1849 Macaulay Hist. Eng. ix. II. 497 On the whole, however, things as yet looked not

unfavourably for James.

p. 1855 Ibid. xx. IV. 471 It tasked all the art of Kneller to make her look tolerably on canvass.

q. 1891 Sir A. Wills in Law Times XCI. 233/2 Things had, by that time, begun to look badly for

all concerned.

seemとの類推も以下のように言われている。

c. Const. inf. To seem to the view. lit. and fig.

(87) a. 1775 Burke Sp. Conc. Amer. Sel. Wks. I. 192 It looks to me to be narrow and pedantic, to

apply the ordinary ideas of criminal justice to this great public contest.

b. 1793 W. Roberts Looker-On No. 84 (1794) III. 345 To make a display‥looks to be, with the

major part, the real object which assembles them.

c. 1890 Clark Russell Ocean Trag. I. vi. 123 A little hat that looked to be made of beaver.

d. 1893 Graphic 25 Mar. 298/1 The Queen looked to be in good health.

look as ifについても次のように例文が紹介されている。

d. to look as if (or †as) —: to have an appearance suggesting the belief that —. Often with indefinite

subject, it looks (or things look) as if —.

24

(88) a. 1500?20 Dunbar Poems liii. 9 He leuket as he culd lern tham a.

b. 1611 B. Jonson Catiline iv. v, Looke they, as they were built to shake the world?

c. a 1700 Dryden Flower & Leaf 57, I took the way, Which through a path, but scarcely printed,

lay;‥And looked as lightly pressed by fairy feet.

d. 1700 T. Brown Amusem. Ser. & Com. 91 It looks as if Physicians learnt their Gibberish for

no other purpose, than to embroil what they do not understand.

e. 1790 Burke Fr. Rev. (1898) 11 It looks to me as if I were in a great crisis.

f. 1809 Malkin Gil Blas v. i. ?27 Pedro was dumb-founded, and looked as if he could not help

it.

g. 1867 Freeman Norm. Conq. (1876) I. App. 774 This looks as if Harold were now quartered

in Denmark.

h. 1892 St. Nicholas Mag. XIV. 538/1 It looked as if there was going to be a free fight.

i. 1898 F. Montgomery Tony 9 She looked as if she were thoroughly bored.

次の用法は名詞句を取る用法であり、その人の属性(一側面)を表した名詞を補語としてとる。*7

e. quasi-trans. To have an appearance befitting or according with (one's character, condition,

assumed part, etc.). to look one's age: to have the appearance of being as old as one is. to look

oneself: to appear to be in one's usual health.

(89) a. 1828 Examiner 756/1 She looked the character extremely well.

b. 1842 L. Hunt Men, Women & B. (1876) 373 Though people do not always seem what they

are, it is seldom they do not look what they can do.

c. 1852 Dickens Bleak Ho. xxxiv, But what's the matter, George?‥you don't look yourself.

d. 1879 C. M. Yonge Cameos Ser. iv. xvii. 187 She looked her full forty-three years.

e. 1883 Manch. Exam. 29 Oct. 5/3 Miss Anderson looked the part to perfection.

f. 1891 L. Merrick Violet Moses II. xii. 134 He assuredly did not look his age.

look likeについての箇所では、やはりcolloq.でアメリカ語法であることが示されている。

10. look like. a. To have the appearance of being. (See like A. 1?b ¶.) Also, (it) looks like: it seems

likely (colloq., chiefly U.S.).

(90) a. c 1440 York Myst. xxx. 273 He lokis like a lambe.

b. 1581 J. Studley Hippolytus 67 Lyke lusty young Perithous he looketh in the face.

c. 1628 Earle Microcosm., High Spirited Man (Arb.) 91 One that lookes like a proud man but

is not.

d. 1662 Stillingfl. Orig. Sacr. ii. v. §3 There is some thing looks very like this in the proceedings

of the people of Israel against the Prophet Jeremiah.

e. 1699 T. Baker Refl. Learning 58 This Plan, as laid down by him, looks liker an Universal Art

than a distinct Logic.

f. 1711 Addison Spect. No. 50 ¶8 The Women look like Angels.

g. a?1715 Burnet Own Time (1724) I. 606 He had a humour in his leg, which looked like the

beginning of the gout.

h. 1773 Goldsm. Stoops to Conq. ii. (end), My dear 'squire, this looks like a lad of spirit.

*7 単純なbe動詞では結べない例として考えられる。

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i. 1861 M. Pattison Ess. (1889) I. 40 The payment in kind, and not in money, looks like a

customary acknowledgement from an old established guild.

j. 1884 W. C. Smith Kildrostan 43 She‥looked like a monument planted there.

k. 1910 W. M. Raine Bucky O'Connor 55 Your cook, Anderson, kid-napped the child, looks like

to me.

l. 1929 J. Buchan Courts of Morning 13, I admitted that it looked like it, and said that if Blenk-

iron had been captured by bandits‥his captors had done the worst day's work of their lives.

m. 1936 M. Mitchell Gone with Wind i. i. 11 Don't it look to you like she would of asked us to

stay for supper?

n. 1970 N. Marsh When in Rome v. 127 ‘Wouldn't it be a yell if‥you were The Man?’ ‘Do I

look like it?’

o. 1972 G. Bromley In Absence of Body viii. 101 ‘And now I suppose you've got to find a

replacement?’ ‘Looks like it.’

p. 1973 Guardian 31 Jan. 4/7 Looks like your child's birthday is news again this year.

現在分詞や過去分詞についても扱っている。

b. with gerund, vbl. n., or occas. n.: To give promise of, show a likelihood of.

(91) a. 1593 Shakes. Lucr. 585 Thou look'st not like deceipt; do not deceiue me.

b. 1747 Gentl. Mag. XVII. 383 Parties may be abolish'd, but the late dissolution of the parlia-

ment don't look much like it.

c. 1883 J. W. Sherer At Home & in India 158 Later on, indeed, after supper, he grew

worse—looked like biting—and‥tore the bouquet in pieces.

d. 1888 H. F. Lester Hartas Maturin II. ii. 34 It looks like rain.

e. 1973 A. Broinowski Take One Ambassador ii. 21, I look like being in and out of the office a

lot in the next few days.

10.1.2 Sound4. a.I.4.a To convey a certain impression or idea by the sound; to appear to have a certain signifi-

cation when heard (or read).

(92) a. α ???c?1374 Chaucer Troylus v. 678 In non other place‥Feele I no wynde that souneth so

lyke peyne; It seith ‘Allas! why twynned be we tweyne?’

b. ?c?1449 Pecock Repr. i. v. 27 My feeling in thilk mater is other wise than the speche

sowneth. ???c?1450 St. Cuthbert (Surtees) 1554 ?ai‥red ?e text als it sounes.

c. 1533 Tindale Supper of the Lord D?iij?b, They so vnderstode hym, and he so ment as his

wordes sowned.

d. 1538 Starkey England i. ii. 63 Hyt sounyth veray yl‥to gyue such powar to blynd fortune in

mannys felycyte.

(93) a. β ???1445 in Anglia XXVIII. 273 Of ripe thyngis which sounde sadly thou techist men right

aged.

b. ??1530 Tindale Exp. Matt. v. 43 To turne ye other cheke is a maner of spekynge and not to

be vnderstand as the words sound.

c. 1590 Shakes. Com. Err. iv. iv. 7, I tell you 'twill sound harshly in her eares.

d. 1639 Fuller Holy War i. ix. (1840) 14 Whose entreaties in this case sounded commands in

the ears of such as were piously disposed.

26

e. 1651 Hobbes Leviath. iii. xxxviii. 239 Which soundeth as if they had said, he should come

down [etc.].

f. 1678 Cudworth Intell. Syst. 314 This may the better be believed‥because Diodorus himself

hath some Passages sounding that way.

g. 1789 T. Twining Aristotle's Treatise on Poetry 216 To call them a slip, would indeed sound

strangely.

h. 1815 Scott Guy M. ix, That sounds like nonsense, my dear.

i. 1825 — Betrothed xiv, Their very names sound pagan and diabolical.

j. 1851 Landor Popery 47 This sounds oddly to unmitred ears; but much may depend upon

the sounding?board.

k. 1874 Blackie Self-Cult. 71 That sort of talk sounds big, but is in fact puerile.

b.I.4.b To have a sound suggestive of something.

(94) 1646 Fuller Good Th. in Worse T. Pref., Controversial writings (sounding somewhat of drums

and trumpets).

10.1.3 ListenOEDにはsoundだけではなく、listenを用いた例も出てくる。ただし、これは非標準的な用法だと考えられているようであ

る。

4. intr. To sound (in a certain way). Freq. with to = to strike (one) as. U.S.

(95) a. 1908 K. McGaffey Sorrows of Show Girl 78 That listened very well indeed, and we all climbed

into a cabbage and vamped over.

b. 1912 C. Mathewson Pitching in a Pinch vii. 143 All is fair in love, war, and baseball except

stealing signals dishonestly, which listens like another paradox.

c. 1923 R. D. Paine Comrades of Rolling Ocean xiv. 250 Here's where I slip it out‥to help

square the repair bill for my joy-ride. How does it listen to you?

d. 1923 L. J. Vance Baroque xxvii. 174 [It] don't listen reasonable to me.

e. 1945 Mencken Amer. Lang. Suppl. I. 317 It has been suggested ‥that it listens well may be

from es h?rt sich gut an.

10.1.4 Smellあとで。

10.1.5 Tasteあとで。

10.1.6 Feelあとで。

10.2 その他のReferenceからの引用

10.2.1 Austin (1962)(96) a. It looks blue. (round, angular.) (p. 34)

b. He looks a gentle man. (a tramp, a sport, a typical Englishman).

27

c. She looks chic (a fright, a regular frump).

(97) a. It [a colour] looks like blue [the colour].(p. 34)

b. It looks like a recorder.

c. he looks like a gentleman (a sailor, a horse).

(98) a. It looks as if it is, it were raining (empty, hollow).(p. 34)

b. He looks as if he is, he were 60 (going to faint).

(99) a. It looks as though we shan't be able to get in.(p. 34)

b. He looks as though he's worried about something.

(100) a. It appears to expand. (p.35)

b. It appears to be a forgery.

c. He appears to like her (to have recovered his temper).

d. He appears to be an Egyptian.

(101) a. It appears as as a dark speck on the horizon. (p.35)

b. He appears as a man of good character (sc. from this narrative. We can also say of an actor that

he 'appeared as Napoleon').

c. It appears that they've all been eaten.

(102) a. He looks guilty. (= he has the look of a guilty man.) (p.36)

b. He appears guilty. (special circumstanceに関係する。見た目だけじゃなくdemeanorも含む。)

c. He seems guilty. ( make an implicit reference to certain evidence --evience bearing, of course,

on the question whether he is quilty, though not such as to settle that question conclusively. (p.

37))

(103) a. She looks chic. straightforward enough. (p.37)

b. She appears (to be) chic (from these photographs, from what they've told me about her)

c. She seems (to be) chic. (there is, in fact, something retty dubious about this locution, but per-

haps she appears to be chic in unsophisticated, provincial circles).

(104) a. The sun feels hot.

b. The sun is hot.

c. The sky is blue.

d. The sky looks blue.

(105) a. He certainly seems to be guilty, but he isn't. (p.39)

10.2.2 LookLDOCEでははっきりと"to seem"として紹介している(s.v. look)。

(106) a. From the way things look at the moment

b. The future's looking good.

c. It looks as if it might rain later.

d. It looks like they won't be needing us any more.

e. You made me look really stupid in front of all my friends!

ウィズダム英和辞典の作例。

(!as if/as though節中は仮定法が普通だが, ((くだけて/話))では直説法も用いられる; →as if語法) (→seem

類義)... (!節を従える場合likeは英書では誤りとされる)

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(107) a. look very puzzled [pale, sad]

b. Things are looking good [bad].

c. You look very nice in this dress.

d. This dress look very nice on you.

e. How do I look?

f. It's what you are, not how you loo that counts.

g. It looks bad not visiting [to visit] your own father in hospital.

h. You're looking well today.

i. John really looks like his uncle.

j. John and his uncle look like each other [very (much) alike).

k. This photo doesn't look like you at all.

l. Lucy is looking like her mother more and more.

m. It looks as if [like, ×that] he will win.

n. They look as if they will kiss, but don't.

Oxford Dictionary of Englishからの例

[ with complement or adverbial ] have the appearance or give the impression of being: mum looked

unhappy | the home looked like a prison | (as adj., in combination-looking) : a funny-looking bloke.

? (look like) informal show a likelihood of: [ with present participle ] : Leeds didn't look like scoring

from any of their corners | [ with clause ] : it doesn't look like you'll be moving to Liverpool.

New Oxford American Dictionaryからの例

10.2.3 Sound10.2.4 Listen10.2.5 Smellあとで。

10.2.6 Tasteあとで。

10.2.7 Feelあとで。

11 機能論的説明

12 説明

13 終わりに

14 各種概念Glossary

14.1 Authentic data

Authentic data come from text ``produced in a natural communicative setting". (Gries, 2009)

29

```Produced in a natural communicative setting' means that the texts were spoken or written for

some authentic communicative purpose, but not for purpose of putting them into a corpus.''(Gries,

2009, 8)

14.2 Colloquialization

Leech et al. (2009, 239)

More often than not there are links between grammatical changes, on the one hand, and social and

cultural changes, on the other. Such links may not be as obvious as the links between social change

and lexical change, and they are certainly more indirect. Again and again, however, the authors have

discovered that, especially when it comes to explaining the spread of innovations through differ-

ent styles and genres, apparently disparate grammatical 'symptoms' can be traced back to common

'causes' at the discourse level. Exploring the connections between the observed shifts in grammatical

usage (the nuts and bolts of the system, as it were) and the broader changes in the communicative

climate of the age, which are reflected in the performance data that the corpora are made up of, is a

fascinating challenge not only for the linguist. (p. 22)

Colloquializationの定義はこんなもの。

colloquialization, or the shift to a more speech-like style

実際の所よくわかっていない。

All in all, we conclude that the colloquialization of written ENglish is a real linguistic trend, although

the reasons why it shows up in some cases but others remain debatable. (p. 249)

14.3 Conceptual Structure

Jackendoffの一連の研究で提唱されている意味論の枠組み。言語の意味論と言うよりは、人間が構築する意味体系で

あり、これが音韻体系や統語体系と結びついたところに言語が生じると考える。見たところFrame意味論との整合性が高

い。

Jackendoff (2009, 192)では、以下のように前提かされている。

My basic premise is that linguistic semantics is to be conceived as part of a larger psychological

theory of how humans understand the world, and that the object of investigation is a form of mental

structure called conceptual structure.

Jackendoff (2009, 192)では、概念構造は世界が直接概念化されたものではなく、人間が概念化するように(as

human beings conceptualize it)概念化していると考える。

Rather, conceptual structure encodes the world as human beings conceptualize it, quite a different

notion (Jackendoff 1983, 2002a). Conceptual structure is indeed connected and constrained by the

external world—but indirectly, via the complex mappings between sensation and cognition that are

established by the perceptual systems of the brain.

また、その結果、概念構造は言語から独立し、それに先立つものとしている。

In short, conceptual structure is a level of mental structure that is largely autonomous of language

and epistemologically prior to it.

これは極めて認知言語学諸派に近いが、Jackendoffは以下のように認知言語学の批判を行っている。

30

... but to my mind it is not rigorous enough in its formalization (indeed, many of its practitioners are

explicitly anti formal); nor is it very concerned to integrate its results with the rest of psychology. It

is moreover skeptical about the need for an independent notion of syntax in the language capacity.

14.4 Corpus

Corpus ``refers to a machine-readable collection of (spoken or written texts that were produced in a

natural communicative setting, and the collection of texts is compiled with the intention (1) to be repre-

sentative and balanced with respect to ga particular linguistic variety or register or genre and (2) to be

analyzed linguistically." (Gries, 2009, 8)

14.5 Expandability

Huddleston and Pullum (2002, 951)は、Declarative content clauseには幾つかの種類があると述べ、

coordinaterがthatが生起可能なものをexpandable、不可能なものをnon expandableとして説明している。

Certain prepositions take declarative complements that are invariably bare. We call these non-

expandable. The default class of expandable declaratives then comprises all others: they allow,

in principle, for the subject-predicate construction to be expanded by a subordinator. This second

classification is based, then, not on whether a subordinator is actually present or absent, but on

whether or not the content clause is complement to an itemwhich invariable excludes a subordinator,

such as as if and before in [2]:

(108) a. I'll do it if [you pay me]. (NON-EXPANDABLE)

b. I'll do it provided [(that) you pay me]. (EXPANDABLE)

c. He left home before [she died].(NON-EXPANDABLE)

d. You know [(that) he is guilty]. (EXPANDABLE)

14.6 Grammaticalization

Andersen (1989, 14) argues, mainly from the viewpoint of generative grammar, that it is ``through in-

numerable individual acts of innovation — of acceptance, adoption, and acquisition — that any new entity

gains currency and enters into competition with traditional entities in the usage of a linguistic community."

According to Hopper and Traugott (2003, 48), even dramas are minimally institutional, therefore standard-

ized. Caution should always be exercised about the difference conversation in dramas and its apparent

equivalent in spontaneous speech.

Study of tape recordings over the last century should help in this endeavor, but when we are dealing

with older perilds of the language we are necessarily dealing with changes that have come down to

us in written form, even if we look to personal letter, drama, and other texts types that are likely to be

minimally institutional (and there fore ``standardized'') in character. (italics added by the author)

Hopper and Traugott (2003, 48) argue that there are two methodological criteria by which we can tenta-

tively say that a change has taken place.

Methodologically it is convenient to have some criteria by which we can conventionally say that a

rule change has occurred. We will say that a rule change has occurred if (a) it has evidently spread

from the individual and has been accepted by a group, and (b) the constraints of the former linguistic

environment are no longer obligatory.

31

And, they also argue that "... older and newer forms coexist for individual speakers as well as for commu-

nities over time" (Hopper and Traugott, 2003, 49).

14.7 Troponymy

14.8 Xcomps

A clear definition of this word-grammar concept is given in Gisborne (2010, 291) as follows:

Xcomp

This is the dependency of predicative complementation. In a word-based theory, there are no clauses,

so in structures such as She forced him to go, there is an Xcomp dependency between forced and to

(go). The ‘X’ of the Xcomp relation indicates that this is an ‘open’ function—it is open in the sense

that it requires another dependency to go with it. Xcomps have subjects, and in She forced him to go,

there is a Subject relationship between him and to. Xcomps are found in non-Wnite predication and

are not limited to inWnitival non-Wnite predicates. In We made him president, there is an Xcomp

relation between made and president; him is the Subject of president.

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