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VCM (Vinyl Clhorida Monomer) By : Ronny Pasulima & M.Fitriyadi

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VCM(Vinyl Clhorida Monomer)

By : Ronny Pasulima & M.Fitriyadi

Overview VCM dikenal dengan Vinil Klorida. Berdasarkan produk2 yang dihasilkan dalam

industri petrokimia VCM termasuk dalam kategori Produk Antara.Vinil Klorida mempunyai nama lain :- Chloroethene; - Chlorethene; - Chloroethylene; - Ethylene monochloride; - Monochlorethene; - Monochloroethylene; - Vinyl chloride monomer; - Vinyl C monomer

Sintesis pertama kali 1830 – 1834 oleh V.Regnault.

Molekul

(Vinyl Chloride Monomer )

H Cl

C C

H H

Rumus Molekul C2H3Cl

PropertiesProperties ValueTitik Lebur -154 0CTitik Didih -14 0CTitik Nyala - 78 0CIgnation Temp. 472 0C

Tekanan Uap 2943 mmHg pada 25 0C

Kerapatan Uap 2,2

Berat Jenis 0,9106Sumber : www.kelair.bppt.go.id

Pembuatan Pembuatan VCM dapat dilakukan dengan

menggunakan salah satu dari senyawa berikut :1. Ethylene CH2=CH2

2. Acetylene C2H2

3.Ethane C2H6

Pembuatan VCM dari Ethylene1. - Direct Chlorination CH2=CH2 + Cl2 → ClCH2CH2Cl

- Oxychlorination CH2=CH2 + 2 HCl + 1⁄2 O2 → ClCH2CH2Cl +

H2O.

2. Thermal Cracking ClCH2CH2Cl → CH2=CHCl + HCl

Diagram Alir

TVaporizer

Tanki

HE

FurnaceReactor

Waste Heat Boiler

HE

Compressor

Condensor

Kolom Distilasi

Kolom Distliasi

Pressure Tank

Pressure Tank

EDC5,5 atm Temp. 150C

HCl

VCM

EDC Recyle

Kondisi OperasiKondisi Operasi ReaktorSuhu 4500 C – 5500 C Tekanan 5 atmSifat Reaksi EndotermisKondisi Proses

Non Isotermal – Non Adiabatis

Pemanas Pembakaran langsung bahan bakar dalam furnace

Kegunaan Bahan Baku Pembuatan PVC (Polimer Vinil

Klorida)

Pada masa lalu VCM digunakan sebagai Refrigeran

TERIMA KASIH

Dlm prosesnya minyak bumi dan gas alam yang diolah dalm industri petrokimia menghsilkan produk2 sbg brkt:1.Produk Hulu2.Produk Antara3.Produk Hilir

VCM masuk kategori produk antara karena VCM dapat diolah lebih lanjut menjadi produk akhir/produk jadi.

Contohnya : etilbenzena-stirena,dikloroetilen-vinil klorida, isopropilalkohol, sikloheksana-kaprolaktam, ammonia, butena, etanol-asetaldehid, alkil benzena, akrilonitril, polietilena, isopropilalkohol.

Sentesis I : V.REGNAULT (1830-1834), dehydrochlorinating 1,2-dikhloroetana dengan kalium beralkohol.

Sintesis II : BILTZ (1902), dengan thermal cracking dari senyawa yang sama.

Sintesis III : KLATTE (1912), hydrochlorination katalitik acetylene.

Pada 1940-1950, acetylene dapat digantikan sebagian oleh ethylene, dimana vinil klorida diproduksi oleh klorinasi langsung ke 1,2-dikhloroetana dan berikutnya thermal cracking.

Perusahan yang memproduksi VCM : Dow Chemical Co., Monsanto Chemical Co. dan Shell Oil Co. (Menggunakan Ethylene)

Produsen Indonesia : PT Asahimas Chemical (PT.ASC) dan PT.Satomo Indovyl Monomer (PT.SIM)

Dengan menggunakan plasticizer dan karena efisiensi energi yang tinggi, PVC telah menjadi salah satu industry polimer yang paling penting. Meskipun merupakan salah satu polimer tertua, kesiapan persediaan, produksi relatif murah oleh pabrik besar, dan pembangunan berkelanjutan dari formulasi baru dengan penggunaan yang luas menjadi daya tarik di masa depan. Beberapa pabrik VCM dibangun sebelum tahun 1986. Karena situasi bahan baku dan pasar, pabrik baru akan terletak terutama di negara-negara penghasil minyak atau di negara-negara berkembang.

Production from acetylene Acetylene reacts with anhydrous

hydrogen chloride gas over a mercuric chloride catalyst to give vinyl chloride:

C2H2 + HCl → CH2=CHCl The reaction is exothermic and highly

selective. Product purity and yields are generally very high.

Production from ethane The conversion of ethane to vinyl chloride can

be performed by various routes:[9]

High-temperature chlorination: C2H6 + 2 Cl2 → C2H3Cl + 3 HCl High-temperature oxychlorination: C2H6 + HCl + O2 → C2H3Cl + 2 H2O High-temperature oxidative chlorination: 2 C2H6 + 3⁄2 O2 + Cl2 → 2 C2H3Cl + 3 H2O

Direct chlorination EDC (Ethylene dichloride) is prepared by

reacting ethylene and chlorine.[8] In the presence of iron(III) chloride as a catalyst, these compounds react exothermically:

CH2=CH2 + Cl2 → ClCH2CH2Cl This process results in high purity EDC and

high yields. Dissolved catalyst and moisture must be removed before EDC enters the vinyl chloride production process.

Oxychlorination Vinyl chloride plants use recycled HCl to produce more EDC

via oxychlorination, which entails the reaction of ethylene, oxygen, and hydrogen chloride over a copper(II) chloride catalyst to produce EDC:

CH2=CH2 + 2 HCl + 1⁄2 O2 → ClCH2CH2Cl + H2O. The reaction is highly exothermic. Due to the relatively low cost of ethylene, compared to

acetylene, most vinyl chloride has been produced via this technique since the late 1950s. This is despite the lower yields, lower product purity and higher costs for waste treatment. By-products of the oxychlorination reaction, may be recovered, as feedstocks for chlorinated solvents production. One useful byproduct of the oxychlorination is ethyl chloride, a topical anesthetic.

Thermal cracking When heated to 500 °C at 15–30 atm (1.5 to 3 MPa)

pressure, EDC vapor decomposes to produce vinyl chloride and anhydrous HCl.

ClCH2CH2Cl → CH2=CHCl + HCl The thermal cracking reaction is highly endothermic, and is

generally carried out in a fired heater. Even though residence time and temperature are carefully controlled, it produces significant quantities of chlorinated hydrocarbon side products. In practice, EDC conversion is relatively low (50 to 60 percent). The furnace effluent is immediately quenched with cold EDC to stop undesirable side reactions. The resulting vapor-liquid mixture then goes to a purification system. Some processes use an absorber-stripper system to separate HCl from the chlorinated hydrocarbons, while other processes use a refrigerated continuous distillation system.