displaying prototype aircraft
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DESCRIPTIONDISPLAYING PROTOTYPE AIRCRAFT. Oslo, 8 FEB 2013 Dr. Dieter Reisinger. Background Information. Workshop 2011. 5th European Flight Test Safety Workshop in Salzburg, Austria, November 2011 Theme : “ Displaying Prototype Aircraft – Risks and Preparation ” Dedicated speakers and audience. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
DISPLAYING PROTOTYPE AIRCRAFT
Oslo, 8 FEB 2013Dr. Dieter Reisinger
5th European Flight Test Safety Workshop in Salzburg, Austria, November 2011Theme: Displaying Prototype Aircraft Risks and PreparationDedicated speakers and audienceBackground InformationWorkshop 2011
Summarize Salzburg Workshop ResultsShare LESSONS LEARNEDMotivate to take next steps (Safety Initiatives)
Goal of todays presentation
https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/displayflying_norwayThat certain issues in product demo flying are NOT limited to one organisation or the individual pilotRather, these issues are similar across our industry!Early in our discussions an online survey ways launched and it became evidentIntroduction
Challenges to Flight Test Demonstration FlyingMarketing/Sales Pressures interventionsPrototype development programmeTest pilot ego vs Critical Peer Pressure vs Test Pilot Image.Limited preparation timeLack of continuation trainingEdge of EnvelopeOperation
Grob SPn Prototype Grob SPnSPn Accident
Grard Guillaumaud (1964-2006)Accident StatisticsAirshow Accident Statistics Some Cruel Facts
10 Year Average = 27 per annum!Sample Size = 266(Source: Des Barker)(Source: Des Barker)Airshow Organiser: Fatalities (1908 to 2010)1000 vs 1421 = 2421Sample Size = 2421Airshow Accident Categories: 1908 to 201171% Human Factors RelatedSample Size = 81027% Non-Human Factors Related(Source: Des Barker)Lesson #1DISPLAY AND DISPLAY ARE NOT ONE AND THE SAME!
Foto: Werner HorvathIs this a product demonstration?Source: Ricardo TravenLesson 1
Is this a product demonstration?Source: InternetLesson 1Is this a product demonstration?
Is this a product demonstration?Source: Ricardo TravenLesson 1
Fligh#9/#10: Fly-by of Solar Impulse on 22.09.2010, Swiss Government in BernBarnstormers entertain and excite us with their daring flying skills (inverted ribbon cut at night)Military teams are intended to motivate and recruit the public through disciplined flyingDomestic airshows (Flying Displays) are primarily for the aircraft to be enjoyed and viewed by the publicProduct demonstrations are intended to show the unique capabilities of the aircraft to educated observers and potential customers
Source: Ricardo TravenLesson #1
Display and Display are not the sameSource: Dieter ThomasTherefore, when planning your display ask what will be the philosophy or the spirit of your display?
Lesson #1Aerobatic CompetitionDemonstration of pilots skillPilots competition with aircraft of approx. equal performanceMilitary DemonstrationArmed Forces promotionDemo to tax payerPrecision flying, team workMission effectiveness/flexibilityAerospace ExhibitionAircraft PromotionPerformanceManoeuvrabilityNew Technology (low noise level, etc.)
Accident Analysis shows:ACCIDENTS HAPPEN WHEN PILOTS CROSS THE LINE!STAY IN YOUR AREA OF EXPERTISE UNLESS YOU ARE FULLY PREPARED!Lesson #1
2012 JUNE 1989MIKOYAN MiG-29PARIS, FRANCE
Lesson #2PRODUCT DEMO USE A FLIGHT TEST APPROACH!
It is Team work:Design officeFlight Test EngineerMechanicsTest Pilot
It is a step by step processComputation/ SimulationAnalyseFT Program: objectives vs. TimePlanA/C Tech check / ControlFlyMonitor & RecordDebrief Analyse- Document - TrainLesson #2
Precision formation teams will demonstrate pilot training and formation air-work skills and the focus of these displays are extreme discipline and pilot skills while barnstormers seek to thrill the crowd in ways that are uncharacteristic of a product demonstration. For example, extremely low-altitude inverted flight to cut ribbons being held between two pylons on the ground and record-breaking consecutive snap rolls are designed to impress the thrill-seeking public who are looking for a performance that keeps them on the edge of their seats. While these types of displays are intended to thrill and demonstrate the daring nature of flight, many of the maneuvers are dependent upon pilot skill level and the pilots willingness to accept risks based on his/her abilities and not so much the performance attributes of the aircraft.
22IncreasingWeight200300400500600240120360480600500040003000200010002040608010000Airspeed(KCAS)024135320280240200030004000500060001234Altitude(FT)Down Range Distance (FT)Airspeed At Pull(KCAS)20003000400050006000010002000300040005000270300350400AirspeedAtAltitude(KCAS)Initial Airspeed (KCAS)3k ft5k ftAltitude4k ft50040030020010010020030040050000Lesson #2Source: Ricardo TravenFT Approach to Demo Flying
Minimum but stalledOptimum at 4g corner speed(Dieter Thomas)
Profile DevelopmentAustralian International 2003 High Show1234578Square loopKnife edge pass180 Heading Reversal(Pirouette)Mini PirouetteWind Down TurnHigh G TurnAbrupt pull/pushFlat ObliqueReversalFlat ObliqueReversal Rudder rollHigh AOA pass6Loaded rollHalf Cuban 8Dirty rollSource: Ricardo TravenSolar Impulse: Paris Air Show 2011
No wind Display RWY 03Lesson #3THE DEMO PILOT SELECT THE RIGHT STUFF
PublicPopulated areasErrorGROUNDCommercial pressureTechnical problemTimeWeatherConditionsAirshow boxAC /Engine/ SystemsLimitationsImprovisationStressFatiguePrideThrillSupervisionDisciplinePracticeTrainingMaturityFlight TestExperienceSkillObstaclesAltitude /TempErrorSource: Patrick ExpertonLesson #3(Expertons Safety Bubble)Source: Patrick ExpertonLesson #3SkillExperience PracticeTrainingPhysical FitnessSAFETY BALANCEUnique capabilityPerformanceAgilityLimitationsTechnical defectsTechnical failureImprovisationClumsinessErrorEnvironmental pressureReliabilityRules-LimitsAircraftPilot
IntegrityMatureDisciplineSelf confidentHumbleInterested for right reasons (no place for undernourished egos!)
Source: Fredrik MchlerDid I miss pilot skills? Of course youneed pilot skills but the above mentioned are a big part of that!
Five mistakes of (an honest) demo pilot:
I had allowed myself to fly a display I had not practised.I was angry and not properly concentrated on what I was doing.I brought myself into a competitive situation.I had forced too many difficult manoeuvres into a far too tight schedule.I flew an extra manoeuvre, not planned, in a rush and inaccurately.Lesson #3
Lesson #4REPEATABILITY IS SAFETY!
Your sequence must be repeatable over and over again, if not - practice more or lower your ambitions.Everyone can make a strike in bowling but only the professional will make it over and over again Make sure you are a professional!Lesson #4
Lesson #5DIFFICULT IS NOT NECESSARILY IMPRESSIVE!
Difficult is not necessarily impressive!HELICOPTER DEMOS: Dont copy fixed-wing: they do wing-overs, helicopters do torque-turns
What is special about this aircraft and how can I show off its qualities?How will the manoeuvres will be seen from the crowd line?Avoid maneuvers with complex entry parameter combinations - they lead to large quality (and safety margin) scatter
Backflip variables: Height, aft stick input rev cuban 8 variables: Height, attitude, collective, pause after roll, cyclic.. etc. etc.If the constraints are too restrictive then dont show the manoeuvre (Panther Loop: 135 to140kt, BO105 Loop: -30kt to +140kt)
LoopEasyRepeatableLow structural loadsAir-air relevance (escape)
Barrel RollOften falsely chosen as first aerobatic manoeuvreClumsy compared to fixed-wingLike an old lady falling down stairsMost scatter of resultsHigh structural loadsRotor head change !!
Lesson #5Back FlipEasySpectacularRepeatableLow structural loads
Wing Over and Rev Half Cuban 8Seems simpleEveryone can do oneEnergy absolutely criticalMany accidents e.g. Lynx Poland
Lesson #5Summary Lessons LearnedLesson #1Display and Display are not one and the same! NEVER CROSS THE LINE!Lesson #2 Product Demo Use A Flight Test Approach!Lesson #3You need the right stuffLesson #4Repeatability is safety!Lesson #5Difficult is not necessarily impressive
PROPOSE THREE SAFETY INITIATIVESNext Steps - Safety Initiatives
1Create an Air Display Flying Handbook for Product Demonstration Flying
Safety Initiative #1Share and conserve knowledge for future generations test pilots by definition not literate display pilots!Draft version presently reviewed by task forceApproval required
Safety Initiative #1
What guidelines should the demonstration pilot consider in best exhibiting the air vehicle to a prospective customer? What attributes are required to be a successful flight test demonstration pilot?What are the requirements for the selection of demonstration pilots? What are the demonstration pilots responsibilities toward the company? What are the roles and responsibilities of management? Safety Initiative #1
2Create an Accident and Incident DatabaseSafety Initiative #2
Safety Initiative #2
Safety Initiative #2
Safety Initiative #2
Safety Initiative #2Would you be willing to share demonstration incidents?
NOYESWhere should such a database be hosted?
2. Who should be analyzing accidents and incidents?
3. Which taxonomy should be used?
4. What should be the goal of doing that work?
Safety Initiative #2Safety Initiative #33Keep an eye on this topic in future workshops!
SummarySafety Initiative #1: Create an Air Display Flying Handbook for Product Demo Flying!
Safety Initiative #2:Launch an Incident Data Base!
Safety Initiative #3Keep an eye on this topic in future workshops!
Source: Patrick ExpertonTrain/Rehearse/PracticeFly the demo as a test flightRepeatability is safetyDont ignore the basic tricksUnderstand the aircraft and limitsKnow your limitsStay fit for the taskSummary