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DISEASES OF THE SKIN, HAIR, AND NAILS, INCLUDING DISEASES DUE TO THE
Diseases of the Hair, Skin, and Nails
Melanoma occurs when something goes wrong in the melanin-producing cells (melanocytes) that give color to your skin. Normally, skin cells develop in a controlled and orderly way healthy new cells push older cells toward your skin's surface, where they die and eventually are sloughed off. But when some cells develop DNA damage, new cells may begin to grow out of control and can eventually form a mass of cancerous cells.
What is it?
Just what damages DNA in skin cells and how this leads to melanoma isn't clear. It's likely that a combination of factors, including environmental and genetic factors, causes melanoma. Still, doctors believe exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun and from tanning lamps and beds is the leading cause of melanoma. UV light doesn't cause all melanomas, especially those that occur in places on your body that don't receive exposure to sunlight. This indicates that other factors may contribute to your risk of melanoma.
SUN EXPOSURE: UV B AND TO SOME EXTENT UV A/ VISIBLE
CONTROVERSY OVER CUMULATIVE EXPOSURE AND EARLY EXPOSURE
PRE-EXISTING LESION: 1/3 ARISE IN CONGENITAL NEVI; 1/3 IN NEVI > 5 YEARS;
1/3 IN NEVI < 5 YEARS
BLUE/GREEN EYES; BLOND/RED HAIR; FAIR CMPLEXION; INABILITY TO TAN
CUTANEOUS MELANOMA STATISTICS
IN 2001, 47,700 NEW CASES WILL BE DIAGNOSED
INCIDENCE IS INCREASING AT 5% PER YEAR
BY THE YEAR 2000 1 IN 75 PEOPLE WILL DEVELOP MELONAMA
THIS INCREASE IS GREATER THAN ANY OTHER CANCER IN MEN AND SECOND ONLY
TO LUNG CANCER IN WOMEN
15-30% OF MELANOMA OCCUR IN THE HEAD AND NECK
10 YEAR SURVIVAL FOR STAGE 1 MELANOMA OF THE HEAD AND NECK IS 69% COMPARED
TO 89% WITH MELANOMA OF THE EXTREMITY
50% RECCURRENCE RATE AFTER 5 YEARS FOR HEAD AND NECK COMPARED TO 50% IN
10 YEARS FOR EXTREMITY
CUTANEOUS MELANOMA STATISTICS
IS THIS SPOT A MELANOMA? USE THE ABCD METHOD:
ASSYMETRY- UNEVEN GROWTH RATE
BORDER- IRREGULAR (THE STRONGEST PREDICTOR OF MALIGNANCY)
COLOR- VARIETIONS AND SHADING
DIAMETER- INCREASES IN SIZE OR A DIAMETER >6MM
Skin Cancer and Sunshine Each year, more new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed in the U.S. than new cases of breast, prostate, lung, and colon cancer combined. One in five Americans will develop skin cancer in their lifetime. One American dies from skin cancer every hour. Unprotected exposure to UV radiation is the most preventable risk factor for skin cancer.
Skin Cancer and Sunshine Ultraviolet B rays are burning rays (blocked by window glass) that are the primary cause of sunburns and skin cancer. Ultraviolet A rays (penetrate through window glass) are able to penetrate deeper into the dermis or the base layer of the skin. UV A rays also contribute to skin burning and cancer. Both UV A and B rays can suppress the immune system, which helps protect against the development and spread of skin cancer.
Consequences of Skin Cancer Skin cancer, once discovered, must be removed. This involves excising (cutting out) the entire cancer.http://www.google.com/imgres?q=mohs+surgery&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&sa=N&biw=1366&bih=566&tbm=isch&tbnid=am7GhTVzLyW3vM:&imgrefurl=http://www.therhinoplastybeforeandafter.com/2009/07/02/mohs-surgery-for-melanoma/&docid=FA_rmrTXjArGSM&imgurl=http://www.therhinoplastybeforeandafter.com/wp-content/uploads/mohs surgery for melanoma.jpg&w=240&h=202&ei=IkopT9XFKYrgtgexoLnkBA&zoom=1
Consequences of Skin Cancer Sometimes the removal of the cancer may involve radical surgery.
Consequences of Skin Cancer Once the cancer is removed, the wound must be closed. This may involve plastice surgery using adjacent skin flaps.http://www.google.com/imgres?q=mohs+surgery&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&sa=N&biw=1366&bih=566&tbm=isch&tbnid=g9V3DLdJZFAmwM:&imgrefurl=http://www.entusa.com/nose_reconstruction.htm&docid=iyT4rnhnWVdTuM&imgurl=http://www.entusa.com/Facial Flaps/nasal_reconstruction/ap_post.jpg&w=475&h=694&ei=IkopT9XFKYrgtgexoLnkBA&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=16&sig=118194274458948273419&page=5&tbnh=173&tbnw=123&start=81&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:5,s:81&tx=98&ty=87
Consequences of Skin Cancer The surgery may be relatively successful. In the best-case scenarios, reconstructive surgery can leave the patient with an acceptable appearance.
The skin always has some amount of bacteria, fungus, and viruses living on it
Skin infections occur when there are breaks in the skin and the organisms have uncontrolled growth
Skin Infections - Highlights
Bacteria (can be cured) Staphlococcus including MRSA & Impetigo
Fungal (can be cured) Ringworm
Viral (cant be cured but can be treated) Herpes
Inflammation of hair follicle
Frequently caused by infection
Physical injury can cause problem
Painless or tender pustule
Furuncles (Boils) are very common. They are generally caused by the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, but they may be caused by other bacteria or fungi found on the skin's surface. Damage to the hair follicle allows these bacteria to enter deeper into the tissues of the follicle and the tissue underneath. Boils may occur in the hair follicles anywhere on the body. They are most common on the face, neck, armpit, buttocks, and thighs. There can be one or many boils.
A carbuncle is a skin infection that often involves a group of hair follicles. The infected material forms a lump, which occurs deep in the skin.
Most carbuncles are caused by the bacteria staphylococcus aureus. The infection is contagious and may spread to other areas of the body or other people. A carbuncle is made up of several skin boils (furuncles). The infected mass is filled with fluid, pus, and dead tissue. Fluid may drain out of the carbuncle, but sometimes the mass is so deep that it cannot drain on its own. Carbuncles may develop anywhere, but they are most common on the back and the nape of the neck. Men get carbuncles more often than women. Because the condition is contagious, several family members may develop carbuncles at the same time. Often, the cause of a carbuncle cannot be determined.
Staph and Strep bacteria often cause skin infections.
MRSA is a type of staph that is resistant to many of the traditional Staph antibiotics
The first bacteria that form a biofilm on
cleaned tooth surfaces are Streptococci
species (Gram positive cocci)
Within two days
appear in the
PERIODONTAL DISEASE Early Gingivitis.
There is bleeding from
the gingival grooves
with probing, brushing
OTHER STREP INFECTIONS
Rheumatic fever Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease that may develop after an infection with Streptococcus bacteria (such as strep throat or scarlet fever). The disease can affect the heart, joints, skin, and brain.
OTHER STREP INFECTIONS
Causes, incidence, and risk factors Rheumatic fever is common worldwide and is responsible for many cases of damaged heart valves. It is not common in the United States, and usually occurs in isolated outbreaks. Rheumatic fever mainly affects children ages 6 -15, and occurs approximately 20 days after strep throat or scarlet fever.
OTHER STREP INFECTIONS Symptoms Abdominal pain Fever Heart (cardiac) problems, which may not have symptoms, or may result in shortness of breath and chest pain Joint pain, arthritis (mainly in the knees, elbows, ankles, and wrists) Joint swelling; redness or warmth Nosebleeds Skin nodules Skin rash (erythema marginatum)
Skin eruption on the trunk and upper part of the arms or legs Eruptions that look ring-shaped or snake-like
Sydenham chorea (emotional instability, muscle weakness and quick, uncoordinated jerky movements that mainly affect the face, feet, and hands)
Impetigo A bacterial infection that can develop on any
exposed skin surface after skin-to-skin contact.
Ringworm (fungus) Also known as Tinea corporis (fungus) A contagious condition; a person can prevent scalp
ringworm by avoiding contact with infected people or objects such as brushes, combs, or hats.
Herpes infections are associated with nerve endings and are never completely killed in the body
Herpes skin infections are the same as sexually transmitted herpes infections same organism and they recur during times of stress and illness
Virus infection of skin
Discrete, flesh-colored, dome-shaped papules
A.k.a. Urticaria Formation of wheals Usually raised, red welts appear Multiple causes:
Irritants Allergens Foods Medications Stress Pet dander Pollen Environments
Poison Ivy Poison Oak Various chemicals Clothing Cosmetics Laundry detergents Food