Direct Quote, Paraphrase and Summary.  Review types of citations  Direct quote, paraphrase and summary  Reported speech  Review reasons for citing.

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Academic Bridge Class

Direct Quote, Paraphrase and SummaryReview types of citationsDirect quote, paraphrase and summaryReported speechReview reasons for citingPractice paraphrasing, quoting and reported speech

ObjectivesWhen you incorporate information from other sources, it is necessary to tell where you found that information and give credit to the author or researcher whose work you used This is called citing or using citationsIncorporating Information from SourcesThere are a variety of reasons for acknowledging the sources upon which you have built your own work. At right are the key reasons:To distinguish your own workfrom that of your sources.To receive credit for the researchyouve done on a project.To establish the credibility and authorityof your knowledge and ideas.To place your own ideas in context,locating your work in the larger intellectual conversation about your topic.To permit your reader to pursue your topic furtherby reading more about it.To permit your reader to checkon your use of source material.

Why Cite?The most important thing to know is this:if you fail to cite your sources, whether deliberately or inadvertently, you will still be found responsible for the act of plagiarism.Why cite?1. Quotation.Any word for word (verbatim) use of a source must be placed in quotation marks. Quotations must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word for word (verbatim) and must be attributed to the original author.

When to cite?According to Jones, "Students often had difficulty using MLA style, especially when it was their first time" (199).Jones = Authors Name; (199) = page numberJones found "students often had difficulty using MLA style" (199); what implications does this have for teachers?Jones = Authors Name; (199) = page number

Example Reported speech is used to report the speech or writing of others. A reported speech sentence should include the source of the idea, a reporting verb, and an important idea or ideas from the text.Reported SpeechFollow these rules when you write reported speechVary the words you use to name the sourceFor example, the reading or the writer of the article. The first time that you identify the writer, give his or her full name and title (job) if given. The most common style is to refer to the writer by his or her last name or a pronoun the second time you refer to him or her.Reported SpeechVary the reporting verbs that you use. For example the reading says or the writer reports Consider using the following verbs for reported speechThe writer reportedThe author showed In the article, the writer suggestsThe writer describesThe author thinks thatThe essay said thatThe article tells us thatthe author concludesthe reading points outReported SpeechYou may also use the phrase according to before the name of the source or the writer in place of a reporting verbAccording to the article, students may undergo drug tests. According to the reporter, the president watched the Olympics after lunch. Reported SpeechKeep the tense of reporting verbs consistent, or the same.Write ALL the reporting verbs in the PRESENT TENSE or ALL the reporting verbs in the PAST TENSE. Either tense is acceptable, but do not mix the verb tenses up. Reported SpeechChange the verb tense of the statement being reported to match the verb tense of the reporting verb. Original sentence I am tired Mr. BolledduReported speech sentence: Mr. Bolleddu said that he was tired.

Reported SpeechYou may add THAT after the reported verb: Mr. Bolleddu said THAT

You should change pronouns as necessary.

Try not to overuse quotation marks. Reported SpeechLook at the short story. Find 2 examples of sentences that you can use with reported speech. With a partner, write down a reported speech phrase. Reported SpeechParaphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly.

When to Cite?A paraphrase is...Your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form.One legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to borrow from a source.A more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a single main idea.Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because...

Why paraphrase?If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author in your in-text reference

ParaphraseAccording to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.

APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones 199).ExampleIt is better than quoting information from an undistinguished passage.It helps you control the temptation to quote too much.The mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp the full meaning of the original.

Why Paraphrase?Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning.Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a note card.Write down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later how you will use this material. At the top of the note card, write an important word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase.Check your version with the original to make sure that your version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new form.Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phrase you have borrowed exactly from the source.Record the source (including the page) on your note card so that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the material into your paper.6 Steps for ParaphrasingOriginal and ParaphraseStudents frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.

A legitimate paraphrase:In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47).

PlagiarizedStudents frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.

Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes.

Original vs. paraphraseWhen the rights of students collide with the will of school officials, its up to the courts to decide where to draw the line. Courts must decide cases where student rights conflict with school policies. Simplify vocabulary:Use synonymsDont change technological or scientific words, names of places, parts of government, fields of study or other types of specific wordsGuidelines for paraphrasingChange the grammar or sentence structure to make sentences easier to understandChange word forms such as a noun form to an adjective formMake verbs simpler, for example is done to doChange transition words and sentence connectors such as on the other hand to butGuidelines for paraphrasingUse appropriate punctuation and source identificationDo not overuse quotation marks (). Enclose exact words of a source in quotes only if the words are special or memorable. Instead, put the authors ideas into your own wordsAdd phrases that identify the source such as the author said, each time you present a new idea from the text.Guidelines for paraphrasingSummarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). It is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material.

SummaryA summary is a brief report of something that was written or spoken. A summary should do the followingIdentify the source by name and author Include a few supporting details, if importantBe shorter than the originalIdentify the author of the ideasInclude paraphrasing, or rewording of ideas in the summary writers own wordsBe objective (not include your own opinion; just the facts)

Summary WritingThe first step involves writing a one sentence summary statement. This can include the title of the articlethe authors nameand the main idea of the text

Summary processThe 2nd step is to make a concept map, or graphic organizer, that shows the main ideas of the article. You can write a summary just by looking at a concept map. Summary Process #2The next step in writing a summary is to paraphrase, or express what someone has written or said in a way that is shorter and easier to understand.

Summary Process #3Work with your source article and complete the concept mapWrite the title and author (if available)Write the main ideaFind the major point of the paragraphsFind supporting details for each paragraphUsing your source articleWith a partner, read through your assigned short story. Summarize the story, and paraphrase at least 2 sentences from the story. When you summarize, you want to explain the main idea first. Then give some relevant details. Now you tryIf you have a book source

Lastname, Firstname.Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.

Nevid, Johan Sebastian. Psychology Concepts and applications. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2003. ReferencesJournal ArticleAuthor(s). "Title of Article."Title of JournalVolume. Issue (Year): pages.Cohen, Sam, Don Tyrell, & Anthony Smith. Negative life events, perceived stress, negative affect, and susceptibility to the common cold in healthy adults. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64. 3(1993): 131-140. ReferencesYou have information from a websiteInclude the authors name (last name, first name)The date of publication or most recent updateThe title of the article or the website The organization or company that publishes/produces the websiteDate of creation or publicationMedium of publication (webpage, blog, what is it?)Date of access

Brown, James. The best basketball players around the country. NBA.com. 2011. Webpage. 17 Feb 2014.

How do I reference/cite a website?You have information from a websiteBut no author!No real title!No year!For example: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/lasik-eye-surgery/MY00376What do you do????How do I reference/cite a website?

Heres your guide Use the main title of the section:Note the main name of the website; for example- Mayo ClinicUse the first three words of the main title of the sectoin and the retrieval year (the year you looked at the website)

LASIK is a very good procedure (LASIK eye surgery, 2013). And so, blah blah blah.essayInside essay citation:Use the main title of the section, n.d. (no date). Main name of website. Retrieved date information:

ReferenceLASIK eye surgery. Mayo Clinic. n.d. Retrieved 6 Feb 2014 Reference page: