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  • Digital libraries for e-rulemaking:integrating the information fields

    (hypertext, informationretrieval, multimedia, etc.) E-Rulemaking: New Directions for

    Technology and RegulationHarvard U. Cambridge MA Jan. 21-22, 2003

    Edward A. Foxfox@vt.edu http://fox.cs.vt.edu

    CS DLRL Internet TICNDLTD CITIDEL NSDL PC

    Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA

  • Acknowledgements (Selected)

    Sponsors: DLF, Mellon Foundation, NSF (Grants CDA-9312611; DUE-0121741, 0136690, 0121679; IIS-0080748, 0086227, 0002935, and 9986089), SOLINET, Sun,

    Faculty/Staff (now): Boots Cassel, Su-Shing Chen, Debra Dudley, Joe Futrelle, Lee Giles, Martin Halbert, Rex Hartson, JAN Lee, Kurt Maly, Gail McMillan, Manuel Perez, Layne Watson,

    Students: Fernando Das Neves, Marcos Goncalves, Rohit Kelapure, Aaron Krowne, Ming Luo, Paul Mather, Ryan Richardson, Rao Shen, Hussein Suleman, Wensi Xi, Baoping Zhang, Qinwei Zhu,

  • Libraries of the FutureJCR Licklider, 1965, MIT Press

    World

    Nation

    State

    City

    Community

  • Digital Libraries --- Objectives

    World Lit.: 24hr / 7day / from desktop

    Integrated super information systems -> 5S

    Ubiquitous, Higher Quality, Lower Cost

    Education, Knowledge Sharing, Discovery

    Disintermediation -> Collaboration

    Scalable, Sustainable, Usable, Useful

  • SynchronousScholarly Communication

  • Asynchronous, Digital Library Mediated Scholarly Communication

  • Information Life Cycle

    AuthoringModifying

    OrganizingIndexing

    StoringRetrieving

    DistributingNetworking

    Retention/ Mining

    AccessingFiltering

    UsingCreating

  • Computing (flops)

    Com

    mun

    icat

    ions

    (ban

    dwid

    th, c

    onne

    ctiv

    ity)

    Locating Digital Libraries in Computing andCommunications Technology Space

    Digital Libraries technologytrajectory: intellectualaccess to globally distributed information

    more

    Digital content

    less

  • Digital Library Content

    Articles,Reports,Books

    TextDocuments

    Speech,Music

    VideoAudio

    (Aerial)Photos

    GeographicInformation

    ModelsSimulations

    Software,Programs

    GenomeHuman,animal,plant

    BioInformation

    2D, 3D,VR,CAT

    Images andGraphics

    ContentTypes

  • Structured Video Browser(making video into hypermedia)

    www.learn.umd.edu

    IBrowse

    Expository multimedia Narrative Structures

  • MP

    EG

    -

    7Video Library S

    ystems Tech.

    MPEG-7 Video Library Systems Tech.

    Architecture

    Video Data

    Description Generator Description SchemesDesign ToolDescriptionScheme

    MetaDatabase

    VideoDatabase

    Retrieval ServerModule

    PlayerP

    resentation Module

    ICU Information and CommunicationUniversity

  • MARIAN Example Architecture

    GermanPhysDis

    Collection

    5SL Source

    Description

    wrapper wrapper

    Harvestprotocol

    VT OAI

    Collection

    MARIAN Mediation Middleware

    MIT ETDCollection...

    Open Archivesprotocol

    wrapper...Dienstprotocol

    SOIF

    DublinCore RFC1807

    NDLTD/NUDL/Digital Library User

    Queries + Results

    GreekHellenic Dissertations

    Collection

    wrapper

    MARCZ39.50protocol

    WrapperGenerator

    Local Data Store

    Search ServicesRecommendation Services, etc

    AnalysisIndexingLinking

  • Envision New Version

  • SPIRE Visualization

  • Reading Book Abstract

  • DL Examples

    IBM Digital Library Virtua (www.vtlc.com) Greenstone (www.greenstone.org) Eprints (www.eprints.org) Many systems in NSF DLI projects VT systems:

    MARIAN, NDLTD ODL, DL-in-a-box, CITIDEL

  • Definitions

    Library ++ (library+archive+museum+) Distributed information system + organization

    + effective interface User community + collection + services Digital objects, repositories, IPR management,

    handles, indexes, federated search, hyperbase, annotation

  • Definition: Digital Libraries are complex systems that

    help satisfy info needs of users (societies) provide info services (scenarios) organize info in usable ways (structures) present info in usable ways (spaces) communicate info with users (streams)

  • 5S Layers

    Societies

    Scenarios

    Spaces

    Structures

    Streams

  • DL Requirements (selected from 5S paper)

    WorldwideSustainabilityOS, UIPersonalizingServers

    PersonalInteroperabilityModulesAbstractingClients

    ScopeQualitiesProtocolsEvaluatingDistributed

    EducationTransmissionCommunictnPreservingMediator

    Natl LibraryDescriptionSubstrateRequestingCrawler

    PurposesStandardsHandlesDisseminatingAgents

    EngineeringBillingClustersSelectingLibrarian

    CSPrivacyKnow. Org. SrcsOrganizingReader

    BusinessRights mngmntRepositoriesCollectingLearner

    DisciplinesPoliciesDocumentsCreatingHumans

    ENVIRNMENTSOC/ECO/LEGALCOMPONENTSACTIVITIESACTORS

  • Reduced cost, increased access, pereservation, democratization, leveling, peace,

    competitiveness

    Multi-language, preservation, scalability, interoperability, dynamic behavior, workflow, sustainability,

    ontologies, distributed data, infrastructure

    Web, personal collections

    Library, ArchiveCross-cutting

    Long term view, perspective, documentation, recording, facilitating, interpretation,

    understandingContent, context, interpretationAmerican MemoryFoundationsHistory, Heritage

    Standardization, economic developmentDeveloping standardsCourt cases, patentsLegal institutions(e)

    Commerce, (e) Industry

    Accountability, homeland securityIntellectual property rights, privacy, multi-nationalCensusGovernment Agencies (all

    levels)(e)

    Government

    reproducibility, faster reuse, faster advanceData modelsNVO, PDG, SwissProt, UK eScience,European

    Union Commission

    Government, Academia, CommerceScience

    Global understandingDigitization, describing, catalogingAMICO, PRDLAMuseumArt, Culture

    Access to dataKnowledge management, reuseabilityNSDL, NCSTRLSchools, colleges, universitiesEducation

    Aggregation, organizationQuality control, opennessOAIPublishers, EprintarchivesPublishing

    Benefit / ImpactTechnical ChallengesExamplesRelated InstitutionsApplication Domain

    Reagan

    Moore

    Ed

    Fox

    June

    2002

    for

    NSF

  • Topical Outline - Foundations

    Early visions Definitions Resources References Projects

  • Topical Outline IR Areas

    Search, Retrieval, Resource Discovery Information storage and retrieval Boolean vs. natural language Search engines Indexing, phrases, thesauri, concepts Federated search and harvesting, OAI Integrating links and ratings Crawlers, spiders, metasearch, fusion

    Details following Li Wang indep. study

  • Topical Outline - Multimedia

    Multiple media types, representations Text, audio, image, video, graphics, animation Capture, digitization, standards, interchange Compression, content-based retrieval Playback (Real), SMIL, QoS JPEG, MPEG (and versions)

  • Topical Outline - Architectures

    Distributed, centralized Modular, componentized Bus (InfoBus), hierarchical, star Mediators, wrappers (TSIMMIS) Light weight protocols Architecture of OAI and XOAI

  • Topical Outline Interfaces

    Taxonomy of interface components Workflow Visualization Environments Design Usability testing

  • Topical Outline Metadata

    MARC Dublin Core RDF IMS OAI (Open Archives Initiative) Crosswalks, mappings Ontologies Topics maps, concept maps

  • Topical Outline Epub, SGML, XML

    Authoring Rendering, presenting Structure Tagging, Markup, DOM Semi-structured information Dual-publishing, eBooks Styles (XSL, XSLT) Structure queries

  • Topical Outline Databases

    Extending database technology Structured and unstructured info Multimedia databases Link databases Performance Replicated storage, I2-DSI (details following)

  • Topical Outline Agents

    Protocols Knowledge interchange Negotiation, registries Distributed issues Ontologies (standard upper) Webbots (automatic indexing)

  • Topical Outline Economics

    E-commerce Sustainability Preservation and archiving

    DLF, Besser, Lorie, Gladney Self-archiving Open collections Economic models, business plans

  • Topical Outline IPR

    Intellectual property rights (IPR) Legal issues Terms and conditions Copyright Patents, trademarks Distributed rights management Security

  • Topical Outline Social Issues

    Cooperation, collaboration Annotation, ratings Digital divide Educational applications Cultural heritage Museums (AMICO) Organizational acceptance Personalization Internationalization

  • Digital LibrariesShorten the Chain from

    Editor Reviewer

    Publisher

    A&I

    Consolidator

    Library

  • DLs Shorten the Chain to

    Author

    Reader

    Digital

    LibraryEditorReviewer

    Teacher

    Learner

    Librarian

  • Access Possibilities

    www.openarchives.org

    www.theses.org

    Websearchengines

    librarycatalogclients

    3rdPartyServices(e.g.,UMI)

    MIT CBUC(Spain)

    OhioLink

    VirginiaTech

    NationalLibrary ofPortugal

    NationalProjects:AU, GE,

  • User Search Support(multilingual, XML)

    NDLTD World FederatedSearch

    Virginia Tech ...(univ)

    DissertationsOnline

    (Germany)

    OhioLink(lib / univ group)

    Portugese NL ...(national lib)

    Australia(regional)

    OAS,ISTEC(Latin

    America)

    UserInterface

    Note: All groups shown are connected with NDLTD.

  • Open Archives InitiativeOAI

    www.openarchives.org

    openarchives@openarchives.org

  • Harvesting vs. Federation

    Competing approaches to interoperability Federation is when services are run remotely on remote

    data (e.g. Federated searching) Harvesting is when data/metadata is transferred from

    the remote source to the destination where the services are located (e.g. Union catalogues)

    Federation requires more effort at each remote source but is easier for the local system and vice versa for harvesting

    OAI currently focuses on harvesting

  • Metadata vs. Data

    Data refers to digital objects or digital representations of objects

    Metadata is information about the objects (e.g. title, author, etc.)

    OAI focuses on metadata, with the implicit understanding that metadata usually contains useful links to the source digital objects

  • Complex to Simple

    +thesisMARC ($50) Dublin Core (DC)

  • The World According to OAI

    Data Providers

    Metadata

    harvesting

    Discovery CurrentAwareness Preservation

    Service Providers

  • Technical Umbrella for Practical Interoperability

    ReferenceLibraries

    Publishers E-PrintArchives

    Museums

    that can be exploited by different communities

  • Repository of Digital Objects

    RepositoryAccessProtocol

    handle

    Digital object

    terms and conditions

  • repository

    supportdata r

    epos i tory

    harves ter

    OAI protocol

    items

    harvestingdata

  • OAI Black Box Perspective

    OA 1

    OA 2

    OA 4

    OA 3

    OA 5OA 6

    OA 7

    Services:Search Browse Summarize Visualize

    Metadata:

    Docs:DO DODODODO DO DO

  • Digital library architecture for localand interoperable CITIDEL services

    Annotations

    OAI Data

    Harvester

    EDUCATORS ADMINISTRATORS LEARNERS

    Multilingual Searching

    Revising AnnotatingFilteringBrowsing Administering

    Filtering Profiles User ProfilesUnion Metadata

    OAIData

    Provider

    Remote and Peer Digital Libraries (eg. NSDL -CIS)

    PORTALS

    SERVICES

    REPOSITORIES

  • National Science Digital Library (NSDL)

    Domain: undergraduate and K-12 education, etc.

    Genre: educational resources

    Submission & Collection: sites of 90 projects www.nsdl.org

  • NSDL Connects:

    Users: students, educators, life-long learners

    Content: structured learning materials; large real-time or archived datasets; audio, images, animations; primary sources; digital learning objects (e.g. applets); interactive (virtual, remote) laboratories; ...

    Tools: search; refer; validate; integrate; create; customize; publish; share; notify; collaborate; ...

  • referenceditems &

    collections

    referenceditems &

    collectionsSpecial

    Databases

    NSDLServicesNSDL

    ServicesOther NSDLServices

    CI Services

    annotation

    CI Services

    discussion

    CI Services

    personalization

    CI Services

    authentication

    CI Services

    browsing

    Core Services:information retrieval

    Core Collection-Building Services

    harvesting

    Core Collection-Building Services

    protocols

    Core Services:metadata gathering

    Portals &ClientsPortals &

    ClientsPortals &Clients

    Usage Enhancement

    Collection Building

    User Interfaces

    NSDLCollectionsNSDLCollectionsNSDLCollections

    CoreNSDLBus

    NSDL Information ArchitectureDeveloped by the Technical Infrastructure Workgroup

  • Collections Discovery of content Classification and cataloguing Acquisition and/or linking; referencing Disciplinary-based themes define a natural body of

    content, but other possibilities are also encouraged Access to massive real-time or archived datasets Software tool suites for analysis, modeling,

    simulation, or visualization Reviewed commentary on learning materials and

    pedagogy

  • Services Help services, frequently asked questions, etc. Synchronous/asynchronous collaborative learning

    environments using shared resources Mechanisms for building personal annotated

    digital information spaces Reliability testing for applets or other digital

    learning objects Audio, image, and video search capability Metadata system translation Community feedback mechanisms

  • DL Components

    User Interfaces

    Workflow Mgr

    DBMS

    Search Engines, Classifiers,

    Data, MM Info

    Gateways

    Repository

    Rights Mgr

    MM/ HT Renderer

  • 1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Program

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Document

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Document

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Document

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Program

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Program

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Image

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Image

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Image

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Video

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Video

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Video

    ?

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    ?

    ???

    ?

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    ?

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    ? ?

    ?

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    ?

    componentized digital library

  • 1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Program

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Document

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Document

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Document

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Program

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Program

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Image

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Image

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Image

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Video

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Video

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Video

    OA OA

    OA

    OA

    OA

    OA

    OA

    OA

    OA

    PMH

    PMH

    XPMH

    XPMH

    XPMH

    XPMH

    XPMH

    XPMHXPMH

    XPMH

    XPMH

    XPMHXPMH

    open digital library

  • Example Open Digital Library

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Program

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Document

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Document

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    ETD-1

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Program

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    ETD-2

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Image

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Image

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    ETD-3

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Video

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    Video

    1010100101010010101010010101010101010101

    ETD-4

    Digital Library for the Networked Digital Libraryof Theses and Dissertations (www.ndltd.org)

    SearchFilter

    Filter

    Union

    Recent

    Browse

    PMH

    PMH

    PMH

    ODLRecent

    ODLBrowse

    ODLUnion

    ODLUnion

    ODLSearch

    ODLUnionPMH

    PMH

    USER

    INTER

    FAC

    E

    Students and researchers

    ETD collections

  • Open Digital Library Components

    Running now XML-File (data provider from file system) Search: simple, high performance, multi-lingual Union, browse, recent, filter E-journal/review, Submit, Edit, Annotation Recommender, Rating; Mirroring (see JCDL02) Working with NCSA: from DB, unstructured text

    Others discussed Classifi...

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