Differences Between Male and Female Managers_Pauknerova

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<ul><li><p>7/31/2019 Differences Between Male and Female Managers_Pauknerova</p><p> 1/18</p><p>Differences between Czech Male andFemale Managers</p><p>Daniela Pauknerova,Ph.D.University of Economics,Prague</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Differences Between Male and Female Managers_Pauknerova</p><p> 2/18</p><p>Introduction</p><p> two main points of view in managementstudies:</p><p>1. female managers are different, they usedifferent leadership style Rosener (1990),Helgesen (1990)</p><p>2. more similarities than differences: Eagly2001, 2007, Bass 1990, 1997, Kolb</p><p> Czech culture is specific traditional,masculine, secular</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Differences Between Male and Female Managers_Pauknerova</p><p> 3/18</p><p>Masculinity and femininity at work Hofstede</p><p>Masculine society</p><p> Dominant value ismaterial success andprogress</p><p> Money and materialthings are important</p><p> Managers should beassertive and decisive</p><p> Emphasis on equity,competition andachievement</p><p> Conflict resolution thebest wins</p><p>Feminine society</p><p> Dominant value istaking care of others</p><p> People and good</p><p>relations are important Managers use intuition</p><p>and consensus</p><p> Emphasis on equality,solidarity and quality ofworking life</p><p> Conflict resolution bycompromise andnegotiation</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Differences Between Male and Female Managers_Pauknerova</p><p> 4/18</p><p>Cross-cultural research, mean gender roleequity scores (Univ.of Pittsburgh, Frieze etal., 2007)</p><p>Men Women</p><p>USA 3,68 4,13*</p><p>Central and Est.Europe</p><p>3,59 4,00*</p><p>Albania 3,20 3,67</p><p>Croatia 3,56 4,09</p><p>Czech Rep. 3,62 3,95</p><p>Hungary 3,69 4,02</p><p>Lithuania 3,37 3,66</p><p>Poland 3,21 3,66</p><p>Russia 3,59 3,77</p><p>Slovakia 3,92 4,16</p><p>Slovenia 3,84 4,25</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Differences Between Male and Female Managers_Pauknerova</p><p> 5/18</p><p>Attitudes toward feminism</p><p>We can not listen to today's popular</p><p>isms, such as feminismthese isms</p><p>don't support freedom, there are</p><p>endangering it. V.Klaus, Czech president,</p><p>November 2006.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Differences Between Male and Female Managers_Pauknerova</p><p> 6/18</p><p>Research questions</p><p>What attitudes do people have towardwomen at work and in leadershippositions?</p><p> Do female and male leaders differ:</p><p>- in their personality traits,</p><p>- in their behavior?</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Differences Between Male and Female Managers_Pauknerova</p><p> 7/18</p><p>Study 1 - Career expectations</p><p>students - 94 females, 93 males</p><p>1. Expectations related to women and men atwork.</p><p>2. Expectations related to personal and familylife.</p><p>3. Expectations related to women and men inmanagerial positions.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Differences Between Male and Female Managers_Pauknerova</p><p> 8/18</p><p>Findings (Part 1 and 2)</p><p>1. Socially desirable answers (40%): Womenshould have the same rights as men.</p><p>Married women should not bediscriminated. Married men should let</p><p>their wives work if they wish so.2. Women as well as men should dohousework.</p><p>Women are better in housekeeping.-</p><p>mostly men, Housework is unfortunatelymostly a women's work. mostly women</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Differences Between Male and Female Managers_Pauknerova</p><p> 9/18</p><p>n ngs</p><p>women n manager apositions</p><p> Critique of female traitsWomen should work not</p><p>just to talk..they should think when they work.. Women should be more masculine: Women should</p><p>be more assertive.. Women should be feminine: Women should behave</p><p>like fair sexshould do what is suitable for them</p><p>etc.Male leaders are better, are more flexible than</p><p>women..Female leaders pass through role conflict..they</p><p>sacrifice their familyFemale leaders are ridiculous..I would never marry</p><p>female leader..</p><p>S d 2 S A i d d</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Differences Between Male and Female Managers_Pauknerova</p><p> 10/18</p><p>Study 2 - Survey - Attitudes toward womenand men at work and male and female leaders</p><p>(143 M,180 F), mean age 30, random choice</p><p>Women are perceived as different from men and thisfact determines their lower status.</p><p>Cooperation with women is worse than with menparticularly as for application of new procedures</p><p>and technologies and innovations.Personality traits of ideal leader:1. Provides clear information2. Flexibility3. Expertness</p><p>4. Decisiveness5. Fairness6. Good listener7. Industriousness</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Differences Between Male and Female Managers_Pauknerova</p><p> 11/18</p><p>Study 3 differences in personalitytraits</p><p>Sample: middle level managers in financialsector - 261 males, 144 females</p><p>72 % university degree</p><p>age: 46 and more - 29 m., 26 f.,</p><p>31 45 - 149 m., 61 f.</p><p>30 and less - 83 m., 57 f.</p><p>Method: personality questionnaire IHAVEZ</p><p>(300 questions)3 clusters of traits: motivation, risk taking,stress tolerance,</p><p>3 independent traits: self-confidence, </p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Differences Between Male and Female Managers_Pauknerova</p><p> 12/18</p><p>Personality traits differences</p><p>Personality traits T-test Results</p><p>level of motivation t =4,28 * men are more motivated</p><p>risk taking t =4,26 * men are more prone torisk taking</p><p>stress tolerance t = 0,89 N.S.</p><p>aspiration level t =4,57 * men have higheraspirations</p><p>need to assertoneself</p><p>t= 3, 99 * men are more prone toassert themselves</p><p>self-confidence t=-0,81 N.S.</p><p>responsibility t= 0,90 N.S.</p><p>femininity/masculinity t =-0,42 N.S. </p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Differences Between Male and Female Managers_Pauknerova</p><p> 13/18</p><p>Differences in behavior</p><p>observation in model situationsassessment centre (role play, team workactivities, presentation</p><p> 4 observers 2 organizational psychologists,</p><p>2 HR specialists 5 assessed characteristics assertiveness,</p><p>leadership skills, communication skills, stresstolerance, authority</p><p> Scale 1 to 4, 1 best performance, 4 poorperformance</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Differences Between Male and Female Managers_Pauknerova</p><p> 14/18</p><p>Observed characteristics</p><p>Assertiveness able to assert oneself withrespect toward others</p><p> Leadership skills organizational skills,decision making skills, leading different</p><p>activities Communication skills presentation skills,</p><p>clear expression of ideas, ability to motivateothers, ability to persuade</p><p> Stress tolerance able to cope with stress,self-confident, absence of nervousness</p><p> Authority charisma, accepted by others as</p><p>leader </p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Differences Between Male and Female Managers_Pauknerova</p><p> 15/18</p><p>Behavioral differences</p><p>Observed</p><p>characteristics</p><p>T-test Results</p><p>assertiveness t = 0,83 N.S.</p><p>leadership skills t = -0,43 N.S.</p><p>communicationskills</p><p>t = 0,079 N.S.</p><p>stress tolerance t = -0,46 N.S.</p><p>authority t = 0,70 N.S.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Differences Between Male and Female Managers_Pauknerova</p><p> 16/18</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>Male and female managers differ significantlyon assertiveness, motivation and risk taking(based on self-report)</p><p>Male and female managers do not differ</p><p>regarding their assertiveness, leadershipskills, communication skills, stress toleranceand authority (based on observation)</p><p> There are more similarities than differencesbetween male and female managers</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Differences Between Male and Female Managers_Pauknerova</p><p> 17/18</p><p>Discussion</p><p>Women with masculine characteristics areselected to managerial positions</p><p>Women tend to adopt masculine style ofbehavior to succeed in management</p><p>Managers are specific population groupcharacterised by higher need of assertion,higher level of risk taking, globally higheraspirations, high personality integrity, higherself-confidence, responsibility and in ourcultural context also higher level ofmasculinity.</p></li><li><p>7/31/2019 Differences Between Male and Female Managers_Pauknerova</p><p> 18/18</p><p>Limitations and next steps</p><p>Self reportModel not real life situations</p><p>Observers</p><p> To analyse correlations between personalitytraits and observed behavior</p><p> To use sample from different business</p><p>branch To focuse more on leadership style</p></li></ul>

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