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  • David Carruthers

    User Group Meeting

    Vilnius

    March 2013

    Developments in ADMS-Urban and

    ADMS-Roads including new road

    traffic emission factors

  • ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads User Group Meeting 2012

    Contents

    New emissions in ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads 3.1

    Background

    How do the new emission factors compare to the old?

    New EFT v5.1 in ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads

    Modelling NO2 using the EFT factors

    Upcoming model developments

    Urban flows and canyons

    Nesting ADMS-Urban in regional models

    Taking account of time history of emissions within plume

    Other model enhancements

    Mapper

    Links to Google Earth

    Model speed-up

  • ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads User Group Meeting 2012

    New emissions in ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads 3.1

    Background

    UK Emission Factor Toolkit factors included in ADMS-Urban

    and ADMS-Roads

    Current update to EFT includes:

    NOx emission factors:

    COPERT IV European speed emission curves (year

    independent)

    Mileage degradation factors (year dependent)

    PM emission factors:

    Includes exhaust, brake wear, tyre wear and road abrasion

    Still no inclusion of resuspension factors

    New fleet data, with factors for:

    London, England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland

    How applicable are these to the Baltic states?

  • ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads User Group Meeting 2012

    New emissions in ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads 3.1

    How do the new emission factors compare to the old?

    Tables taken from the LAQM Support Helpdesk Advice Note

    EFT http://laqm.defra.gov.uk/review-and-assessment/tools/emissions.html#eft

    Urban driving:

    All factors higher

    Diesel LDVs much higher

    Motorway driving:

    Diesel LDVs much higher

    Decreases for HDVs

    Year

  • ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads User Group Meeting 2012

    Motorcycles

    Cars

    LGVs

    Buses/coaches

    HGVs

    20

    40

    60

    2010 2015 2020

    Petrol carDiesel car

    New emissions in ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads 3.1

    How do the new emission factors compare to the old?

    Consider emissions for a road with a typical fleet mix, for 2010,

    2015, 2020

    Typical fleet mix

    % c

    hange

    Increase in NOx &

    PM10 estimates

    % incre

    ase

  • ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads User Group Meeting 2012

    New emissions in ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads 3.1

    New EFT v5.1 in ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads

    4 new emission factor datasets

    New datasets: EFT v5.1 (#Vehicle Categories)

    EFT v5.1 (2 VC) EFT v5.1 (6 VC) EFT v5.1 (7 VC) EFT v5.1 (8 VC)

    Light duty vehicle

    Heavy duty vehicle

    Car

    Diesel car

    Petrol car

    LGV

    Taxi

    Motorcycle

    HGV

    Rigid HGV

    Articulated HGV

    Bus and coach

  • ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads User Group Meeting 2012

    New emissions in ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads 3.1

    New EFT v5.1 in ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads

    Each dataset is categorised by region

    Other changes

    New region types

    London England Scotland Wales Northern

    Ireland

    London (central)

    London (inner)

    London (outer)

    Urban

    Rural

    Motorway

    New dataset (EFT v5.1) Old dataset (EFT v4.2)

    Year ranges 2008 - 2030 2006 - 2025

    Speed range (km/hr) 5 - 140 5 - 120

  • ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads User Group Meeting 2012

    New emissions in ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads 3.1

    Modelling NO2 using the EFT factors

    New primary NO2 estimates have been published alongside

    the new emission factors (NAEI Data Warehouse download

    spreadsheet and Advice note).

    Perc

    enta

    ge

    of

    NO

    x

    tha

    t is

    N

    O2

    Primary NO2 by vehicle type (2015)

  • ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads User Group Meeting 2012

    New emissions in ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads 3.1

    Modelling NO2 using the EFT factors

    New primary NO2 estimates have been published alongside

    the new emission factors (NAEI Data Warehouse download

    spreadsheet and Advice note).

    Perc

    enta

    ge

    of

    NO

    x

    tha

    t is

    N

    O2

    Primary NO2 for all traffic

    Year

  • ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads User Group Meeting 2012

    New emissions in ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads 3.1

    Modelling NO2 using the EFT factors

    New primary NO2 estimates have been published alongside

    the new emission factors (NAEI Data Warehouse download

    spreadsheet and Advice note).

    Section 3.2.1 in the User Guide (p32) gives the steps required

    to include primary NO2 emissions in your model run (via

    Emissions Inventory database).

  • ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads User Group Meeting 2012

    Upcoming model developments

  • ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads User Group Meeting 2012

    Upcoming model developments

    Urban Flows and Canyons

    Improve the modelling of the important physical processes in

    urban (and also industrial) environments

  • ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads User Group Meeting 2012

    Upcoming model developments

    Urban Flows and Canyons M

    od

    elle

    d N

    Ox c

    on

    ce

    ntr

    atio

    n (

    g

    /m3)

    Measured NOx concentration (g/m3)

    BRUTAL ADMS-Urban

    Queue

    ADMS-Urban

    PCM CMAQ-urban ERG toolkit

    Kerbside

    Roadside

    Suburban

    Urban

    Background

    500

    500 500

    500

    London Model Inter-comparison Study: Annual Average NOx

  • ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads User Group Meeting 2012

    NO2 pollution roses for Marylebone Road 2008:

    Bivariate polar plot of NO2 concentration at Marylebone Road:

    Wind speed on radial axis

    Concentration shown by colour

    Road width 22m, canyon height 20m

    Shows that models predict high concentrations for low wind speeds in all

    directions

    Effect of street canyon shown in measured data plot

    ADMS

    calculated Monitored

    Upcoming model developments

    Urban Flows and Canyons

  • ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads User Group Meeting 2012

    OSPM approach

    Prevailing wind Uo

    Building

    height HB

    Canyon width L

    Wind side Lee side

    Building

    height HB

    Recirculation

    region

    Upcoming model developments

    Urban Flows and Canyons

  • ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads User Group Meeting 2012

    OSPM approach Well mixed recirculating

    region

    No channelling of flow along

    canyon

    Flow/turbulence within canyon

    has little dependence on

    HB and L

    Not possible to consider pavements

    or road lanes

    Not formulated for one-sided or

    asymmetric canyons

    Recirculation

    zone

    Wind

    side

    Lee

    side

    Uo

    Upcoming model developments

    Urban Flows and Canyons

  • ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads User Group Meeting 2012

    b

    Uw

    g

    Uo

    Upcoming model developments: Urban Flows and Canyons

    Flow through widely separated buildings

  • ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads User Group Meeting 2012

    mean streamline

    wakes attach

    street 2 street 1

    Domain Dm

    b

    g

    V1

    Uo

    Upcoming model developments: Urban Flows and Canyons

    Flows with wake attached to downstream building

  • ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads User Group Meeting 2012

    mean vertical profile

    of wind speed

    U component in

    x direction

    Uo

    Vm

    Um

    Um

    Uo

    Um + Um

    z

    Upcoming model developments: Urban Flows and Canyons

    Flow through closely packed aligned buildings

  • ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads User Group Meeting 2012

    Uo

    Velocity profile Turbulence profile

    b

    g

    UH

    UC

    z/H

    z/H

    Upcoming model developments: Urban Flows and Canyons

    Velocity profiles in and above urban canopy

  • ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads User Group Meeting 2012

    New canyon/urban street model

    Well mixed recirculating region

    Flow/turbulence within canyon has

    dependence on height and width;

    allows for high aspect ratio

    Can consider pavements and road

    lanes

    One-sided/asymmetric canyons

    Channelling of flow along canyon

    source

    mth

    street

    m+1th

    street

    plume

    centrelines

    g

    Upcoming model developments

    Urban Flows and Canyons

  • ADMS-Urban and ADMS-Roads User Group Meeting 2012

    Dispersion definition of sources Different sources with weighting depending on porosity, h, g and angle of wind to road.

    road in canyon

    parallel perpendicular

    recirculation ground level source

    source at canyon top

    volume source at end of canyon

    buildings

    buildings

    pavement

    q1 - ground level line source in street with flow parallel to street

    q2 - ground level line source along street with flow perpendicular to street

    q3 - constant concentration in canyon (recirculating flow)

    q4 - ground level line source along street with flow para

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