Developmental Health Psychology. Aging Primary Aging Primary Aging –“normal” senescence Secondary Aging Secondary Aging –“pathological” senescence

Download Developmental Health Psychology. Aging Primary Aging Primary Aging –“normal” senescence Secondary Aging Secondary Aging –“pathological” senescence

Post on 18-Dec-2015

216 views

Category:

Documents

2 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Slide 1
  • Developmental Health Psychology
  • Slide 2
  • Aging Primary Aging Primary Aging normal senescence Secondary Aging Secondary Aging pathological senescence
  • Slide 3
  • Health during old age Most in good health (Stats Can., 99) Most in good health (Stats Can., 99) Most common chronic conditions: late adulthood Most common chronic conditions: late adulthood Arthritis, rheumatism 42% High blood pressure 33% Allergies 22% Back problems 17% Heart problems 16%
  • Slide 4
  • Key ideas Women live longer than men Women live longer than men But more likely to have chronic conditions and limitations in activities of daily living Physical health declines, psychological well-being improves Physical health declines, psychological well-being improves
  • Slide 5
  • Determinants of health Determinants of health Health beliefs, behaviours, social structure, SES Often can be changed to improve health
  • Slide 6
  • Despite attention paid to sickness and treatment, self-care is the most predominant form of care Despite attention paid to sickness and treatment, self-care is the most predominant form of care
  • Slide 7
  • Mental Health Attempt to live meaningfully Attempt to live meaningfully in a particular set of social and environmental circumstances relying on a particular collection of resources and supports
  • Slide 8
  • Self-development self-perception self-perception integration of various roles integration of various roles striving for growth striving for growth possible commitment to something beyond self possible commitment to something beyond self Life satisfaction (self image, self esteem) Life satisfaction (self image, self esteem)
  • Slide 9
  • Threats to mental health Epidemiological Catchment Area Study Epidemiological Catchment Area Study US Natl Inst. of Mental Health 18,000 structured interviews 5 regions across US Dispelled 2 major myths: Dispelled 2 major myths: Women at greater risk. Older adults at greater risk
  • Slide 10
  • Age-Related Trends in Mental Disorders Lower prevalence in older than younger adults Lower prevalence in older than younger adults all mental disorders (excluding dementias) Younger (18-64 years):11-25% Younger (18-64 years):11-25% Older (65+):6-14% Older (65+):6-14%
  • Slide 11
  • Mood disorders (including depression) Mood disorders (including depression) Younger:3-8% Older:2-3% Dementia Dementia Older:6-10% Possible co-existence and interaction with physical illness
  • Slide 12
  • Are Elderly Less Prone to Mental Illness? Diagnostic criteria not age fair Diagnostic criteria not age fair depression symptoms different in elderly Elderly typically visit physicians before mental health professionals Elderly typically visit physicians before mental health professionals physical symptoms mask psychological ones e.g., difficulty sleeping, changes in diet, heart palpitations (depression)
  • Slide 13
  • Myths, stereotypes about aging Myths, stereotypes about aging must distinguish normal aging from disease ageism in treatment Cohort effects: stigma Cohort effects: stigma
  • Slide 14
  • Alzheimers Disease Progressive, degenerative brain disorder Progressive, degenerative brain disorder Loss of memory, awareness, ability to control body functions Loss of memory, awareness, ability to control body functions
  • Slide 15
  • First reported in 1907 First reported in 1907 Shrinkage of cortex Large masses of amyloid plaques Spherical protein deposits outside of nerve cells Spherical protein deposits outside of nerve cells Neurofibrillary tangles Twisted protein filaments inside neurons Twisted protein filaments inside neurons Spread from bottom (midbrain) to top (cortex)
  • Slide 16
  • Plaques, tangles present in normal aging brain Plaques, tangles present in normal aging brain In Alzheimers: excessive, interfere with communication between neurons In Alzheimers: excessive, interfere with communication between neurons
  • Slide 17
  • Prevalence Rare under 50 Rare under 50 6-10% over 65 6-10% over 65 30-50% over 85 30-50% over 85
  • Slide 18
  • Symptoms Permanent forgetting of recent events Permanent forgetting of recent events Unable to do routine tasks Unable to do routine tasks Forget simple words Forget simple words Confusion in familiar locations Confusion in familiar locations Forget what numbers mean Forget what numbers mean Put things in inappropriate places Put things in inappropriate places Watch in fishbowl
  • Slide 19
  • Rapid, dramatic mood swings Rapid, dramatic mood swings Loss of language, communication skills Loss of language, communication skills
  • Slide 20
  • Causes Very little known Very little known Possibly: Possibly: Genetic factors (permitting tangles to form) Environment (sporadic AD no family history; possible toxins) Build up of plaques in body, free radicals in brain
  • Slide 21
  • Risk Factors Age Age Family history Family history Brain damage (accident) Brain damage (accident) Predictors: Kentucky Nun Study Predictors: Kentucky Nun Study richness of early writing
  • Slide 22
  • Treatment Anti-oxidants Anti-oxidants Enzyme-blocking agents (prevent plaques) Enzyme-blocking agents (prevent plaques) Genetic engineering (promote neuron growth) Genetic engineering (promote neuron growth) Respite care: caregiver stress Respite care: caregiver stress Behaviour Modification (activities of daily living) Behaviour Modification (activities of daily living)
  • Slide 23
  • Physical activity Physical activity Social involvement Social involvement Good nutrition Good nutrition Calm structured environment Calm structured environment
  • Slide 24
  • Coping with AD Patient Patient Aware of changes Shame, self image, fear of desertion Behavioural changes (stages) Caregiver: physical, psychological, social Caregiver: physical, psychological, social 70% family members (female usually) 50% severe stress
  • Slide 25
  • Caregiver Stress Caregiver Stress Physically exhausting: constant vigilance Psychological effects Grief: adjust to gradual loss Grief: adjust to gradual loss Increasing social isolation Increasing social isolation Stigma: cover-up, try to avoid social interactions Stigma: cover-up, try to avoid social interactions Stress: severity depends on availability of social support (respite care, counselling, support groups) Stress: severity depends on availability of social support (respite care, counselling, support groups)

Recommended

View more >