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  • InternationalAssociationforManagementofTechnologyIAMOT2015ConferenceProceedings

    P276

    DEVELOPINGATECHNOLOGYREADINESSASSESSMENTMETHODOLOGYFORANENERGYCOMPANY

    LUIZFERNANDOLEITEChemicalSchoolofFederalUniversityofRiodeJaneiro

    lleite@eq.ufrj.br

    FLVIAMARIALINSMENDESChemicalIndustryInformationSystemoftheChemicalSchooloftheFederalUniversityofRiodeJaneiro

    flavia@siquim.com

    VIVIANEMASSERANANTUNESPARREIRASPetrobrasCENPES

    viviane.masseran@petrobras.com.br

    FLVIOANTNIOMACHADOGOMESPetrobrasCENPES

    flaviog@petrobras.com.br

    JONASGUILHERMEGOMESWIEZELPetrobrasCENPES

    guilhermewiezel@petrobras.com.br

    Copyright2015bytheChemicalSchoolofFederalUniversityofRiodeJaneiroandthePetrobrasCENPES.PermissiongrantedtoIAMOTtopublishanduse.

    ABSTRACT

    Petrobras,aBrazilianenergycompany,fundsmanyuniversitiesandR&D institutionsandperformsinternalR&Dprojectswithhigh levelof innovation. It isachallengetoeffectivelymanageanR&Dportfolio thathasmore than800projects,atdifferentmaturity levels,soaTechnologyReadinessAssessment (TRA) methodology is an important tool to support technology management. TheChemical Industry Information System (SIQUIM), a group actively involved in technology andinnovationmanagementfromtheChemicalSchooloftheFederalUniversityofRiodeJaneiro,wasinvitedtodevelopmethodologywithPetrobras.Ataskforcewascreatedtoreachthisgoal,takinginto consideration, as a reference, the TRA guideG 413.34A by theU.S.Department of Energy(DoE).Itwasdecidedtokeepthesameconcepts,processmodelandtechnologyreadinesslevelsofthisoriginalmethodology,inordertopreservecomparability.

    Petrobras selected fourprojectswithin itsareasofknowledge,atdistinct readiness levels, takinginto account the different business cultures within areas, to be used as pilot projects for thedevelopment of the Petrobras TRAmethodology, in a oneyear timeframe, and considering theoriginalDoEmethodologyasbackground.Thenewmanagingtooltobecreatedshouldbesuitable,effectiveandeasytoapplyintheEnergyandOil&Gasenvironment,usingtheexistenttechnicalandbusinessjargonofthecompany.

    APeerReviewer,TRATeamand its leaderwerenominated foreachproject.A surveyaboutTRAmethodologies and implementation experiences available in the specialized literature wasconducted, aswell as a visit to a company,which had alreadydeveloped itsown TRAmanagingsystem. The adaptation and fit of the methodology to the energy business environment wasperformed,andthefourprojectswereevaluatedusingthisnewtool.

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    ThedeliverableoftheworkwasPetrobrasTRAMethodology,whichencompassestwoversionsoftheTechnologyReadinessLevelCalculatorspreadsheet:afullversionforthemostcritical,strategicandresourcesdemandingprojects,andasimplifiedversionforappraisingtheregularprojectsofthislargeprojectportfolio.

    Keywords:technologyreadinessassessment(TRA),technologyreadinesslevel,R&Dmanagement,innovationmanagement,oil&gascompanies

    INTRODUCTION

    Petrobras, the Brazilian energy company,was founded in 1953with the purpose of developingactivities intheoil&gasandderivativessector,aimingatsupplyingthenationalmarket. It isnowoneoftheleadingoilcompaniesintheworld,withUS$140billionnetrevenuein2013,aproductionof2.5billionbarrelsofoilequivalentperday,aworkforceof86,000employees,andpresencein17countries.(Petrobras,2014)

    Inorder toexpand itsoperationsandreach itspresentposition,Petrobrashasalwayscountedonnoveltechnologies.Inthebeginning,themainobjectivewastoadaptrefiningtechnologies,butoildiscoveries in deepwater fields changed the technology development activity that focused onexploitingtheselargeoilreservoirs.

    Technologydevelopmentis,therefore,anessentialdriveforthecompanyscompetitivenessandtoaccomplishthecompanysbusinessstrategies.R&Dprojectsareeitherdevelopedinternallyorwithpartners, sometimes using open innovation practices and involving actors like universities, R&Dinstitutes, suppliers and other oil companies. The innovation activities are coordinated by theResearchandDevelopmentCenter LeopoldoAmricoMiguezdeMello (CENPES),PetrobrasR&Dorganization(Parreirasetal,2013).Suchcomplexdevelopmentenvironmentrequiresmanagementskillsforefficientplanningandgoodtoolsfortheexecutionandcontroloftheprojectportfolio.

    Besidestheseinternaldevelopments,theacquisitionandapplicationoftechnologicalsolutionsthatareavailableinthemarkethavealwaysbeenconsidered.Whensuppliersandsolutionsareknown,thedecisionofdevelopingitsownoracquiringexternaltechnologycanbetakenwithlessriskthanfornoveltechnologiesthathaventbeencommerciallyproven.

    Petrobrashas some technologyneeds inmultipleandalternative technologypaths, fromofftheshelf toembryonic solutions.To increase theeffectivenessofplanning,executingand controllingR&Dactivities,aswellasreducetheriskofacquiringtechnologiesandbecomingmorepredictableinthetechnologydevelopmenttimeframe,itisworthtobeabletocountonaprecisetooltoappraisethereadinessoftechnologicalsolutions.

    Thisappraisalshouldhelptobetterknowandmitigatethetechnologicalrisksofagiventechnologysolution.Moreover, itshouldbetterestimate the timetomarketofanovel technologyand, thus,supporttheR&Dmanagementdecisionmaking.

    PETROBRASR&DACTIVITIES

    Areasofknowledge&TechnologicalPrograms

    Technology management at Petrobras is coordinated by CENPES, organized into areas thatcorrespondtothecompanysbusinessareas:Exploration,Production,Downstream,GasEnergy,and

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    Renewableproductsandbiofuels.TheBasicEngineeringgroupislocatedatthesamesiteinordertoincrease the synergywith theR&D group and to speedup the implementationof innovations.Aworkforceofabout2,000employees is responsible fordevelopingand supportingR&DandBasicEngineering activities. Nowadays the R&D portfolio has over 800 projects in several stages ofmaturity.ThisportfolioissegmentedintospecificR&Dportfolios,calledtechnologicalprogramandtechnologicalknowledgearea.Thefirstoneismultidisciplinary,basicallybusinessorientedandhasaspecificexecutiontimeframe.Thelatterisdisciplinaryandhasalongtermcourse.

    PetrobrasTechnologySystemanditsgovernance

    Technologydevelopmentplanningisbasedontwomaininputs:thestrategicplanningandbusinessareaplans,and the technologymonitoring insights,which consider signals, trendsand the futurevisionemergingfromthetechnologydevelopmentplayers.Astructureofcommitteesisresponsiblefordeployingthesetwoinputsandestablishingtheguidelinesfortheprojectlevelusingatopdownprocess.Toestablishtherighttechnologicalfocuses,theExecutiveManagerofeachbusinessareaidentifiesthetechnologicalchallengesthatneedtobeaddressedforeachbusinessobjective,andagroupoftechnologicaltargets isdetermined.Thechallengesand itstargetsarethengrouped intodistinctprogramsandknowledgeareas,and foreachportfolio, thegroupofprojects isrevisedbyGeneralManagers,thatis,atalowermanaginglevel.Theprojectsarethenplannedandexecutedbyspecialists. The governance of the process is shared between each business area and thecorrespondingR&DcounterpartatCENPES.

    According toAlmeida (2005), theTechnologicalSystemofPetrobras is responsible for the sharedmanagement of the activities carried out by distinct areas of the company that are involved inresearch, development, operational improvement, and application of technologies in the corebusiness activities. CENPES is responsible for the coordination of the technology developmentactionsamongthedifferentcompanyactors.

    DuetotheregulationsapplicabletooilandgasexploitationinBrazilundertheregimeofconcessioncontracts,Petrobrashastoinvest1%ofthegrossincomefromsomeofitsoilfieldsinR&Dprojects,andat leasthalfof thisvaluemustbe invested inuniversity labsandnonprofitR&D institutions,resultinginalargegroupofprojectsbeingcarriedoutbyBrazilianpartners.

    TRAMETHODOLOGY

    The TechnologyReadinessAssessmentmethodology is a process to determine thematurity of atechnologybymeansofdocumentedevidence. Itprovidesasnapshot(status)ofthematurityofagiven technology development and the degree of advancement for insertion in the productionenvironment,considering three importantaspects, therobustnessof the technicalscope, timetomarket,andthecostofimplementationtoguidethedecisionforitsimplementation.

    Theoriginofthemethodologyis(DoE,2011):

    NASA (firstuse in the1980s)andDoD DepartmentofDefenseof theUnitedStates.TheAFRLAirForceResearchLaboratorydevelopedaspreadsheetformeasuringTRL;

    DoE Department of Energy generated a customizedmethodology: DoE G 413.34A, on15.09.2011.

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    TheTRAmethodology isbasedonnine levelsofmaturity,that is,ninetechnologyreadiness levels(TRL). It haswelldefined evaluation criteria for each level, it identifies the Critical Elements ofTechnology(ECT),andtheassessmentisperformedbasedonaconsolidateddocumentation.Italsosearches impartiality throughadopting independentauditors.Thedescriptionofmaturity levels isshowninTable1.

    TheapplicationoftheTRAprocessmodeltoanR&Dprojectconsistsofthreesequentialsteps:

    IdentifyingtheCriticalTechnologyElements;

    AssessingtheTechnologyReadinessLevel;

    DevelopingaTechnologyMaturationPlan.

    The laststep isnt included inthescopeofthiswork.Thesecondstep iscarriedoutusingtheTRLCalculator,whichisaMicrosoftExcelspreadsheetapplicationthatallowstheusertoansweraseriesofquestionsaboutthetechnologyproject.Oncethequestionshavebeenanswered,thecalculatordisplaystheTRLachieved.

    Table1:TechnologyReadinessLevels(Source:DoE,2009)

    RelativeLevelofTechnologyDevelopment

    TechnologyReadiness

    LevelTRLDefinition Description

    SystemOperations

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