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  • Lr1=38.4514647453448L11=6.77604174321048L22=Lr1-L11-W50

    S12=0.5008S23=0.9685 L2=K2*Lr1

    L3=K3*Lr1L4=K4*Lr1

    Lr4=K1*Lr1

    L42=Lr4-L41-W50

    S34=0.9875S45=0.5303

    L5=K5*Lr1

    K1=0.975131011283515

    L41=6.61424287231546

    K2=1.00596548213902K3=1.00219893760926K4=0.994348146551798K5=1.00188484397154

    MLINID=TL7W=W50 mmL=10 mm

    MLINID=TL6W=W50 mmL=10 mm

    MLEFID=TL27W=Wr mmL=L42 mm

    MLEFID=TL25W=Wr mmL=L22 mm

    MCURVEID=TL28W=Wr mmANG=180 DegR=4 mm

    MCURVEID=TL17W=Wr mmANG=180 DegR=4 mm

    MCURVEID=TL8W=Wr mmANG=180 DegR=4 mm

    MCURVEID=TL5W=Wr mmANG=180 DegR=4 mm

    MCURVEID=TL3W=Wr mmANG=180 DegR=4 mm

    MCFILID=TL9W=Wr mmS=S23 mmL=L3 mm

    MCFILID=TL4W=Wr mmS=S34 mmL=L4 mm

    MCFILID=TL2W=Wr mmS=S45 mmL=L5 mm

    MCFILID=TL1W=Wr mmS=S12 mmL=L2 mm

    PORTP=2Z=50 Ohm

    PORTP=1Z=50 Ohm

    1

    2

    3MTEEX$ID=MT4

    1

    2

    3MTEEX$ID=MT1

    MLINID=TL26W=Wr mmL=L41 mm

    MLINID=TL24W=Wr mmL=L11 mm

    DesignandSimulation

    Cornelis J. Kikkert

  • RF Electronics Design and Simulation

    Publisher: James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia, 4811. http://www.jcu.edu.au

    Copyright 2013 C. J. Kikkert, ISBN 978-0-9873109-3-4

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission of Cornelis J. Kikkert.

    The accompanying project files are also Copyright 2013 C. J. Kikkert, ISBN 978-0-9873109-3-4. C. J. Kikkert grants readers of this book permission to use these project files and to modify them, in order to gain an understanding of the material presented in this publication. The text contained in the Design Notes of the project files may not be altered.

    AWR Corporation has been given a licence to distribute this publication and the accompanying project files through the University Program of AWR, please see their web site http://www.awrcorp.com for details.

    A catalogue record for this book is available from the James Cook Library.

    http://www.jcu.edu.au/http://www.awrcorp.com/

  • II

    RF Electronics Design and Simulation

    Cornelis J. Kikkert James Cook University

    Townsville, Queensland, Australia

  • III

    Contents

    Page

    Preface VIII

    Acknowledgement IX

    About the Author IX

    Chapter 1: Introduction 1

    Computer Simulation 3

    References 3

    Chapter 2: Computer Simulation 4

    Introduction 4

    Basic Operation 5

    Example 2.1: Low Pass Filter 5

    Equations in AWRDE 9

    Optimisation 10

    Example 2.2: Diplexer 10

    Example 2.3: Amplifier 15

    Transistor Models 17

    Determination of Line Parameters 21

    Nonlinear Simulation 23

    Transient Circuit Simulation 24

    Example 2.4: Buck DC-DC Converter 24

    Harmonic Balance Circuit Simulation 29

    Black Box Matching of Circuits to Measurements 31

    Example 2.5: Bandpass T Matching Network 31

    S Parameter Measurements 33

    Impedance Measurements 36

    Summary 43

    References 43

    Chapter 3: Transformers and Hybrids 45

    Introduction 45

    Wideband Transformers 46

    Example 3.1: RF Transformer Design 47

    Bifilar and Trifilar Windings 48

    Transmission line transformers with ferrite cores 49

    Transformer Hybrids 51

    Power Combiner / Splitter 52

    Wilkinson Transformer Hybrid 53

    Example 3.2 Wilkinson Transformer Hybrid Design 54

    Transmission Line Hybrid with Ferrite Cores 55

  • IV

    Page

    Many Way Hybrids 56

    References 57

    Chapter 4: Transmission Line Transformers and Hybrids 58

    Introduction 58

    Example 4.1: Bandwidth Calculation 59

    Wilkinson Transmission Line Hybrid 60

    Compensated Wilkinson Hybrid 65

    Unequal Split Wilkinson Hybrid 66

    Wideband Wilkinson Hybrid 67

    Example 4.2: 90 to 270 MHz Wilkinson Hybrid 68

    Quarter Wave Hybrid or 1.5 Rat-race hybrid 71

    Branchline Coupler 74

    Backward Travelling Wave Hybrid 81

    Edge Coupled Lines 82

    Example 4.2: 20 dB Coupler 82

    Lange Coupler 86

    Broadside Coupled Lines 87

    Example 4.3: 100 Watt 3 dB Broadside Coupler 89

    References 91

    Chapter 5: Frequency Mixers 92

    Introduction 92

    Definition of Terms 93

    Conversion Loss 93

    Isolation 94

    Compression Point 94

    Dynamic Range 95

    Two-tone Third Order Intermodulation Distortion 95

    Third Order Intercept Point 96

    LO Level 97

    Example 5.1: Mixer LO Level Calculation 98

    Single Diode Mixer 98

    Computer Simulation of Mixers 100

    Balanced Mixer 106

    Double Balanced Mixer 110

    Microwave Mixers 118

    Microwave Mixer using a Branchline Coupler 120

    Active Single Transistor Mixer 124

    Gilbert Cell Active Mixer 124

    Quadrature Mixers 129

    Active IQ Mixers 130

  • V

    Page

    Examples of Commercial Active Mixers 130

    Image Reject Mixers 132

    LTCC Mixers 135

    Other Mixers 136

    Additional Resources 136

    References 136

    Chapter 6: Oscillators 138

    Principles of Oscillators 138

    Requirements 138

    Oscillator Types 138

    Positive Feedback Oscillators 138

    Oscillator Design Process 139

    Frequency Selective Networks 140

    Oscillator Design Procedure 141

    Step 1: Select an amplifier type 141

    Step 2: Design an amplifier 142

    Step 3: Design a resonator 143

    Step 4: Linear Oscillator Analysis 144

    Step 5: Nonlinear Oscillator Analysis 144

    Crystal Oscillators 146

    Quartz Crystals 146

    Example 6.1: Crystal Oscillator Design 147

    RF and Microwave Oscillators 150

    Example 6.2: 1 GHz Microstrip Oscillator Design 150

    Dual Resonator Oscillator 156

    Design Improvements 159

    References 162

    Chapter 7: RF Filters 163

    Introduction 163

    Electrical Filters 163

    Acoustic Filters 163

    Filter Design Revision 163

    Filter Tables 164

    Butterworth Filters 165

    Bessel Filter 167

    Chebyshev Filter 168

    Cauer-Chebyshev Filter 168

    RF Lowpass Filter Design 170

    Bandpass Filter Design 175

    LC Bandpass Filters 175

  • VI

    Page

    Low-Pass to Band-Pass Transformation 176

    LC Coupled Resonator Filter 176

    HF Filters 183

    Cauer-Chebyshev Bandpass Filters 184

    Parallel Coupled-Line Filter 184

    Example 7.1: 1 GHz, 70 MHz Bandwidth Filter 184

    Hairpin Filter 187

    Helical Filters 191

    Example 7.2: 100 MHz, 1 MHz Bandwidth Filter 192

    Interdigital Filters 195

    Round Rod Interdigital Filters 196

    PCB Interdigital Filters 197

    Example 7.3: 1GHz, 70 MHz Bandwidth Filter 198

    Direct Coupled Resonator Filters 203

    Example 7.4: 1 GHz, 500 MHz Bandwidth Filter 204

    Fine Tuning the Filter 206

    Microstrip Filter Comparison 208

    EM Simulation 213

    Coaxial Filters 220

    Ceramic Filters 223

    SAW Filters 224

    References 224

    Chapter 8: Amplifiers: Stability, Noise and Gain 226

    Introduction 226

    MMIC 226

    Requirement for Stability 227

    Smith Chart Revision 228

    Scattering Parameter Revision 229

    Stability 231

    Stability Circles 231

    Unconditional Stability 233

    Conditional Stability 233

    Stability Factors: Measures of Stability 233

    Design for Maximum Gain 234

    Amplifier Noise Figure 234

    Improving the Noise Figure 239

    Improving Amplifier Stability 242

    Couplers at Input and Output 242

    Resistors at Output 244

    References 246

  • VII

    Page

    Chapter 9: Impedance Matching of Power Amplifiers 248

    Introduction 248

    Large Signal Parameters 248

    Types of Matching 248

    Choice of Components and Q value 248

    LC Matching 249

    PI Network 250

    Low Pass T Network 251

    Bandpass L Network 252

    Bandpass T Network 252

    Capacitive Impedance Transformer 253

    Example 9.1: 150 MHz, 35W Amplifier 254

    PI Network 257

    Low Pass T Network 257

    Bandpass L Network 258

    Bandpass T Network 258

    Capacitive Impedance Transformer 259

    Transformer Matching 260

    Transmission Line Matching 262

    Broadband Matching 263

    Example 2: Broadband Amplifier 268

    References 276

    Chapter 10: Circuit Manufacture 277

    Introduction 277

    Subtractive Process: Conductive Track Removal 277

    Additive Process: Depositing Tracks and Vias 277

    Printed Circuit Board Materials 278

    Conventional PCB Substrates 278

    Paper and Resin Substrates; FR2 and FR3 278

    Fibreglass and Epoxy Substrates; FR4, FR408, IS400 279

    Microwave and RF Printed Circuit Board Materials 280

    RT/duroid 58X0 280

    RT/duroid 6000 281

    RO3000 and RO3200 281

    RO4000 281

    Other Laminates 282

    Multilayer Boards 282

    Non-Clad Substrates 283

    Alumina Substrates 283

    Other Substrates 283

  • VIII

    Page

    Manufacturing 284

    Manufacturing using a P