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Matter and Energy Description Conservation Laws Periodic Table Energy Revised 5/11/07

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  • Matter and Energy

    DescriptionConservation LawsPeriodic TableEnergy

    Revised 5/11/07

  • Previous Material

    Accuracy & precision

    Significant Figures

    SI Units LengthMassTemperatureMole

    Conversionswithin MetricEnglish-Metric

    Medical Dose Units

  • Simple Definitions

    Matter anything which has mass and occupies space

    Energy the ability to do work

  • Copper atoms on silica surface.

    An atom is the smallest particle of an element that has the chemical properties of the element.

    Distance across = 1.8 nanometer (1.8 x 10-9 m)

  • Conservation

    Conservation of Matter - matter is neither created nor destroyed

    must account for all matter during a reaction

    Conservation of Energy - energy is neither created nor destroyed, changed from one form to another

    must account for all energy

  • Three States of Matter

    Solid defined shape and volume Liquid adopt shape of container

    and defined volume Gas adopt shape and volume of

    container

    (pages 55 57, table 2.7, textbook)

  • Matter ClassificationDescription of Matter

    Heterogenous(mixtures)

    Elements Compounds

    Pure Substances Solutions

    Homogenous

    Matter

  • Matter Classification

  • ElementElement

    Pure substance that cannot be Pure substance that cannot be decomposed any further by ordinary decomposed any further by ordinary meansmeansAbout 115 elements listed on Periodic About 115 elements listed on Periodic TableTable

    metals, nonmetals, non--metals, metalloids,metals, metalloids,atomic number, atomic symbolatomic number, atomic symbol

  • Long FormLong Form--Periodic TablePeriodic Table

  • Periodic TablePeriodic TableDmitri Mendeleev developed the Dmitri Mendeleev developed the modern periodic table. Argued that modern periodic table. Argued that element properties are element properties are periodic periodic functions of their atomic weightsfunctions of their atomic weights..We now know that element We now know that element properties are periodic functions of properties are periodic functions of their their ATOMIC NUMBERSATOMIC NUMBERS..

  • p.79a

  • p.79b

  • Regions of the Periodic TableRegions of the Periodic Table

  • Group 1A: Alkali MetalsLi, Na, K, Rb, Cs

    Group 1A: Alkali MetalsGroup 1A: Alkali MetalsLi, Na, K, Li, Na, K, RbRb, Cs, Cs

    Cutting sodium metalCutting sodium metal

  • MagnesiumMagnesium

    Magnesium Magnesium oxideoxide

    Group 2A: Alkaline Earth MetalsGroup 2A: Alkaline Earth MetalsBe, Mg, Ca, Be, Mg, Ca, SrSr, , BaBa, Ra, Ra

  • Group 7A: HalogensF, Cl, Br, I, At

    Group 7A: HalogensGroup 7A: HalogensF, F, ClCl, Br, I, At, Br, I, At

  • Group 8A: Noble Gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, RnGroup 8A: Noble Gases Group 8A: Noble Gases He, He, NeNe, , ArAr, Kr, , Kr, XeXe, , RnRn

  • Group 6A: O, S, Se, Te, PoGroup 6A: O, S, Se, Te, PoGroup 6A: O, S, Se, Te, Po

    Sulfuric acid dripping Sulfuric acid dripping from snotfrom snot--titetite in cave in cave

    in Mexicoin MexicoElemental S has a ring Elemental S has a ring

    structure.structure.

  • Transition ElementsTransition ElementsTransition Elements

    Lanthanides and actinidesLanthanides and actinidesIron in air gives Iron in air gives iron(III) oxideiron(III) oxide

  • Forms of the ElementsForms of the Elements

    Most are Most are monoatomicmonoatomic a single atom is the a single atom is the element, examples:element, examples: Zn (s), Al (s), Cs (s)Zn (s), Al (s), Cs (s)Some are Some are DiatomicDiatomic two atoms bound two atoms bound together form the element (not single atom together form the element (not single atom shown of Periodic Table)shown of Periodic Table)HH2 2 (g); N(g); N22 (g); O(g); O22 (g); F(g); F22 (g); Cl(g); Cl22 (g); (g); BrBr22 (l); I(l); I22 (s); (s);

  • Periodic TrendsPeriodic Trends

    Properties of elements Properties of elements that may be predicted that may be predicted by relative position on by relative position on Periodic TablePeriodic Table

    Metal CharacterMetal CharacterAtomic SizeAtomic SizeIonization EnergyIonization EnergyElectronegativityElectronegativity

    See: Pages 99See: Pages 99--101,101,textbooktextbook

  • Atomic SizeAtomic Size

  • CompoundCompound

    Pure substance composed of two or more Pure substance composed of two or more elements bonded together in a definite ratio by elements bonded together in a definite ratio by weight. weight.

    Identified by a unique set of physical and Identified by a unique set of physical and chemical properties.chemical properties.

    HH22O and HO and H22OO22NaNa22CrOCrO44 and Naand Na22CrCr22OO77

  • CompoundsCompounds

    Same three component elements Same three component elements Na, Cr, Na, Cr, but different weight ratiosbut different weight ratios

    NaNa22CrOCrO44 NaNa22CrCr22OO77

  • Comparison of Physical PropertiesWater and Hydrogen Peroxide

    Water Hydrogenperoxide

    Melting point C 0.0 - 2

    Boiling point C 100 158

    Density, g/mL 1.0 1.46

  • Terms for Matter

    Heterogeneous Homogeneous Mixture Solution Physical process Chemical process

    Element Compound Atom Period Family Metal

  • Classification of Energy(pages 40 41, textbook)

    Description of Energy

    Potential(position or stored)

    Kinetic(motion)

    Energy

  • Forms of Energy

    HeatLightElectricity

    Energy

  • ENERGYENERGY is the capacity is the capacity to do work or transfer to do work or transfer heat.heat.

    HEATHEAT is the form of is the form of energy that flows energy that flows between 2 objects between 2 objects because of their because of their difference in temperature.difference in temperature.Other forms of energy Other forms of energy lightlightelectricalelectricalkinetic and potentialkinetic and potential

  • Gravitational Potential Energy:

    E = mgh

    h = height

    g = * 9.82 m/s2

    m = mass

    * On Earth

  • Potential EnergyPotential energy is stored energy and the energy of positionThere are

    several forms of potential energy. Chemical Energy is energy stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules. It is the energy that holds these particles together. Biomass, petroleum, natural gas, and propane are examples of stored chemical energy. Stored Mechanical Energy is energy stored in objects by the application of a force. Compressed springs and stretched rubber bands are examples of stored mechanical energy. Nuclear Energy is energy stored in the nucleus of an atomthe energy that holds the nucleus together. The energy can be released when the nuclei are combined or split apart. Nuclear power plants split the nuclei of uranium atoms in a process called fission. The sun combines the nuclei of hydrogen atoms in a process called fusion. Scientists are working on creating fusion energy on earth, so that someday there might be fusion power plants.Gravitational Energy is the energy of position or place. A rock resting at the top of a hill contains gravitational potential energy. Hydropower, such as water in a reservoir behind a dam, is an example of gravitational potential energy.

  • Kinetic EnergyE = 1/2 mv2

    E = energy (Joules)m = mass (kilograms)v = speed (meters/sec.)

    Marion Jones Sprints to Victory in the 200 meter.

  • Kinetic Energy

    Kinetic energy is motionof waves, electrons, atoms, molecules, substances, and objects. Electrical Energy is the movement of electrical charges. Electrical charges moving through a wire is called electricity. Radiant Energy is electromagnetic energy that travels in transverse waves. Radiant energy includes visible light, x-rays, gamma rays and radio waves. Light is one type of radiant energy. Thermal Energy, or heat, is the internal energy in substancesthe vibration and movement of the atoms and molecules within substances. Geothermal energy is an example of thermal energy. Motion Energy is the movement of objects and substances from one place to another. Wind is an example of motion energy.

  • Terms for Energy

    Energy Potential Energy Kinetic Energy Heat Light

    Temperature Specific Heat calorie, cal Wave length

    Matter and EnergyPrevious MaterialSimple DefinitionsConservationThree States of MatterMatter ClassificationMatter ClassificationElementLong Form-Periodic TablePeriodic TableRegions of the Periodic TableGroup 1A: Alkali MetalsLi, Na, K, Rb, CsGroup 7A: HalogensF, Cl, Br, I, AtGroup 8A: Noble Gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, RnGroup 6A: O, S, Se, Te, PoTransition ElementsForms of the ElementsPeriodic TrendsAtomic SizeCompoundCompoundsTerms for MatterClassification of Energy(pages 40 41, textbook)Forms of EnergyGravitational Potential Energy: Potential EnergyKinetic EnergyKinetic EnergyTerms for EnergyMatter and EnergyPrevious MaterialSimple DefinitionsConservationThree States of MatterMatter ClassificationMatter ClassificationElementLong Form-Periodic TablePeriodic TableRegions of the Periodic TableGroup 1A: Alkali MetalsLi, Na, K, Rb, CsGroup 7A: HalogensF, Cl, Br, I, AtGroup 8A: Noble Gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, RnGroup 6A: O, S, Se, Te, PoTransition ElementsForms of the ElementsPeriodic TrendsAtomic SizeCompoundCompoundsTerms for MatterClassification of Energy(pages 40 41, textbook)Forms of EnergyGravitational Potential Energy: Potential EnergyKinetic EnergyKinetic EnergyTerms for Energy