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Descent into the Abyss. World War I and the Crisis of the European Global Order. by: Rachel Levy, Emma Derstine, Caitlin Bickel. The Coming of the Great War. Outbreak of the War. Balkan Crisis Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand Heightened Austrio-Hungarian/Serbian tensions- War declared - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Descent into the Abyss

Descent into the AbyssWorld War I and the Crisis of the European Global Order

by: Rachel Levy, Emma Derstine, Caitlin BickelThe Coming of the Great WarBalkan CrisisAssassination of Archduke FerdinandHeightened Austrio-Hungarian/Serbian tensions- War declaredDysfunctional Diplomacy-Communication between Wilhem (Ger) and Nicholas II (Rus)Germany strikes firstAvoid a war on two fronts- Schlieffen Plan

Outbreak of the WarThe Long March to WarFear of GermanyKaiser Wilhelm IITriple EntenteEarly 1900sBritain, France, & RussiaCentral PowersGermany, Austria-Hungary, & ItalyItaly not necessarily loyal

Headed towards warImperialist rivalriesJingoismScramble for territoryNaval RivalryDomestic tensionsLabor unrest, strikes, socialist parties

A World at WarI. The War in EuropeLeads to stalemate due to Germanys failed quick strikeFrance regroups and British supportsTrench warfare New ways to die: Machine guns, improved artillery,poison gas and barbed wire Rats and lice lived in trenches Uncivilized lifestyle in trenches Most war generals used outdated war strategies II. The War in the East and ItalyRussia generally had the largest amounts of deaths Peasants were illiterate and poorly trained No meritocracy (aristocratic rulers) Weapons controlled my upper Russian classAustro-Hungarians Required to battle the emperorGeneral ideaUneducated leaders and politicians Annoyed citizens III. The Home Fronts in EuropeSoldiers slowly became frustrated with citizens Leaders protected from harm The government takes controlCompanies take over to avoid protest Propaganda departments Changes within society Union chiefs able to mobilize the working classProtests against war Shortages of goods Women given more powerIV. The War Outside EuropeAll of Europe had colonies(except for Austria-Hungary)Colonies used for manpower and resourcesWar spreads to West/East Africa, China & Middle EastSouth America wasn't really involvedThe war in BritainBritain navy took control of trans-Atlantic cable lines along with cutting off supplies from Germany Allied with Japan in 1902 Germany kicked out of Shandong peninsulaThe war in Germany Young Turks enter war in 1915 US slowly becomes global powerV. Endgame: The Return of the Offensive WarfareGermany's success in early 1918Later Hitler would claim Germany Many generals surrender Fear of army collapsing and rebellionCosts of the warMillions diedMany died after the war as well due to illness Failed PeaceI. Different PerspectivesFrench want their losses avengedGeorges ClemenceauPeace conference working against GermanyAmericans want peaceWoodrow WilsonLeague of nationsSelf determination

British want to mediateDavid Lloyd GeorgeTries to balance Clemenceau and Wilson

II. Peace of ParisDiktat An order or decree imposed by someone in power without popular consentDictated nation Germany must complyBreaking of the Austro-Hungarian Empire Germanic Austria cut offNew nations begin to receive parts of GermanyIII. ProblemsWartime promises made to Arabs were ignoredLed to the division of Empires China left to defend itself Ho Chi Minh Vietnamese ruler Responded to Woodrow Wilsons treaty that ended WWILeague of NationsVetoed by the US congressGermany, Italy, Japan, Spain, etc. all withdrew from the leagueWorld War I and the Nationalist Assault on the European Colonial OrderI. India Under British RajIndustrialized beneficial for WWIWar showed weaknessQuestioned Racial SuperiorityThemes in Independence Movements:Western EducationCharismatic LeadersPeaceful ProtestingIndian National Congress Party- 1885initially ineffectiveminimal membershiployal to British, not IndiaCreated a Common Indian Identitybarriers- ethnic diversitysolution- common enemy

II. Social Foundations of a Mass MovementBeginnings of a Protest:Better treatment for British investorsIndian resources-depleted Poverty rates increasingBritish = Enemy

III. The Rise of Militant NationalismBG TilakRestoration of HinduismReverse Womens SuffrageMeetings at FestivalsMilitant Hinduism (ironic)British imprisoned him, exiled to BurmaBengalis- terrorist communitiesbomb British buildings, etcMorley-Minto Reforms 1909

IV. Emergence of Gandhi India very helpful with war efforts Were promised independence by the British 1919 Montagu-Chelmsford ReformsRowlatt Act Mohandas Gandhi nonviolent protest SatyagrahaWeakens BritishHindu

V. Egypt and the Rise of Nationalism in the Middle EastLord Cromerattempts at reformeconomic-Khedives in debtAyan-retain wealthMiddle Class-Effendiopened a newspaperCongress Party- 1890Dinshawi IncidentBritish shot Prayer Leaders wife1913- Constitution for Wealthy class to be govtBritish intervened, took over

VI. War and Nationalist Movements in the Middle EastOttoman Empire- No mas!Turkey up for grabsMustafa KemalBritish/French withdrew promised independence for the Middle EastMcMahon-HusseinUndermined Husseins authorityProblem with PalestinePogroms in Russia forced Jews out- Diaspora- no where to goBritish/French promised this land to the Jewish people (Balfour Declaration)Displaced Jews and Arabs with nowhere to go

VII. Revolt in Egypt 1919Peasant unrestWafd Party- Nationalist Liberal PartyStudent RiotsWomen involvedIndependence in 1922

Flag of the Wafd PartyPrior to WWI- Loyalty to British/FrenchRelationship during war turned hostileforced laborstarvationeconomic sufferingpan-African MovementNegritude Literary MovementPolitical OrganizationRepresentative GovtNewspaperVIII. The Beginnings of the Liberation Struggle in Africa

Global ConnectionsEffects of WWI in Europehurt economygrowing European powersincreased political tensionsLabor Parties on the prowlEffects of WWI WorldwideBreakthrough in Women's SuffrageScientific TheoryNationalism > ImperialismRacial Supremacy TheoryRussia, US, Japan- want Western Europe to decline

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