deploying digital (terrestrial) television in europe. do we need public policy?

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  1. 1. Talking about EuropeLecturing Series Deploying Digital (Terrestrial) Television in Europe. Do we need public policy? Roberto Surez Candel Researcher and Lecturer Department of Communication Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Universitt Hamburg & Hans Bredow Institut December 2 nd , 2008
  2. 2. Lets the market do it! Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 1
  3. 3. Lets the market do it! innovation free competition profitability diversity pluralism quality freedom to choose Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 1
  4. 4. Sarkozy proclaimsthe death of the market dictatorship and the end of the impotence of public policy. La Vanguardia, 23/X/2008 Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 2
  5. 5. Sarkozy proclaimsthe death of the market dictatorship and the end of the impotence of public policy. La Vanguardia, 23/X/2008 Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 2
  6. 6. Broadcasting Public policy was legitimized by: Public Interest:Pluralism, diversity, social representativeness, culture, national identity, etc. Technical facts:Spectrum scarcity, infrastructures building and management, national security, etc. Market logics:Entry costs, oligopolistic tendencies, access control, etc. Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 3
  7. 7. 50s70s/80S Paternalistic Public Policy Media Public Monopolies Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 4
  8. 8. 70s CrisisA new economic model The peak of neoliberal ideology Power relationships between the State and the Media Internationalisation and convergence of markets Homogenization of public policy Information Society Agenda Repositioning of the media within society/economy 70s/80s/90s Transformation Vectors Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 1
  9. 9. 70s/80s/90s Transformation Vectors Market Liberalisation/Competition Deregulation Non interventionism + co/self-regulation Evolution of the role of the State within society Provider Regulator Enabler Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 5
  10. 10. What about DIGITALISATION? Technological basis for the Information Society Transforms broadcastingconvergence Raises questions about the legitimacy/need/contribution of public policy So it becomes a necessary / non reversible process Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 6
  11. 11. What about DIGITALISATION? Are public interest goals still attributed to television after its digitalisation? Is that necessary? Does digitalisation transform television in such a way that public policy is not necessary to achieve those objectives? Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 8
  12. 12. Policy legitimacy WHY Policy need HOW / WHO Policy contribution WHAT Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 9
  13. 13. Policy legitimacy WHY Policy need HOW / WHO Policy contribution WHAT Depends on political ideology Depends on each platform particularities Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 9
  14. 14. BUT digitalisation has become necessary SO failing is not an option!! Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 10
  15. 15. The terrestrial platform is technologically inferior to cable or satellite. Why should we continue using it? Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 11
  16. 16. The terrestrial platform is technologically inferior to cable or satellite. Public good Public Service Universal Service / Access National market Why should we continue using it? Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 11
  17. 17. but the terrestrial platform has certain particularities that endanger the pace and the outcomes of its own transformation process Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 12
  18. 18. nevertheless, market-led strategies were implemented but the terrestrial platform has certain particularities that endanger the pace and the outcomes of its own transformation process Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 12
  19. 19. nevertheless, market-led strategies were implemented but the terrestrial platform has certain particularities that endanger the pace and the outcomes of its own transformation process but they failed! Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 12
  20. 20. The terrestrial platform requires a different digitalisation strategy, which includes public policy. Governments and public administrations have accepted/assumed their responsabilities and DTT has become a case study of public policy within the neoliberal scenario. Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 13
  21. 21. CAUSES & OBJECTIVES of digitalisation Legitimation for Public Policy Lack of coherence in the political discourse Hidden agendas Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 14
  22. 22. Supranational vs National Two public policy levels Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 15
  23. 23. EU policy for DTT: guidelines, coordination and subsidiarity Polyhedral nature of television Multiplicity of policies and institutions Variety of intervention perspectives and mechanisms Diversity of policy instruments Lack of consistence, coherence and effectiveness ?? Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 16
  24. 24. Policy affected by neoliberalism and non interventionism, so focused on infrastructures and market behaviour interoperability, competition. Harmonisation and soft policy instruments Subsidiarity EU policy for DTT: guidelines, coordination and subsidiarity Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 17
  25. 25. Coordination of the switch-off process in order to ensure the creation of a single European market Ideological framework Certainty and guidelines EU policy for DTT: guidelines, coordination and subsidiarity Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 18
  26. 26. Sweden and Spain, two necessarily different approaches to a common issue Why Sweden and Spain? Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 19
  27. 27. Sweden and Spain, two necessarily different approaches to a common issue Galperin (2004) / Hallin & Mancini (2004) Why Sweden and Spain? Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 19
  28. 28.
    • Legitimation of DTT and public intervention
    • Policy decision-making structures
    • Licensing and definition of a business model
    • Planning of the transition from analogue to digital
    Issues compared Sweden and Spain, two necessarily different approaches to a common issue Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 20
  29. 29.
    • Legitimation of DTT and public intervention
    Similarities Objectives: competition, pluralism and diversity PSB and Universal Service Hidden agendasmaintain control over the television market Differences Public policy ethos Sweden and Spain, two necessarily different approaches to a common issue Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 21
  30. 30.
    • Policy decision-making structures
    Lack of ARN Political confrontation Several political levelsMedia parallelism SPAIN SWEDEN Distribution of responsibilities Transparency Collaboration Sweden and Spain, two necessarily different approaches to a common issue Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 22
  31. 31.
    • Licensingand Business Model
    Certain lack of transparency Clientelism Replication of the analogue market Post-switchover already defined SPAIN SWEDEN 6 licensing contests Short licenses Transparency Sweden and Spain, two necessarily different approaches to a common issue Talking about Europe Lecturing Series Roberto Surez | Pompeu Fabra University Barcelona, Spain Deploying DTV in Europe 22
  32. 32.
    • Licensi

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