dentalni biomaterijali ppt

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8/4/2019 Dentalni Biomaterijali PPT http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/dentalni-biomaterijali-ppt 1/35 By Prof.Dr/Mona Hussein

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    By

    Prof.Dr/Mona Hussein

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    The science of dental biomaterials involves

    the study of the composition and properties

    o ma er a s an e way n w c ey

    interact with the oral environment in which

    they are placed.

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    Dental biomaterials may be classified

    according to nature into, ceramics, metals,

    polymers and composites or according to use

    into restorative and auxiliary materials

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    Materials used in dentistry are confined

    within the three known groups:

    metals, ceramics and polymers.

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    I- Metals

    Metals are used for making restorations of the lost

    tooth structure, prosthetic devices, orthodontic

    appliances, and many other applications where

    strength and elasticity are required.

    A mixture of two or more metallic elements is

    called alloy (Gold alloy &Cobalt chromium alloy)

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    Metallic restoration

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    II- Ceramics

    Ceramics include a wide variety of

    substances such as glass, cement,

    refractory (high temp), and many other

    materials.

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    Types of dental ceramics:

    Dental porcelain.

    Dental cements.

    ypsum pro ucts.

    Casting investment

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    Ceramic restoration

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    Ceramo-metal system

    Bridge

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    III- Polymers

    Polymers are synthetic resins.

    Types of dental polymers:

    Polymeric impression materials.

    Denture base materials.

    Tooth colored restorative materials.

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    Polymeric denture base

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    Esthetic restoration

    (dental composite)

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    1-Enamel.2-Dentine.

    3-Gingiva (Gum).

    4-Gingival Sulcus.5-Periodontal

    .6-Pulp Chamber.

    7-Root Canal.

    8-Apical Foramen.9-Bone.

    10-Cementum.

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    1. Enamel:

    Is the hardest structure in the human body.

    It forms the outer layer of the crown

    Its the only visible portion of the crown.

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    2. Dentine:

    Is the main substance of the crown

    e roo .

    Is yellowish-white in color.

    Is sensitive.

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    3. Gingiva(Gum):

    Is the soft tissue covering the bone

    enc rc ng e oo near e

    junction of the crown & the root.

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    4. Gingival sulcus:

    Surrounds the tooth.

    . .

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    5. Periodontal ligaments:

    Attaches the tooth to the bone by means of

    thin fibers.

    Act as a shock absorber for the tooth.

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    6. Pulp chamber:

    This cavity contains bloods vessels for

    nutrition&nerves for the sensitivity of the

    tooth.

    Is extremely sensitive.

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    7. Root canals:

    Are small canals through which blood

    vessels& nerves pass through the roots

    on their way to the pulp chamber.

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    8. Apical foramen:

    Is the only normal opening of the root

    canal.

    The nerves & the blood vessels pass

    from it to the root canal.

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    9. Bone:

    The tooth is anchored in the bone.

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    10. Cementum:

    A thin layer covering the root.

    The ligaments attaches to this.

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    SalivaContents:

    1- Water.

    2- Electrolytes.

    3- Mucus.

    4- Enzymes.

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    Functions:

    1. Helps in creating the bolus of the food.

    2. Amylase enzyme that converts starch into dextrin.

    3. Prevent tooth decay& tooth erosion due to its

    .

    4. Saliva carries ions as calcium,fluoride. That

    helps in remineralization.

    5. Antibacterial.

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    The restorative material present in the oral

    environment is subjected to:

    1. Changes in temperature.

    3. Occlusal stresses.

    4. Solubility and disintegration.

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    TMJ

    Functions:

    1. The first function is rotation around ahorizontal axis.

    2. The second function is translation where

    the condyle & the disc move together

    anteriorly beneath the articular eminence.

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    DENTAL BIOMATERIALSI -Basic science of biomaterials

    Physical properties

    Thermal properties

    Optical propertiesSurface chemistry

    Corrosion

    Mechanical properties

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    Basic structure of metals.

    Basic structure of polymers.

    Basic structure of ceramics.

    II APPLIED BIOMATERIALS

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