Decision Support Systems Collaborative Computer- Supported Technologies and Group Support Systems

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<ul><li><p>Decision Support SystemsCollaborative Computer-Supported Technologies and Group Support Systems</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>Learning ObjectivesUnderstand the basic concepts and processes of groupwork, communication and collaborationKnow the concepts and importance of the time/place frameworkKnow the process gains and losses and how GSS increases/decreases each of themDescribe indirect support for decision making, especially in synchronous environmentsUnderstand the concept of GDSS and describe how to structure an electronic meeting in a decision roomUnderstand how the Web enables collaborative computing and group support of virtual meetings</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>CollaborationWhat is it? making joint effort toward achieving an agreed upon goal.</p><p>Meeting is a common form of collaboration</p><p>Why collaborate?</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>Why Collaborate?ReviewShare WorkShare the VisionSocializeBuild ConsensusSolve ProblemsMake DecisionsSynergyShare InformationBuild Trust</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>Collaboration is DifficultWaiting to speakDominationFear of SpeakingMisunderstandingInattentionLack of FocusInadequate CriteriaPremature DecisionsMissing InformationDistractionsWrong PeopleGroupthinkPoor Grasp of ProblemIgnored AlternativesLack of ConsensusPoor PlanningHidden AgendasConflictInadequate ResourcesPoorly Defined GoalsIneffectiveCollaboration</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>Collaboration is Expensive15 Million formal Sessions / day ? Million Informal Sessions / day 4 Billion Sessions / year 30-80% Managers time</p><p>Fortune 500 Companies3M Corporation Study</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>Collaboration : Expensive and Essential30-80% Managers timeNo one has all the ExperienceKnowledgeResourcesInsight, and Inspirationto do the job aloneBottom line:Collaboration is difficult, expensive, and yet essential for todays organizations</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>How Do People Collaborate?Level 1 Collected Work :Uncoordinated Individual EffortsLevel 2 Coordinated Work:Coordinated Individual EffortsLevel 3 Concerted Work:Concerted Team Effort SprintersRelay3 Levels of Collaboration CapabilityCrewHighLowDegree ofCollaborativeEffort</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>Joint activityEqual or near equal statusOutcome depends on participants knowledge, etc.Outcome depends on group compositionOutcome depends on decision-making processDisagreement settled by rank or negotiation</p><p>Meetings (a form of collaboration)</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p> Dozens of people attends Everyone talks at once hears everything understands remembers The impossible dream?The Ideal Meeting</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>Traditional MeetingsOnly ONE person can speak at a time</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>GSS MeetingsBy using the computer everyone canSPEAK and be understood simultaneously</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>Communication SupportVitalNeeded for collaborationModern information technologies provide inexpensive, fast, capable, reliable means of supporting communicationInternet / Web</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>Evolution of CommunicationWord of mouthDelivery personsHorsebackSnailmail TelegraphTelephoneRadioTelevisionVideoconferencingInternet / WebSupporting Communication</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>A Time/Place Communication Framework</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>Goal: to support groupworkIncrease benefits / decrease losses of collaborationBased on traditional methods Nominal Group TechniqueIndividuals work alone to generate ideas which are pooled under guidance of a trained facilitatorDelphi MethodA structured process for collecting and distilling knowledge from a group of experts by means of questionnaires Electronic Meeting System (EMS)Group Support Systems</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>Process Gains:Parallelism( simultaneous contributions )Larger groups can participateAnonymity( promotes equal participation )Focus on content not personalitiesTriggering ( stimulates thinking )Synergy ( integrates ideas )Structure ( facilitates problem solving )Record keeping ( promotes organizational memory )Process Loses:- Free-riding - FlamingGSS Important Features</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>Benefits of AnonymityIdeas considered on merit not sourceOvercome fear of speaking upMore ideas leads to more quality ideasDefuses tough political discussions</p><p>*#</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>Decision roomMultiple use facilityWeb-basedGSS Enabling Technologies</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>12 to 30 networked personal computersUsually recessed into the desktopServer PC Large-screen projection systemBreakout roomsNeed a Trained Facilitator for SuccessThe Decision (Electronic Meeting) Room</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>IBM Corp.Cool Decision Rooms</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>US Air ForceCooler Decision Rooms</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>On-Demand Decision Rooms</p></li><li><p>4</p><p>Ventana Portable setup</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>High CostNeed for a Trained FacilitatorRequires Specific Software Support for Different Cooperative TasksInfrequent UseDifferent Place / Different Time NeedsMay Need More Than OneFew Organizations Use Decision Rooms</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>Multiple Use FacilityCheaperStill need a facilitatorWeb-basedCheaper: no extra hardware neededStill need facilitatorOther Technologies</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>From GroupSystems.com Enabling leaders to realize extraordinary results from their teams Collaboration-as-a-Service solutions Leading softwareTool: ThinkTank GroupSystems, Inc.</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>ThinkTank: Supported ActivitiesSupported tools and activities:Agenda and Other Planning ActivitiesElectronic BrainstormingGroup OutlinerTopic CommenterCategorizerVoteOthers</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>GSS Meeting ProcessIterate until the solution is reached</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>Visit a GSS Meeting</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>Why Successful?ParallelismAnonymitySynergy Structure Record keeping NeedsOrganizational commitmentExecutive sponsorDedicated well-trained facilitatorGood planningLast Words about GSS?</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>Collaborative NetworksIntegrated supply-chainCollaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment (CPFR)Collaborative design and product developmentVendor Managed InventoriesWal-Mart, Collective IntelligenceAnimal Intelligence (swarm intelligence)</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment (CPFR)An industry-wide project in which suppliers and retailers collaborate in planning and demand forecasting in order to ensure that members of the supply chain will have the right amount of raw materials and finished goods when they need them</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>Collective IntelligenceA shared intelligence that emerges from the intentional cooperation, collaboration, and/or coordination of many individuals.Examples: Wikipedia, video games, online advertising, learner-generated context, In order for CI to happen:OpennessPeeringSharingActing globallyFor more info see Center for Collective Intelligence at MIT (cci.mit.edu)</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>A Taxonomy of Collective Intelligence</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>CreativityDefinition: Creativity is a characteristic of a person that leads to production of acts, items and/or instances of noveltyCreativity is the product of a genius vs. an idea generation environment Creative people tend to have creative livesCREATIVITY INNOVATIONIdea Generation via Electronic Brainstorming</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>CreativityWhat variables affects creativityCognitive variables: intelligence, knowledge, skills, etc.Environmental variables: cultural and socioeconomic factors, working conditions, etc.Personality variables: motivation, confidence, sense of freedom, etc.Creativity is fostered byFreedomPermission-to-failAllow and Enable rather than Structure and Control</p><p> Modified from Decision Support Systems and Business Intelligence Systems 9E.1-*</p><p>End of the Chapter</p><p>Questions / comments</p><p>*************************************</p></li></ul>

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