# debt valuation and interest rates bonds

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Chapter 9 – Debt VChapter 9 – Debt V aluation and aluation and Interest Rates - BondsInterest Rates - Bonds

2005, Pearson Prentice Hall

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Characteristics of Bonds

Bonds pay fixed coupon (interest) payments at fixed intervals (usually every six months) and pay the par value at maturity.

Characteristics of Bonds

Bonds pay fixed coupon (interest) payments at fixed intervals (usually every six months) and pay the par value at maturity.

00 1 1 2 . . .2 . . . nn

$I $I $I $I $I $I+$M$I $I $I $I $I $I+$M

Par value = $1,000 Coupon = 6.5% or par value per

year,or $65 per year ($32.50 every six months).

Maturity = 28 years (matures in 2032).

Issued by AT&T.

Par value = $1,000 Coupon = 6.5% or par value per year,

or $65 per year ($32.50 every six months).

Maturity = 28 years (matures in 2032).

Issued by AT&T.

0 1 2 … 28

$32.50 $32.50 $32.50 $32.50 $32.50 $32.50+$1000

Debentures - unsecured bonds. Subordinated debentures -

unsecured “junior” debt. Mortgage bonds - secured bonds. Zeros - bonds that pay only par

value at maturity; no coupons. Junk bonds - speculative or below-

investment grade bonds; rated BB and below. High-yield bonds.

Eurobonds - bonds denominated in one currency and sold in another country. (Borrowing overseas.)

example - suppose Disney decides to sell $1,000 bonds in France. These are U.S. denominated bonds trading in a foreign country. Why do this?

Eurobonds - bonds denominated in one currency and sold in another country. (Borrowing overseas.)

example - suppose Disney decides to sell $1,000 bonds in France. These are U.S. denominated bonds trading in a foreign country. Why do this? If borrowing rates are lower in France.

Eurobonds - bonds denominated in one currency and sold in another country. (Borrowing overseas).

example - suppose Disney decides to sell $1,000 bonds in France. These are U.S. denominated bonds trading in a foreign country. Why do this? If borrowing rates are lower in France. To avoid SEC regulations.

The bond contract between the firm and the trustee representing the bondholders.

Lists all of the bond’s features: coupon, par value, maturity,

etc. Lists restrictive provisions

which are designed to protect bondholders.

Describes repayment provisions.

Book value: value of an asset as shown on a firm’s balance sheet; historical cost.

Liquidation value: amount that could be received if an asset were sold individually.

Market value: observed value of an asset in the marketplace; determined by supply and demand.

Intrinsic value: economic or fair value of an asset; the present value of the asset’s expected future cash flows.

In general, the intrinsic value of an asset = the present value of the stream of expected cash flows discounted at an appropriate required rate of return.

Can the intrinsic value of an asset differ from its market value?

Ct = cash flow to be received at time t. k = the investor’s required rate of

return. V = the intrinsic value of the asset.

V = V = t = 1t = 1

nn

$Ct

(1 + k)t

Discount the bond’s cash flows at the investor’s required rate of return.

Discount the bond’s cash flows at the investor’s required rate of return.The coupon payment stream (an annuity).

Discount the bond’s cash flows at the investor’s required rate of return.The coupon payment stream (an annuity).

The par value payment (a single sum).

Vb = $It (PVIFA kb, n) + $M (PVIF kb, n)

$It $M

(1 + kb)t (1 + kb)nVVbb = + = +

nn

t = 1t = 1

Suppose our firm decides to issue 20-year bonds with a par value of $1,000 and annual coupon payments. The return on other corporate bonds of similar risk is currently 12%, so we decide to offer a 12% coupon interest rate.

What would be a fair price for these bonds?

0 1 2 3 . . . 20

1000 120 120 120 . . . 120

P/YR = 1 N = 20 I%YR = 12

FV = 1,000 PMT = 120

Solve PV = -$1,000

Note: If the coupon rate = discount rate, the bond will sell for par value.

Mathematical Solution:

PV = PMT (PVIFA k, n ) + FV (PVIF k, n )

PV = 120 (PVIFA .12, 20 ) + 1000 (PVIF .12,

20 )

Mathematical Solution:

PV = PMT (PVIFA k, n ) + FV (PVIF k, n )

PV = 120 (PVIFA .12, 20 ) + 1000 (PVIF .12,

20 )

1PV = PMT 1 - (1 + i)n + FV / (1

+ i)n i

Mathematical Solution:

PV = PMT (PVIFA k, n ) + FV (PVIF k, n )

PV = 120 (PVIFA .12, 20 ) + 1000 (PVIF .12, 20 )

1PV = PMT 1 - (1 + i)n + FV / (1 +

i)n i

1PV = 120 1 - (1.12 )20 +1000/ (1.12)

20 = $1000 .12

Suppose interest rates fall immediately after we issue the bonds. The required return on bonds of similar risk drops to 10%.

What would happen to the bond’s intrinsic value?

P/YR = 1 Mode = end N = 20 I%YR = 10

PMT = 120 FV = 1000

Solve PV = -$1,170.27

P/YR = 1 Mode = end N = 20 I%YR = 10

PMT = 120 FV = 1000

Solve PV = -$1,170.27

Note: If the coupon rate > discount rate, the bond will sell for a premium.

Mathematical Solution:

PV = PMT (PVIFA k, n ) + FV (PVIF k, n )

PV = 120 (PVIFA .10, 20 ) + 1000 (PVIF .10,

20 )

Mathematical Solution:

PV = PMT (PVIFA k, n ) + FV (PVIF k, n )

PV = 120 (PVIFA .10, 20 ) + 1000 (PVIF .10,

20 )

1PV = PMT 1 - (1 + i)n + FV / (1 +

i)n i

Mathematical Solution:

PV = PMT (PVIFA k, n ) + FV (PVIF k, n )

PV = 120 (PVIFA .10, 20 ) + 1000 (PVIF .10, 20 )

1PV = PMT 1 - (1 + i)n + FV / (1 + i)n

i

1PV = 120 1 - (1.10 )20 + 1000/ (1.10)

20 = $1,170.27 .10

Suppose interest rates rise immediately after we issue the bonds. The required return on bonds of similar risk rises to 14%.

What would happen to the bond’s intrinsic value?

P/YR = 1 Mode = end

N = 20

I%YR = 14

PMT = 120 FV = 1000

Solve PV = -$867.54

P/YR = 1 Mode = end

N = 20

I%YR = 14

PMT = 120 FV = 1000

Solve PV = -$867.54

Note: If the coupon rate < discount rate, the bond will sell for a discount.

Mathematical Solution:

PV = PMT (PVIFA k, n ) + FV (PVIF k, n )

PV = 120 (PVIFA .14, 20 ) + 1000 (PVIF .14,

20 )

Mathematical Solution:

PV = PMT (PVIFA k, n ) + FV (PVIF k, n )

PV = 120 (PVIFA .14, 20 ) + 1000 (PVIF .14,

20 )

1PV = PMT 1 - (1 + i)n + FV / (1 +

i)n i

Mathematical Solution:

PV = PMT (PVIFA k, n ) + FV (PVIF k, n )

PV = 120 (PVIFA .14, 20 ) + 1000 (PVIF .14, 20 )

1PV = PMT 1 - (1 + i)n + FV / (1 + i)n

i

1PV = 120 1 - (1.14 )20 + 1000/ (1.14)

20 = $867.54 .14

P/YR = 2Mode = end

N = 40I%YR = 14PMT = 60FV = 1000

Solve PV = -$866.68

Mathematical Solution:

PV = PMT (PVIFA k, n ) + FV (PVIF k, n )

PV = 60 (PVIFA .14, 20 ) + 1000 (PVIF .14,

20 )

Mathematical Solution:

PV = PMT (PVIFA k, n ) + FV (PVIF k, n )

PV = 60 (PVIFA .07, 40 ) + 1000 (PVIF .07,

40 )

1PV = PMT 1 - (1 + i)n + FV / (1 +

i)n i

Mathematical Solution:

PV = PMT (PVIFA k, n ) + FV (PVIF k, n )

PV = 60 (PVIFA .07, 40 ) + 1000 (PVIF .07, 40 )

1PV = PMT 1 - (1 + i)n + FV / (1 + i)n

i

1PV = 60 1 - (1.07 )40 + 1000 /

(1.07) 40 = $866.68 .07

The expected rate of return on a bond.

The rate of return investors earn on a bond if they hold it to maturity.

The expected rate of return on a bond.

The rate of return investors earn on a bond if they hold it to maturity.

$It $M

(1 + kb)t (1 + kb)nPP00 = + = +

nn

t = 1t = 1

Suppose we paid $898.90 for a $1,000 par 10% coupon bond with 8 years to maturity and semi-annual coupon payments.

What is our yield to maturity?

P/YR = 2Mode = end

N = 16PV = -898.90

PMT = 50FV = 1000

Solve I%YR = 12%

YTM Example

Mathematical Solution:

PV = PMT (PVIFA k, n ) + FV (PVIF k, n )

898.90 = 50 (PVIFA k, 16 ) + 1000 (PVIF k,

16 )

Mathematical Solution:

PV = PMT (PVIFA k, n ) + FV (PVIF k, n )

898.90 = 50 (PVIFA k, 16 ) + 1000 (PVIF k,

16 )

1PV = PMT 1 - (1 + i)n + FV / (1 +

i)n i

Mathematical Solution:

PV = PMT (PVIFA k, n ) + FV (PVIF k, n )

898.90 = 50 (PVIFA k, 16 ) + 1000 (PVIF k,

16 )

1PV = PMT 1 - (1 + i)n + FV / (1 + i)n

i

1898.90 = 50 1 - (1 + i )16 + 1000 / (1

+ i) 16 i

Mathematical Solution:

PV = PMT (PVIFA k, n ) + FV (PVIF k, n )

898.90 = 50 (PVIFA k, 16 ) + 1000 (PVIF k, 16 )

1PV = PMT 1 - (1 + i)n + FV / (1 + i)n

i

1898.90 = 50 1 - (1 + i )16 + 1000 / (1

+ i) 16 i solve using trial

and error

No coupon interest payments.

The bond holder’s return is determined entirely by the price discount.

Suppose you pay $508 for a zero coupon bond that has 10 years left to maturity.

What is your yield to maturity?

Suppose you pay $508 for a zero coupon bond that has 10 years left to maturity.

What is your yield to maturity?

0 100 10

-$508 $1000-$508 $1000

P/YR = 1Mode = End

N = 10PV = -508FV = 1000

Solve: I%YR = 7%

Mathematical Solution: PV = FV (PVIF i, n )

508 = 1000 (PVIF i, 10 )

.508 = (PVIF i, 10 ) [use PVIF table]

PV = FV /(1 + i) 10

508 = 1000 /(1 + i)10

1.9685 = (1 + i)10

i = 7%

0 10

PV = -508 FV = 1000

Cur NetYld Vol Close Chg

Polaroid 11 1/2 06 19.3 395 59 3/4 ...

What is the yield to maturity for this bond?P/YR = 2, N = 10, FV = 1000, PV = $-597.50, PMT = 57.50

Solve: I/YR = 26.48%

Cur NetYld Vol Close Chg

HewlPkd zr 17 ... 20 51 1/2 +1

What is the yield to maturity for this bond?P/YR = 1, N = 16, FV = 1000, PV = $-515, PMT = 0

Solve: I/YR = 4.24%

Maturity AskRate Mo/Yr Bid Asked Chg

Yld 9 Nov 18 139:14 139:20 -34

5.46 What is the yield to maturity for this

Treasury bond? (assume 35 half years)P/YR = 2, N = 35, FV = 1000, PMT = 45,PV = - 1,396.25 (139.625% of par)

Solve: I/YR = 5.457%