day 4 – chapter 2 january 19 chemistry

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  • 1. Day 4 Chapter 2Power Up your Clicker!Some notes

2. 2.5 Hydrogen bonds make water cohesive. 3. 2.6 Water has unusual properties thatmake it critical to life. Cohesion Large heat capacity Low density as a solid Good solventKNOW THESE!!!! 4. Cohesion 5. Heat Capacity 6. Why do coastal areas havemilder, less variable climatesthan inland areas? 7. Low Density as a Solid 8. Why dont oceans freeze as easilyas fresh water lakes? 9. 2.7 Living systems are highlysensitive to acidic and basicconditions.ACID RAIN 10. pH Scale The amount of H+ in a solution is ameasure of its acidity and is called pH. Acids BasesThe pH scale is logarithmic, like the Richter Scale for earthquakes: an increase in 1 on the scalerepresents a ten-fold increase in the hydrogen ion concentration.An increase of 2 represents a hundred-fold increase.This means that Coke, with a pH of about 3.0, is 10,000 times (!) more acidic than a glass ofwater, with a pH of 7.0. 11. H+ Ions and Acids H+ very reactive Acids can donate H+ to other chemicals Stomach acids can kill bacteria, can bindto metals and cause them to corrode, acidrain, Coke 12. BasesLow H+High OHAntacidsBaking soda, seltzer, milk of magnesia,household cleaners 13. So, now that we know life is agentle balance of acids and bases how does that affect the thingswe eat? 14. Four Types of Macromolecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids 15. 2.8 Carbohydrates are macro-moleculesthat function as fuel.Health topics ofthe year Low-carb diet? Hi-carb diet? Carbo-loading? Fiber intake?What arecarbohydrates? 16. Carbohydrates C, H, and O Primary fuel fororganisms Cell structure 17. Glucose Mostcarbohydratesultimatelyconverted intoglucose Blood sugar 18. MoreCarbohydratesCellulose (plantbased)Chitin (shellfish) 19. Fiber Roughage Colon cancer prevention/reduction Termites ecological role 20. Fat molecules contain much more storedenergy than carbohydrate molecules. 21. 2.15 Proteinsare versatilemacromoleculesthat serve asbuilding blocks. 22. Amino Acids Twenty different amino acids Strung together to make proteins 23. 2.16 Proteins are an essentialdietary component. Growth Repair Replacement 24. 2.17 Protein functions are influenced bytheir three-dimensional shape. Peptide bonds 25. Why do some people have curly hair andothers have straight hair? 26. 2.19 Nucleic acids are macromolecules thatstore information. 27. Information Storage The information in a molecule of DNA isdetermined by its sequence of bases. Adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine CGATTACCCGAT 28. 2.20 DNA holds the genetic informationto build an organism. 29. RNA differs from DNA in threeimportant ways. The sugar molecule of the sugar-phosphatebackbone Single-stranded Uracil (U) replaces thymine (T)