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Christine Pawlowicz Table of Contents Rationale ------------------------------------------------------- -------2 Unit Outcomes –----------------------------------------------------- 3 Questions –------------------------------------------------------ ----- 4 Lesson 1: Introduction –-------------------------------------------- 5 Lesson 2: DBQ –--------------------------------------------------- 12 DBQ Materials –--------------------------------------------------- 17 Lesson 3: Simulated Journal –----------------------------------- 29 Lesson 4: Food –--------------------------------------------------- 31 1

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Table of ContentsRationale --------------------------------------------------------------2 Unit Outcomes ----------------------------------------------------- 3 Questions ----------------------------------------------------------- 4 Lesson 1: Introduction -------------------------------------------- 5 Lesson 2: DBQ --------------------------------------------------- 12 DBQ Materials --------------------------------------------------- 17 Lesson 3: Simulated Journal ----------------------------------- 29 Lesson 4: Food --------------------------------------------------- 31 Annotated List of Resources ------------------------------------- 33

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RationaleThe topic for the unit I have chosen is Darfur. I have chosen 6th grade as the grade level for this unit, as the topic of genocide, which is a strong theme in Darfur, is a mature topic that I do not feel would be appropriate for younger children. The situation in Darfur is a current events issue, and is thus important to both myself and the students. Personally, I cannot stand to know that something so horrible is going on in our world, and the majority of people either don't know or don't care. It is the job of people in our advantaged positions to do something about the horrors happening to the people in much more disadvantaged position. After all, if we decline to help them, who will? The least we can do is be aware of the situation. It is important this subject be taught to students. The world they are growing into is a world where this is an important issue. The students I teach today will be in a position to contribute to solving this problem several years from now. It is important they have an honest, complete view of the world they will soon be a part of. Furthermore, based on the activities I plan to do in this unit, it is completely justified in a crowded curriculum. I have integrated several English Language Arts activities, a document based questions assignment, a mathematics activity based on graphing, and a science lesson that incorporates health and state changes with cooking. I feel this unit will address key areas in the curriculum while enriching it with experiential learning that will make it memorable and meaningful. Finally, I feel this unit will encourage students to involve themselves in the community. Once the unit is coming to a close, I will encourage students to find organizations that are dedicated to helping the refugees in Darfur, as well as local organizations that help the local homeless people. At the very least, I would like to organize a food drive to help restock the local food shelf.

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Unit Outcomes1. Identify opposing groups in Darfur 2. Identify the reasons behind the conflict 3. Define genocide and apply the definition to the Darfur conflict 4. Describe the media's response to the situation 5. Describe the world's response to the situation 6. Identify the issues needed to be addressed to end the conflict 7. Identify natural resources and how they are used 8. Compare physical features in this region to those in other regions in the world 9. Describe the economic system in Darfur 10. Use writing to describe current living conditions 11. Work together with peers to discuss, explore, question, and form conclusions on the situation based on the information given 12. Demonstrate understanding and application of rationing and resource management 13. Participate in a simulation that includes role playing 14. Identify the steps in the process of boiling 15. Follow a recipe 16. Create a journal that simulates the experience of a Darfur refugee. The student will mentioning them in the journal 17. Write an entry in a reflection journal at the end of every day that summarizes the activities done and new points learned, as well as his or her feeling on them. Darfur. 18. Discuss with classmates to predict the future of Darfur with and without intervention 19. Identify ways students can help The student will also draw connections between their own simulation and the current situation in show understanding of the situation, living conditions, and specific events that have occurred by

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QuestionsI. What is happening to the people in Darfur? a. What was the country like before this conflict? b. What might have triggered the conflict? c. Who are the opposing groups? d. What are the views of the opposing groups? e. What kind of lives are the refugees and civilians living? II. How does the area they live in affect their situation? a. What resources are available to them? b. How are these resources used? c. What kind of markets are available to the people? d. What physical features make up the area they live in? e. How does their region's resources compare to other regions'? III. Is this an example of genocide? a. What is a genocide? b. Are there any other examples of genocide in history? c. How and why are people dying? d. Why is the media calling it a genocide? IV. What has been the rest of the world's reaction to this situation? a. What has the UN done about it? b. What have world helps done? c. What has the media said about the situation? d. How does this compare to the most people's knowledge of other world events? V. What needs to be done to fix the situation in Darfur? a. What are the current issues causing conflict? b. What needs to be done to end those conflicts? c. Even after conflict has ended, what needs to happen? VI. What factors will make it difficult to fix? a. What have other people done to try to fix it, and has it helped? b. Are there any issues that were present before the conflict? c. How long will it take for this conflict to end, if ever? 1. How do the people live in Africa? 2. What do they like to do? 3. Do they do the same things we do? 4. Is it fair how they are living? 5. Do they like living there?

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Lesson 1 - IntroductionWhat is it like to live in a refugee camp?This lesson is the opening lesson for the entire unit. It begins with the students walking into a classroom that has been upturned and seemingly destroyed. The teacher informs the students that it is no longer safe to be in this room, as the administration has decided they no longer want them to remain there. The teacher takes the students to an empty classroom, which will serve as a refugee classroom, where the students have limited resources and must work together to make learning possible. This is a very experiential unit; the students will be running a simulation of what life might be like in a refugee camp in Darfur, as can be related into the classroom. The students will face several challenges as the unit progresses, including limited supplies, food, and conflict with the administration. Students will be asked to make connections between their situation and the situation in Darfur, and then work together to come up with a solution that helps everyone. The students will reflect on each day's experience in a reflection journal, which will be used as an assessment of the students' understanding of the lessons taught. At the conclusion of the lesson, the students will have to work out a solution with the administration and finally return to their old classroom. There, they will have to work together to rebuild, just as the refugees will eventually have to do upon returning home. One of the lessons that goes along with this lesson is the graphing of paper usage, which could be a separate math lesson. Starting several weeks before the unit has begun, I would like students to keep track of the number of pages they are using per day. At the end of each class, we will add up the number of pages and plot this on a graph. My goal for this is to strengthen students' graphing skills, as well as make them aware of their usage of resources. Once the class has been moved to a refugee classroom, the students will be put on a paper ration. The students

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will then have to work together to determine how much paper each person is entitled to, and what their new usage should be. The monitoring of paper will continue throughout the unit, and possibly after the unit is over.

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Grade Level: 6th Grade Goal:The goal of this lesson is for students to be introduced to life in a refugee camp in an experiential way. This lesson is meant as an introduction and a device to tie the unit together. Students will live in a "refugee classroom" and simulate the life of a refugee from Darfur, as can be translated into the classroom The students will reflect on this experience.

Objectives:The student will: - write a reflective journal at the end of every day, describing what happened and their feelings toward it - work together with the rest of the class to organize the new classroom structure - relate their experience with the experiences of the refugees in Darfur - show understanding of the situation in Darfur

Standards:English Language Arts (International) 4. Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences for a variety of purposes 5. Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of means. 7. Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience. 12. Students use spoken, written and visual language to accomplish their own purposes. The Arts (NYS) 1. Creating, performing, and participating in the Arts - Students will actively engage in the processes that constitute creation and performance in the arts (dance, music, theatre, and visual arts) and participate in various roles in the arts. Social Studies (NYS) 2. World History - Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of major ideas, eras, themes, developments, and turning points in world history and examine the broad sweep of history from a variety of perspectives. 4. Economics - Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of how the United States and other societies develop economic systems and associated institutions to allocate scarce resources, how major decision making units function in the United States and other national economies, and how an economy solves the scarcity problem through marked and non-market mechanisms.

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Health, Physical Education, and Home Economics (NYS) 2. A Safe and Healthy Environment - Students will acquire the knowledge and ability necessary to create and maintain a safe and healthy environment 3. Resource Management - Students will understand and be able to manage their personal and community resources Mathematics, Science, and Technology (NYS) 6. Interconnectedness: Common Themes - Students will understand the relationships and common themes that connect mathematics, science, and technology and apply the themes to these and other areas of learning. 7. Interdisciplinary Problem Solving - Students will apply the knowledge and thinking skills of mathematics, science, and technology to address real-life problems and make informed decisions. English Language Arts (NYS) 1. Language for Information and Understanding - Students will listen, speak, read, and write for information and understanding. As listeners and readers, students will collect data, facts, and ideas; discover relationships, concepts, and generalizations; and use knowledge generated from oral, written, and electronically produced texts. As speakers and writers, they will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language to acquires, interpret, apply, and transmit information. 3. Language for Critical Analysis and Evaluation - Students will listen, speak, read, and write for critical analysis and evaluation. As listeners and readers, students will analyze experiences, ideas, information, and issues presented by others using a variety of established criteria. As speakers and writers, they will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language to present, from a variety of perspectives, their opinions and judgements on experiences, ideas, information, and issues. 4. Language for Social Interaction - Students will listen, speak, read, and write for social interaction. Students will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language for effective communication with a wide variety of people. As readers and listeners, they will use the social communications of others to enrich their understanding of people and their views.

MaterialsTeacher: Bulletin Board 1 package of paper Vacant classroom Letter to parents explaining the unit

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Students: Limited to what they have brought in the first day of the unit

Time Allotment:This activity will take place during the entire unit.

Procedure:Anticipatory Set 1. At least one month before beginning the unit, use part of the bulletin board to chart the use of paper in the classroom. 2. A few days before beginning this unit, begin exploring the students' knowledge of Africa and its status by using KWL charts and guided questions. Show pictures of Africa, and introduce children's books that take place in Africa. If a student brings up the conflict in Darfur, explore it on a shallow level, but do not go too much in depth with it. 3. Before the students arrive in class, carefully dismantle the classroom. Turn desks over, remove student work (store it somewhere safe) and give the classroom a generally ransacked appearance. Make it appear as though the classroom has been stormed and destroyed. (But be careful to do it in a way that the classroom will easily be put back together.) 4. When the students arrive, be sure to calm them. Do not allow them to panic. Allow them to discuss what they see, and what might have happened. Give them ample time to discuss the current situation. Main Procedure 1. Carefully explain to the class that the school administration has decided that they no longer want us to remain in the classroom, so have attacked it. Explain that we are no longer able to stay in this classroom, and must leave our home. It is probably best at this time to explain to the class that this is a simulation, so there are no issues with parents and the administration. 2. Locate a classroom or room in the school that is not in use. This classroom should be fairly bare and free of any usual classroom resources. This could be an auditorium, vacant classroom, or anything else that may be available. 3. Take the students to this new classroom. Allow them to bring with them only what they came to school with in the morning. Do not allow them to retrieve anything from their desks. Explain to the students that this is going to be their refugee classroom, and that they are student refugees. 4. Lay down the following rules for the weeks to follow: - No one may bring in anything from home from now on. This excludes food; students are allowed to bring in food for lunch or breakfast. They may not bring food in for snack; this food will be provided.

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- Students will report directly to this classroom from now on. - Students must write a reflection in their journals at the end of every day. 5. Introduce the reflection journals to the students. Begin by having them reflect on what has happened so far, and what they think it relates to. Have them write about everything they know in Darfur. For the following reflections, the entries only need to describe what has happened that day, how they feel about it, and what connections they can make. These will be done in the form of quickwrites. (International 4, 5, 7, 12, NYS English Language Arts 1, 3, 4) 6. Assess the resources in the classroom. Ideally, the classroom will have few desks, not enough for every student. The walls will be fairly bare, and there will be only one pack of paper available for the whole class. There should not be enough basic resources to support every child. If there are, adjust the resources so there is not. There should still be enough basic teacher resources available (manipulatives, etc) so that teaching is not hindered in other subject areas. If possible, make scaled-down versions of manipulatives and other items to be used. Discuss as a class what is available and how it compares to what they had before. (International 4, 7, 12) 7. Make a list of all the resources available in the classroom. Write down what each student should have ideally. Compare this to what the students will realistically be able to have. Discuss the rationing of supplies, specifically paper. How many pieces of paper will each student be able to use a day? How long before it runs out? Use the bulletin board to look at the chart of paper usage. Continue to chart throughout the unit. (NYS Social Studies 4, Health, Home Economics, and Physical Education 3, Mathematics, Science, and Technology 6, 7, English Language Arts 3, 4) 8. Work together with the class to assess the availability of desk space and seating, and how it would best be arranged. Make use of as much of the limited resources in the refugee classroom as possible. Once everything has been organized, declare the refugee classroom established. 9. As the students learn about the situation in Darfur, make sure they are constantly comparing it to their own situation. Compare the Administration to the Sudan Government, the Janjaweed to the school security, the students to the Sudan civilians, the Sudanese Liberation Army to the teachers, etc. These comparisons should be written in their reflection journals. (NYS Social Studies 2) 10. Simulate problems in Darfur that arise in the classroom. For example, in the case of a water or food shortage or contamination, a comparison might be to take away paper from the students. Take away desks. Have other classrooms come in and donate supplies. Separate or reunite students. Snack should be provided in small amounts and should be rationed. Etc. Every time a new issue arises, take time to discuss with the class and arrive at solutions everyone agrees on. (All Standards) 11. As the unit goes on, discuss with students how the situation in Darfur could be resolved, and how that would relate to their own situation being resolved. What is the ultimate goal? To return to their classroom safely. As the students come up with solutions for the conflict, declare

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some of those solutions successful in their own situation. As the unit ends, allow the students to return to their own classroom, which should still be in its ransacked state.

Closure:When the students return to the classroom, once the unit is over, the classroom will still be in a destroyed state. Work together with the students to put it back to the way it was before. Compare it to the people in Darfur: if they return home, they too will have to rebuild and repair. Once the classroom is back to normal, have an open discussion about the entire experience. Ask them to reflect on how their situation mirrored Darfur's. Discuss their feelings on the entire experience. Review what has happened in Darfur, and if it is viable that a solution will come soon. Allow students to raise their own questions and discuss them. Following the discussion, have students write a reflection as a final entry in their reflection journals. Ask them to summarize the entire experience and describe what they now know about Darfur.

Follow Up:Look into organizations that help refugees in Darfur, and find out if there is any way to contribute. Also look into organizations that help homeless people in the community, and organize a food or donation drive to help them.

Assessment:Students will be assessed based on the reflection journals they turn in. Students should complete one reflection for every day. Each reflection should describe the events that took place in the classroom and new facts they have learned about Darfur. The final reflection should demonstrate growth from the first reflection.

Reflection:Were the students concerned about the activity that was detrimental to their education? How and could this be avoided? Was there substantial growth from the first to the last reflection? Were the lack of supplies negatively impacting their learning? Were the students able to make connections from their situation to the Darfur Refugees' situation? Were there comparisons to the school environment that did not work? Which worked well? What could have been included? Were there more experiences that could be integrated into the unit to simulate a refugee's life? What was the parents' reaction to this?

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Lesson Plan 2 - DBQWhat issues need to be addressed to end the conflict in Darfur? What obstacles stand in the way that will make this difficult?The DBQ is an important part of standardized testing and is unfortunately something that needs to be addressed on its own in order for students to be successful in that area. However, used properly, it can also be a valuable tool for helping students to understand a situation from a primary perspective. This unit plan is based off a DBQ format; however, it has been changed, so instead of individual work, the students are encouraged to work together and discuss the questions presented based on the documents to come to a conclusion. I believe better and more learning will occur through peer interaction and discussion of these subjects. After the discussion has occurred, guided by the teacher, the students will discuss the main question as a class. Once it has been discussed, the students will be asked to use their reflection journals to answer the main question. This will be used as assessment, as well as the paper turned in by each discussion group to record their answers.

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Grade Level: 6th Grade Goal:The goal of this lesson is to reinforce the DBQ process, and to provide students with factual, primary sources dealing with Darfur to help them better understand the situation.

Objectives:The student will: - use primary sources to answer comprehension questions - use primary sources to answer scaffolding questions - make connections between the documents to answer the main question - communicate with groupmates to agree upon answers - demonstrate understanding of Darfur situation through writing and oral conversation

Standards:English Language Arts (International) 1. Students read a wide range of print and non-print texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment. Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary works. 3. Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their knowledge of word meanings and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features. 4. Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences for a variety of purposes 5. Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of means. 6. Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions, media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and non-print texts. 7. Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience. 12. Students use spoken, written and visual language to accomplish their own purposes. Social Studies (NYS) 2. World History - Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of major ideas, eras, themes, developments, and turning points in world history and examine the broad sweep of history from a variety of perspectives.

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3. Geography - Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of the geography of the interdependent world in which we live - local, national, and global, including the distribution of people, places, and environments over the Earth's surface. 4. Economics - Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of how the United States and other societies develop economic systems and associated institutions to allocate scarce resources, how major decision making units function in the United States and other national economies, and how an economy solves the scarcity problem through marked and non-market mechanisms. 5. Civics, Citizenship, and Government - Students will use a variety of intellectual skills to demonstrate their understanding of the necessity for establishing governments; the governmental system of the United States and other nations; ... English Language Arts (NYS) 1. Language for Information and Understanding - Students will listen, speak, read, and write for information and understanding. As listeners and readers, students will collect data, facts, and ideas; discover relationships, concepts, and generalizations; and use knowledge generated from oral, written, and electronically produced texts. As speakers and writers, they will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language to acquires, interpret, apply, and transmit information. 3. Language for Critical Analysis and Evaluation - Students will listen, speak, read, and write for critical analysis and evaluation. As listeners and readers, students will analyze experiences, ideas, information, and issues presented by others using a variety of established criteria. As speakers and writers, they will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language to present, from a variety of perspectives, their opinions and judgements on experiences, ideas, information, and issues. 4. Language for Social Interaction - Students will listen, speak, read, and write for social interaction. Students will use oral and written language that follows the accepted conventions of the English language for effective communication with a wide variety of people. As readers and listeners, they will use the social communications of others to enrich their understanding of people and their views.

MaterialsTeacher: Bulletin board with DBQ Students: 1 sheet of paper per 3 students (limited depending on resources)

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Time Allotment:This activity will take approximately 90 minutes.

Procedure:1. Split the students into groups of three or four. 2. Introduce the main question of the DBQ: What factors need to be addressed to end the situation in Darfur? Why might this be difficult? Tell the students to keep this main question in mind as they examine each document. 3. Explain that each document is a primary source. Explore what a primary source is: a document, speech, or other sort of evidence written, created or otherwise produced during the time under study. Primary sources offer an inside view of a particular event. This includes: autobiographies, diaries, e-mail, interviews, letters, minutes, news film footage, official records, photographs, raw research data, speeches. 4. Introduce each primary source to the students, one by one. Ask the questions that accompany each source. Allow the students time to discuss in their groups an answer they agree on. Have them write their answer down on their sheet of paper, taking turns in the group for who the recorder is. Allow the students to walk up to the bulletin board to view the photos and reread the text. It may seem vital to have a copy for each group, but given the nature of the unit and one of the themes being scarcity of resources, it is best to limit it to the bulletin board. (International 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, NYS English Language Arts 1, 3, 4) 5. After the students have time to discuss a document and come up with an answer, discuss as a class the answers they came up with. Compare answers and come up with a general class agreement for each document. Students should take turns representing their group orally. 6. After all the documents have been introduced to the students, ask them to discuss the main question in their groups. Have them write down some of the answers and questions they come up with. 7. Lead the class in a Grand Conversation to answer the main question. Focus on finding the obstacles, how they could be solved, and why it might be difficult. After those points have been addressed, allow the students to bring up their own questions to discuss. Ask guided questions to address interesting and key points. (NYS Social Studies 2, 3, 4 NYS English Language Arts 1, 3, 4,)

Closure:Once the discussion is over, have the students write a formal essay addressing the main question. Ask them to specifically reference the documents and the points addressed in the grand conversation. This can be written in their reflection journals. This assignment should be

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completed in class. If additional time is needed, they may complete it the next day. The papers used to record the answers for each document should be turned in. (International 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, NYS English Language Arts 1, 3, 4, NYS Social Studies 2, 3, 4,)

Follow Up:Invite students to bring in any newspaper articles, photos, or video clips dealing with the Darfur situation. These primary sources may be added to the bulletin board. Once a document has been added to the bulletin board, the students should work together to come up with a comprehension and a scaffolding question, and then work together to relate it to the main question.

Assessment:Students will be assessed based on the answers provided on the group sheet, and on the essay written on the main questions. Students must demonstrate an understanding of the sources and how they relate to the main question. Students should reference the documents and the points addressed in the class discussion. Students will also be assessed on discussion participation; each student should have presented at least once for his or her group, and should have contributed at least once to the group discussion.

Reflection:Was there a probable negative impact of only having a bulletin board to refer to? Did the negative impact outweigh the positive of the simulation of scarcity? Which lesson is more important, in this case? Were the students able to understand the concept of a primary source? Were students able to make connections from the documents to the main question? Were students able to work together in their smaller groups to come up with answers? Did students include points from the discussion in their essays? Did the structure for presenting the documents seem to work well?

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DBQ MaterialsThe documents I have selected were chosen to provide multiple perspectives on the Darfur Conflict. The most important perspectives are those of the people directly involved in the conflict; being the refugees. I have provided several quotations from Darfur refugees that show an important perspective of the situation. The photos I have provided are a neutral perspective of the situation; the photos may be interpreted differently by different people, but the photo is a capture of a true moment in time. The political cartoons provide the perspective of people not directly involved in the crisis, but in a position to give an educated outsider's perspective. These three perspectives are the most important to have in order to have a well-rounded view of the situation; those looking from within, those looking from the outside, and a neutral capture of moments.

Background Summary In January of 2004, the UN estimated that between 700 and 2,000 villages were destroyed in Darfur as a result of the Government of Sudan and their Janjaweed militia. They determined that the GoS and its Janjaweed militia were responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity. In April of 2005, the death toll for Darfur was estimated to be 400,000 people, with 150,000 resulting from direct violence from the GoS and the Janjaweed, and the remaining 250,000 from disease, starvation, and other causes. Starting in 2006, support from relief aid agencies began to diminish. Some agencies simply could not reach the vast amount of people; the World Food Programme stated they would not be able to reach as many as 350,000 people, 70% of which were considered food insecure. Other agencies pulled support due to increasing violence against the humanitarian workers. By October of 2007, significant support had been pulled from Darfur, while nearly 2/3 of the population, 4.2 million people, were dependent on that diminishing relief aid. Violence spread from Darfur to the neighboring Chad, where tere were nearly 200,000 refugees living. Meanwhile, the Government of Sudan began bombing Darfur, displacing 13,000 Sudanese. West Darfur is barren; with only 20,000 inhabitants. In March of 2008, the UN threatened to stop its Humanitarian Air Service, one of the most helpful services, due to increasing violence toward its workers. The refugee camps in Chad had to be moved further inland, due to intense cross-border conflicts. The situation continues to worsen.

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Grand Question What factors needs to happen to end the conflict in Darfur? Why might this be difficult?

Document 1 Us vs Them vs Them vs Them (2008) Over the past five years, in countless villages across the region, civilians have borne the brunt of a war between government-backed militias known as janjaweed and rebels. Some 200,000 people are dead from violence, hunger and disease, and 2.5 million more are displaced. Although the conflict has no clear ethnic or religious lines, the janjaweed hail from nomadic tribes that identify themselves as Arab, and the rebels represent settled tribes usually labeled African. ... But in Darfur the days of ... easily identifiable good guys and bad guys are long gone. ... The Darfur conflict today bears little resemblance to the one ... four years ago. The rebels are splintered into as many as 20 competing factions [small groups within a larger one]; groups of janjaweed militias, dissatisfied with the rewards promised by the government, are crossing sides to join their former enemies; and warring among all tribes has increased. Amid the chaos, the regime [government] of President Omar Hassan al-Bashir continues its brutal crackdown, aggressively attacking rebel redoubts, indiscriminately killing civilians and razing [completely destroying] entire villages. Time Magazine Article

What organizations are civilians being attacked by? What two ethnic groups are involved in this conflict? What is the biggest obstacle in the way of solving this conflict?

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Document 2 Problems with Relief Workers (2007) Twelve relief workers have been killed in the past six months - more than in the previous two years combined. In the last six months, 30 NGO [non-governmental organizations, possibly aid groups] and UN compounds were directly attacked by armed groups. More than 400 humanitarian workers have been forced to relocate 31 times from different locations throughout the three Darfur states Quote from United Nations representative

What problem are aid groups in Darfur facing? What might these aid groups decide to do as a result of this problem?

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Document 3 UN and Darfur

On the UN's response to Darfur What is in the pile? What does the UN seem to be doing about the "pile?" Why is the UN reacting to the situation in Darfur the way they are?

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Document 4 Can you eat it?

A child looks at an ad for the iPhone that says, "Everyone wants an iPhone."

What is the child's priority? What does the ad say about the priority of the Western world? What does this cartoon say about the United State's awareness of the Darfur conflict?

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Document 5 Photos from a Refugee Camp

Close view of a dwelling

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Overview of a camp

What are the dwellings made of? Are the refugees in better living conditions in these camps, or in their villages?

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Pulitzer Prize winning photo taken in 1994

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Photo taken between 2004-present

Were both of these pictures taken during the Darfur conflict? What are both children suffering from? Is this problem something that is caused by the Darfur conflict?

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26 Document 7 An Attack on a Village

"The village was attacked on 28 June 2003, when men on horses and camels and in cars came in and surrounded the village at midday. The Janjawid were accompanied by soldiers of the government, the latter using cars. Two hours later, an Antonov plane and two helicopters flew over the village and shot rockets. The attackers came into the houses and shot my mother and grandfather, without any word. Most of the inhabitants had stayed in their houses. The attack lasted for two hours and everything was burnt down in the village." (A 25-year old woman from Abu Jidad village, in the Abu Gamra region, now in Mile refugee camp, Chad) Who attacked the village? What happened during the attack? Where is the woman now? What seemed to be the reason behind this attack?

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27 Document 8 Water

A child in Darfur What is the child doing? What does this say about the availability of resources?

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28 Document 9 Loss

"As long as the safety of my family is not guaranteed, I don't wish to return to home." (A refugee in Chad) "I have lost everything now; I have nothing but the fingers of my two hands." (A refugee in Chad)

What does the first refugee have that the second refugee might not? How important are material possessions to refugees?

Sources Amnesty USA, (2009). From the Ground: Darfuri Refugees in Chad Speak Out. Retrieved April, 10, 2009, from http://www.amnestyusa.org/darfur/darfur-facts/ testimony-darfuri-refugees-in-chad/page.do?id=1101970 Dealey, Sam. (Mar 6, 2008). No Moral Clarity in Darfur. Time. Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1720105,00.html Gregory, Shirley Siluk, (2007). Photo. Retrieved April, 10, 2009, from http://greenoptions.com/tag/un/3/ Jones, Ingrid, (2006). The children of Sudan are its future - Save the Children . Retrieved April, 10, 2009, from http://sudanwatch.blogspot.com/2006/01/childrenof-sudan-are-its-future-save.html Ramirez, Michael, (2007). Darfur Political Cartoon. Retrieved April, 10, 2009, from http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/747093299 Support Darfur, (2009). Photo. Retrieved April, 10, 2009, from http://www.supportdarfur.com/ Waging Peace, (2009). Darfur Summary Report. Retrieved April, 10, 2009, from http://www.wagingpeace.info/?q=node/34 Washington Examiner, (2005). Darfur Political Cartoon. Retrieved April, 10, 2009, from http://pajamasmedia.com/instapundit-archive/archives/week_2005_01_30.php

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Lesson 3 - Simulated JournalWhat is the daily life of a Darfur refugee like?

The purpose of this lesson is to serve both as an assessment and as a creative writing activity. Once the unit has been completed, the students will write a simulated journal from the perspective of a refugee in Darfur. They will draw on experiences from both the simulation in the classroom and from the information gained from the unit. The students will include specific details that show understanding of the situation, as well as references to at least 5 different historical events that occurred in Darfur. This will be an opportunity for students to express their creativity and exercise the use of voice, audience, and perspective in writing. This is also a means to check if students retained knowledge of the situation in Darfur. Students will be given ample time to complete the journals in class, so they will not have to deal with the stress of having to complete everything at home. Students will have access to all materials used in the unit, including books, movies, and websites. I will also be available as a resource. Students will be allowed to interact and collaborate with each other, with the understanding that each journal must still remain unique. I do not want students to feel like they are alone in this project or that it is a test; instead, I want them to be able to work together in a way that benefits everyone and increases everyone's knowledge. As long as the final product is of their own creation (which will be easy to monitor, considering the project will be done in class) and includes the required elements, the journal is effective for assessment. Some effort should be given to the presentation of the journal so that is more than just white, printed paper. A model will be provided to the students, in the form of a teacher-created journal that will be partially read to the students and available in the literacy area for students to read

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themselves. If this is the second year this unit has been presented, an exemplar journal from the previous year should be shown as the model. This, along with the reflection journals, will be the main means of assessment through the unit. Once all the journals have been completed and turned in, they will be put on display in the classroom, available for other students to view. Once the unit is completely over, the journals should be placed in the literacy area so they may be read during free time.

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Lesson 4 - FoodWhat food do refugees survive on?I would like to cook a meal that the refugees staying in Chad eat every day. The meal consists of millet flour, water, and vegetable oil. The millet must be ground into flour before it can be used. I would like to bring in enough millet, water, and oil to make a small portion for every student in the class. Then, the students will grind the millet, and cook according to the instructions: Bring the water to a boil, and add the millet flour in small amounts. Stir constantly as it thickens and bubbles, pulling it toward yourself in the pot. Once it holds together in a gelatinous mass, it is ready to be removed. A bowl is oiled and the mixture is pressed into it to make a round shape. The top is flattened. Then, it is inverted onto a plate. I feel this process is simple enough for the students to complete with supervision. Then,

the students will be able to sample the meal. I fully expect the students to find the meal rather unpleasant to eat, but it is my hope they will gain some perspective of what the refugees from Darfur have to eat three times a day. I would also like to stress that those who have access to this porridge-like meal are among the lucky ones who actually have access to food. Connected to this lesson, I feel it would be appropriate to introduce nutrition. Malnutrition is one of the concerns in Darfur, but it stems beyond simply having not enough to eat; we must also eat the right kinds of things in order to survive. During this lesson, I would like to go over what kinds of food and nutrients a person needs to be healthy, and what the people in Darfur are eating. We will examine the nutritional value of the millet porridge and find out what else the family needs to be eating in order to remain healthy. Using the book, What the World Eats, we will look at the food that is rationed to the family and determine whether or not they are being properly fed, and what deficiencies might mean for their health. We should also examine health concerns in Sudan and determine if they might be linked to malnutrition.

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Finally, I will ask the students to keep track of what they are eating, and we will find out if they are being properly fed.

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Annotated List of ResourcesCheadle, Don. (Producer), & Braun, Ted. (Director). (2007). Darfur Now. [Motion picture]. USA: Crescendo Productions. This is a documentary about Darfur. It follows six people's journeys through Darfur and through their efforts to help: A UCLA graduate in LA, a Darfurian woman who joins rebel forces, the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court in The Hague, a UN humanitarian in Sudan, a well known actor and activist, and a community leader in a West Darfur refugee camp. It has footage from the ground in Darfur, inside a refugee camp, throughout Sudan, and of peoples' reactions back in the US. I would not show just a clip of this video. I would show the entire thing in segments, perhaps 30 minutes a day. After every showing, I would expect students to participate in a class discussion about how they feel about what they have just seen. I feel it's important to discuss and debate this film, so questions can be raised and answered, and students can form their own opinions. This is a video I feel is important to show, especially because the footage is more powerful than the words they may read in the books about Darfur. With this, the students will be able to see what is going on.

de Waal, Alex. (1989). Famine that Kills: Darfur, Sudan. Oxford: University Press Famine that Kills is a book written in 1989 about the famine taking place in Darfur, Sudan. It starts with an overview of famine itself, describes the Darfur region, and discusses past famines in history. Then, it discusses the cause of famine, including drought, and the hunger the famine causes. It goes on to describe famine's effect on the people and their way of life, and of

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death. Finally, it talks about ways to help the situation, and what should be and should have been done. What is most important about this book, perhaps, is that it was written before the Darfur crisis took place. It is a look into the way life was in Sudan before the added violence from the government took place. This book helps me understand where Darfur was, and what it has come to, and why. This book will be relied on in class to discuss famine, what causes it, and what its effects are. Famine is a huge part of the Darfur crisis, and is something that existed prior to the added violence. This book will also be available for students to browse through if they wish.

Fowler, Jeremy. (2007). Save Darfur. Retrieved May 1, 2009, from http://savedarfur.org

Save Darfur is an extremely useful website that may be used by students. It serves mainly as a central hub for all information regarding Darfur. There are links to photo journals, books, movies, and articles. There are links to other groups helping the situation. There are plenty of links to resources that may be helpful to students. The site is dedicated to helping the people in Darfur. In addition to sending the students to the website to find resources, I would also like to use the website to find out how students can help. There is an entire page devoted to student activists and how they can help, as well as links to lesson plans for different age groups as a resource for teachers. In fact, the lesson provided for students from 6-8th grade might be easily incorporated into this unit as a way to introduce more background information. The resources on this website are abundant, and it seems to be the leading website to use for information on

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Darfur. I expect each student to retrieve at least one unique fact they have found via the website that will be shared in class during a discussion.

Marlowe, Jen. (2006). Darfur Diaries: Stories of Survival. NY: Nation Books

Darfur Diaries is the story of three independent film makers who traveled to Eastern Chad and crossed the border into Darfur with the intent to learn about the people there. They met dozens of Darfurians, and learned about their thoughts and feelings about the situation they lived in. The book is an account of the three filmmakers' personal journey through Darfur, with the stories of the people they met there woven in. This is a first-hand account of what it is like to live in Darfur. I would use this book as a nonfiction resource for students. Because of the nature of the unit, this is something I would likely read aloud to the students, rather than providing them each with a copy or photocopied passage. The book will be available in the room for students to read in their free time if they wish, but I feel it will be beneficial for students to have it read to them for several reasons. First, listening to a story being read helps students to gain proficiency in listening and retaining knowledge they have heard. Second, by the sixth grade, students aren't read to anymore. To have a story read to you with feeling is something most people never grow out of. I would like students to keep a piece of paper handy when the book is read, and they should jot down any thoughts they have or questions they come up with. When the reading is done, there should be a discussion of what the students have written down, and the papers will be collected. Students will be expected to write down at least two thoughts or questions per reading. This will also focus the listening.

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Okorafor-Mbachu, Nnedi. Zahara the Windseeker. (2005). New York: Houghton Mifflen Okorafor-Mbachu, Nnedi. The Shadow Speaker. (2007). New York: Sun/Hyperion Books for Children These two books are two in a series set in Africa. I felt it was best to include both of them, as they are part of a series and compliment one another. The setting is Africa, some time in the future. In the first book, 13 year old Zahara has powers that exceed those of the people around her. She must go on a journey to save her friend, who has been injected with a poison, which has an antidote that only Zahara can retrieve. In the second book, 14 year old Ejii must travel across the Sahara to master her own powers. Though both books are set in a futuristic setting, and are indeed fantasy fiction, I feel they are valuable to have in the classroom because of the characters and setting. The characters are of African descent, and native African culture and religion as well as Islamic religion can be seen throughout the story. Combined with the fact that it is set in Africa, this series is somewhat of a rarity; we do not often see a fantasy genre book set in Africa with African characters. The majority of stories students read are likely about American or European places and characters. These books will be available in the classroom, along with a number of other nonfiction, fiction, and picture books, to make up a small classroom library from which the students can pull books to read. It would be my goal to have all the books available in a literacy center. The books should stay in the classroom, so more than one student can read a book at a time. Each student

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should have his or her own personal bookmark that will keep their place in the book. It is possible to have multiple bookmarks in one book. I expect each student to have their bookmark in a book.