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Darfur Genocide Darfur Genocide Cultural Differences Cultural Differences Janjaweed Janjaweed National Islamic Front National Islamic Front China’s Role China’s Role U.N Involvement U.N Involvement Multinational Companies Multinational Companies September Laws September Laws National Geographic National Geographic

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  • Darfur GenocideCultural DifferencesJanjaweedNational Islamic FrontChinas Role U.N Involvement Multinational Companies September LawsNational Geographic

  • Sudan

  • Some InformationThe Darfur region of western Sudan borders the Central African Republic, Libya and Chad covering an area of approximately 493 000 square kilometersThe region is divided into 3 federal states; West Darfur, South Darfur and North DarfurPopulation is between 6 and 7 million people

  • SituationOne of the worlds largest concentrations of human sufferingThousands of people have been killed since 2003Over 4.5 million people in Darfur and eastern Chad now rely on humanitarian aid2.7 million people have been internally displaced

  • SudanCultural Differences

  • Darfur Tribes36 main tribes in DarfurArab or non-Arab tribes3 largest non-Arab tribes are the Fur, Zaghawa and Massaleit (3 most directly targeted tribes in genocide)

  • Tribes of Sudan

  • 1899-19561899 established Anglo-EgyptianThere have always been many cultural differences between the North and the South of Sudan.1924-1956 was ruled as two separate territories (North and South)Two regions developed unique cultural and religious characteristics

  • North(Islamic)

    75-80% populationSouth (Christian)

    5% population

  • The NorthRuled by EgyptPractices Islamic faith

  • The SouthRuled by the BritishBritish wanted to reduce influence of Islam and encourage Christian missionaries to work and promote the English language

  • September LawsThe September Laws were created by the Nimeiri Government, 1983Transformed Sudan into an Islamic state, forcing Islamic faith on the population, and subjecting even non-Muslims to harsh penalties

  • Jaafar Nimeiri, ex-president of Sudan. Nimeiri brought Islamic law to Sudan during his rule.

  • *Chart from http://muslim-canada.org/islam_christianity.html

    Islam ( North )Christianity ( South )Do not believe in the TrinityChristians believe in the Trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit)Jesus is a Prophet and a servant of God. Muhammad is also a Prophet and a servant of God. He was the last Prophet sent by God to guide and teach mankind.As a member of the Trinity, Jesus is viewed as God Himself.The Quranic teachings in this regard may be summed up as follows: (1) Christ was neither crucified nor killed by the Jews, notwithstanding certain apparent circumstances which produced that illusion in the minds of some of the enemies; and (2) Jesus was taken up to God (i.e.. God raised him up (raf'a) to Himself.) [Qur'an 4:157, 158 & 3:55 & 4:157]Christians believe that Jesus was crucified on a cross.Hell is a place of purification, and is permanent. Paradise is a reward, Paradise will be eternal. Once meriting it, there can be no question of being ejected from it. Hell is eternal, but Purgatory is not They believe it is a place or state of punishment wherein the souls of those who die in God's grace may do penance for past sins and hence become cleansed and fit for heaven. Only Christians can go to heaven.

  • *Chart from http://muslim-canada.org/islam_christianity.html

  • The differences between the Muslim and Christian populations have caused many civil wars and political, religious, and cultural disputesUnfortunately these issues have yet to be solved, and the northern and southern Sudanese continue to live in discordVS.

  • means a man with a gun on a horse, in Arabic

    Started to be more aggressive in 2003

    Are a loose roving band of armed fighters worked as a freelance tribal militia for 10 years before assuming the role of counterinsurgent used by the government of Sudan to combat rebels.

    Began pillaging towns and villages inhabited by members from which rebel armies draw strength-the Zaghawa, Masalit, and Fur tribes.

  • Rather well- equiped fighting forces that enjoy the overt assistance of the Sudanese Government

    June 2004, Sudanese army was openly recruiting horse-owning Arab men, promising them a gun and a monthly salary of $116 in exchange for joining a Janjaweed cohort.

    Money that gets paid to the Janjaweed comes directly from booty captured in raids on villages, giving them an additional incentive to act with extreme brutality

    Janjaweed commanders are using racism as a rallying point, encouraging their charges to rape the dark-skinned villagers they encounter during their raids

  • Janjaweed commanders are living in government garrison towers

    Janjaweed militiamen wear combat fatigues identical to those of the regular army

    Sudanese Government has strongly denied offering any support to the Janjaweed

    Sudanese Government denies any relationship with the Janjaweed and says that it is seeking to disarm both the Janjaweed and the Darfur Rebels

  • "The government armed the people who volunteered to fight against the rebels, the armed groups. And, these people were not Janjaweed," Sudanese Ambassador to the United States Khidir Haroun Ahmed told the Online News Hour in September 2005. "The government has no hesitation at all in disarming the Janjaweed. The problem is the other nomad tribes. These people and the lack of law enforcement in the region, they will not disarm themselves unless you disarm the rebels groups."

  • National Islamic FrontA Brief Introduction

  • BasicsAn Islamic political organisation created and led by Dr. Hassan Al-Turabi in 1985.Created in the 1960s, it was originally known as the Islamic Charter Front.It was later known as the Muslim Brotherhood. The name came from the Muslim Brotherhood from Egypt, who had been active in Sudan since 1949. Their objective in Sudan was to bring in Islamic law (Sharia)

  • ShariaCode of law for MuslimsBased on revelation of Mohammed and what is written in the QuranBelieved to be Gods lawDeals with secular, political and economical law5 countries use it Nationally

  • Basics (Contd)In the mid-1960s, they overthrew the Communist party that was ruling SudanAfter Nimeiri was overthrown, Al-Turabi set up the NIF, which then was dominated by the former members of the Muslim Brotherhood

  • Basics (Contd)Heavily influences the Sudanese government, ever since 1979 and dominated since 1989While it is still technically a political organization, the NIF greatly expresses ruthlessness and rampant violence. They do this by arming and training loyalist militias such as the Janjaweed

  • Al-Turabi InterviewShort Interview with Al-Turabi discussing his views on Darfur.


  • Trade to SudanChina is Sudans biggest trade partner.Sudan imports low cost items as well as armaments from China.China sells military transportation to Sudan in violation of the 2006 arms embargo.

  • OilChina imports oil from Sudan.In 1999 the value of Chinas oil trade with Africa was $2 billion.China has a 40% share in Sudans oil.

  • Chinas Military PresenceChina has trained fighter pilots for the Sudanese military.China has supplied arms and ammunition for the military in Sudan.Chinese-made Fantan fighters that have been sold to Sudan have been photographed in Nyala, Sudan

  • Chinas Support of the Darfurian KillingsHuman rights organizations have criticized China for its supportive relationship with the Sudanese government, which is committing mass killings in Darfur.China has threatened to veto UN Security Council actions to combat the Darfur crisis.

  • Darfur Genocide:U.N. Involvement

  • BackgroundFighting broke out between Sudan government forces, allied Janjaweed militia, and armed rebel forces in 2003.200,000 people have been killed and 2 million people displaced since then.This fighting was a part of the Sudanese governments attempt to get rid of non-Islamic groups in Sudan.

  • Recognition as GenocideIn 2004 the US secretary of state declared the incident in Darfur as a genocide.No other permanent member of the U.N. Security Council has done the same.In 2005 an International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur stated that the government had not pursued a policy of genocide but had committed war crimes and crimes against humanity.

  • U.N. ActionsIn May 2004, after two U.N. missions found massive human rights violations and humanitarian need, the president of the Security Council called on the government of Sudan to disarm the Janjaweed militia.

  • Resolution 1556This resolution was passed by the U.N. in July of 2004.It demanded that the government disarm the Janjaweed and bring their leaders tio justice, threatening sanctions if they failed to comply.It also endorsed the deployment of African Union troops to monitor ceasefire talks going on at the time and banned the sale of firearms to non-government officials and those who support the Janjaweed.By the time this was passed the situation has worsened.

  • ProblemsStronger measures were recommended but could not be carried out.China and Russia threatened to veto sanctions or direct U.N. intervention.China owns 40% of Sudans main oil producing field.Russia is thought to be the Sudanese governments main arms supplier.

  • What Is Being DoneThe U.N. is currently operating the largest aid effort in the world in Darfur and refugee camps in neighboring Chad and the Central African Republic.In 2006 a joint U.N.-African Union mission in Darfur, called UNAMID, began. It is a three phase plan to bring peace to the region.

  • In this presentation we are going to educate you on the different multinational companies that are located in Sudan. Some companies which had major effects on the Darfur genocide, others who had negative effects in Darfur and some who just in general work in the area. You will also see that there are NO U.S based companies located and/or doing business in Sudan. Nevertheless, the State of Iowa does hold limited investments with internationalcorporations that do business in the country. Twisted huh?

  • One of the major multinational companies that held a negative effect on Darfur was oil companies. Oil companies would make oil extraction easy and profitable in Sudan, funding the Sudanese Government. The biggest oil company fueling violence and producing in Sudan is CNPC. They are the biggest player in Sudan's oilfield bring Sudan's oil revenue up by 291 % bringing in $4.7 billion. Sudan's finance minister has said that at least 70 % of the oil profits go to the Sudanese Armed Forces. This is negative because the Sudanese Armed Forces are linked with its militia allies to the crimes in Darfur.

  • Most companies have withdrawn and fled from Sudan because of its worsening political instability.Companies such as:ABB LTD. Previously AT&T.Bharat Heavy ElectricalThe US government has even paid certain companies to close there business in Sudan and leave. These companies do not agree with the decisions that have been made by the government in Sudan and dont want anthing to do with the awful events taking place in Darfur. Most of these companies are US based.

  • There are also mutual companies located in Sudan who ignore the violence, dont take part or support the violence and just mind their own business. They continue to produce product and make money with out supporting the Sudanese Government.

  • The September Laws.

  • What were the September Laws?They were laws put in effect by Military dictator Jafar Mohammed-Al Numeri from 1983-1985.They were part of his Islamization campaign to sustain his political standing and to justify authoritarian rule. His intention was to transform Sudan into a Muslim-Arab state, he divided the south into three regions and instituted Sharia law.

  • Sharia Law is used to refer both to the Islamic law and the Islamic way of life.It is the dominant Law in Sudan, and was used to legitimize the September Laws. It is described as being "... a religious code for living, in the same way that the Bible offers a moral system for Christians.Literally translated it means the path to the watering hole

  • Southern Sudan. The separation of southern Sudan was controversial even in the Northern Muslim community To insure the law was applied more broadly, and for it to not be questioned, president Numeri declared a state of emergency on April 26th 1984 The separation pitted the separate regions against each other, killing many and clearing Sudan of its none Muslim community without blame landing directly back onto the government.

  • The colonisation of Sudan Before Jafar- Al Numeri was put into power, to be able to implement the September laws, colinization was taking place in the country of SudanBritain ran Sudan as a colony, they administered the northern and southern provinces separately.The South was held to be more similar to East African Colonies, while Northern Sudan was more similar to Arabic speaking Egypt.Northerners were prevented from holding positions of power in the South and trade was discouraged between two areas.

  • However in 1946, the British gave in to Northern Pressure to Integrate the two areas.

    Arabic was made the language of administration in the South, and Northerners began to hold positions there. The Southern Elite trained in English and resented the change as they were kept out of their own government.

    After Decolonization power was given to the Northern Elites, based in Khartoum, causing unrest in the south.

  • Islamic Law The Islamic Law, known as the Sharia, is the sacred law of Islam. The Sharia is like a guideline to life, basing laws on Muslim principles of jurisprudence. It addresses crime, politics, and economics and as well as personal issues like hygiene, sexuality and diet. Its followed by well over one billion people.

  • Using Islamic law as their main body of law blurred the lines between state and secular in Sudan While the majority of Northern Sudan was Muslim, the majority of Southern Sudan was either Christian or believed in the local religion There was obvious tension between the north and the south in Sudan during this time, which sparked a civil war. The government at the time was Islamic, so the NCP (National Congress Party) issued armies to go out and destroy potential rebel groups that could be a threat to the government.

  • National Geographic

  • African refugee life Since fighting broke out between rebel groups and government-backed militias in the Darfur region of western Sudan in 2003, an estimated 200,000 people have been killed or have died of starvation or disease. Atrocities attributed to the militias, known as the Janjaweed, include the burning and looting of villages, and large-scale killings, torture, and rape. The violence has forced more than 2.2 million people to flee their homes.

  • Darfur Death Toll Is Hundreds of Thousands Higher Than ReportedUnited States government death toll estimates for the war-torn Darfur region of Sudan in Africa underestimate the count by hundreds of thousands of lost lives. Hagan and co-author Alberto Palloni of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, estimate that the conflict has caused anywhere from 170,000 to 255,000 deaths, and they say the number could be much higher. "Analysis of factors confounding previous estimates leads to the conclusion that hundreds of thousand of people have died as a result of the conflict in Darfur,"

  • Geographic Reporter on Imprisonment, War's Future Well, for the first 10 or 11 days of my assignmentI was just beginning a long journey across the Sahel, across five countriesI spent much of my time in refugee camps on the Chad side of the border. And these camps contained tens of thousands of peoplethey're teeming. There are canvas tents bolstered by pieces of scrap wood, driftwood, whatever people can scrounge together to create shelter, very densely packed together. Once you go into the war zone proper, there's an added layer of danger. Of course, you're in an area where there are many armed factions floating around. Often you don't even know who they are.

  • Slim Promise of Peace? Desertification and competition for natural resources are among the underlying causes of the recent Darfur conflict. More than 200,000 people have been killed and 2.5 million others chased from their homes during the four-year strife.

  • Describe the daily routine of a woman living in one of the camps.What you have to know is that 80 percent of the refugees are women and children. So the women are really holding the family structure together. A lot of the husbands have been killed or belong to the rebel groups, or they're taking care of the cattle. It's a daily struggle for survival. People live in makeshift shelters, very close to each other, so they don't have space. So women would go and collect wood, and that takes sometimes the whole day, because they walk two to three hours to the bush and then two or three hours to come back. And then they would try to sell the wood in the city or in the camp to try to have some additional income for their families. For women not in an official camp, they also have to go and collect the water. They carry jerricans [containers that hold about 5 gallons, or 19 liters, of liquid]. ... And they do that several times a day. The work there is survival.

  • VideosChinas Role In the Darfur http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uL9r5DYK54s

    National Islamic Front - Short Interview with Al-Turabi discussing his views on Darfur. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gdWfKSrJ42o&feature=fvw

    Multinational Companies of Sudan http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uL9r5DYK54s

    September Laws http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=suQAk5TtEWc