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  • 8/12/2019 Darfur Destroyed

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    Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc Khy 1??5 Tgi. 84, Bg. 4(H)

    EHQD]Q EMZUQGPME

    [email protected] [email protected] AP NGTMQBKMBU HBE [email protected]@[email protected]

    DGQJMZ @B ^MZUMQB Z]EHB

    Z]KKHQP.................................................................................................................................... 8Z]KKHQP [email protected]................................... :AHJFNQG]BE......................................................................................................................... =HA]ZMZ AP UCM NGTMQBKMBU-LHBLH^MME @B ^MZU EHQD]Q.................... >

    Khss F`ii`bns Ay tcm Ngvmrbkmbt hbe Lhblhwmme............................................................... 3Htthjfs hbe khsshjrms `b Ehr Khshi t ............................................................................... 3Khss Mxmjut`gbs gd jhpturme Dur kmb `b ^he` Zhi`c< 85= f`iime................................ 18Gtcmr Khss F`ii`bns gd Dur j`v`i`hbs b he` Zhi`c........................................................ 1:

    Hmr`hi agkahrekmbt gd j`v i`hbs .......................................................................................... 15Zystmkht`j Uhrnmt`bn gd Khrshi` hbe Dur, Aurb`bns gd Khrshi`t T`iihnms hbe

    Emstrujt`gb gd Dgge Ztgjfs hbe Gtcmr Mssmbt`hi @tmks ..................................................14Emstrujt`gb gd Kgsqums hbe @sihk`j Qmi`n`gus Hrt`jims............................................... 1>F`ii`bns hbe hsshuit hjjgkphby`bn iggt`bn gd prgpmrty....................................................13Qhpm hbe gtcmr dgrks gd smxuhi v`gimbjm............................................................................::Mddgrts tg _rmvmbt Qmturb gd E`spihjme Khshi`t hbe Dur .................................................:5

    Gjjupht`gb hbe Qmsmttimkmbt gd Khshi`t T`iihnms ay Lhblhwmme................................. :[email protected]`bn tcm drmm kgvmkmbt gd j`v`i`hbs ....................................................................... :>

    [email protected] [email protected] @B ^MZU EHQD]Q ................................................................ :[email protected]@GBHI [email protected] GD NGTMQBKMBU ^[email protected] CHBE @B

    NIGTM ^@UC LHBLH^MME ............................................................................................... 51Ngvmrbkmbt hek`ss`gbs gd ts Lhblhwmme rmiht`gbsc`p.....................................................5:Zuehbmsm ngvmrbkmbt usm gd mtcb`j k`i`t`hs dgr jgubtmr`bsurnmbjy...............................55Qmjru`tkmbt gd jr`k`bhis tg imhe tcm Lhblhwmme.................................................................5>@kpub`ty dgr tcm Lhblhwmme< _gi`jm Dgra`eemb tg _ub`sc ................................................50

    UGG [email protected], UGG IHUM< Z]EHBMZM HBE @[email protected]

    QMZ_GBZM 1??5 ....................................................................................................................... =?Qmspgbsm gd tcm Zuehbmsm ngvmrbkmbt hbe tcm rmami nrgups< Ucm jmhsmd`rm hnrmmkmbt

    ...................................................................................................................................................=?Ucm ]b`tme Bht`gbs< strgbn sthtmkmbts drgk ].B. sthdd..................................................=1Ucm ].B. Jgkk`ss`gb gb Cukhb Q`ncts< kgrm cmht tchb i`nct ....................................=5Ucm Murgpmhb ]b`gb hbe Murgpmhb kmkamr sthtms ........................................................=4Ucm Hdr`jhb ]b`gb hbe Hdr`jhb kmkamr sthtms.................................................................=>Ucm ]b`tme Zthtms.................................................................................................................... =3Ucm cukhb thr`hb rmspgbsm...................................................................................................=3

    D]II [email protected]............................................=0

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    [email protected] H< _G_][email protected] GD Z]EHB< [email protected] JMBZ]Z GD 80=4............... 4:[email protected] A< _G_][email protected] GD ^MZU EHQD]Q......................................................45H__M[email protected] J< ZGKM KGZX]MZ A]QBME @B EHQ [email protected] [email protected] E< KHZZHJQM HBE KHZZ [email protected]@BN [email protected]@KZ, ................................ 4>KMUCGEGIGNP ...................................................................................................................>=HJFBG^IMENMKMBUZ ....................................................................................................>=

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    8 C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H)

    Z]KKHQP

    Ucm ngvmrbkmbt gd Zuehb `s rmspgbs`aim dgr mtcb`j jimhbs`bn hbe jr`kms hnh bst

    cukhb`ty b Ehrdur, gbm gd tcm wgries pggrmst hbe kgst bhjjmss`aim rmn`gbs, gb

    Zuehbs wmstmrb agremr w`tc Jche. Ucm Zuehbmsm ngvmrbkmbt hbe tcm HrhaLhblhwmme k`i`t`hs t hrks hbe suppgrts chvm jgkk`ttme bukmrgus htthjfs gb tcm

    j`v`i`hb pgpuiht`gbs gd tcm Hdr`jhb Dur, Khshi`t hbe \hnchwh mtcb`j nrgups.

    Ngvmrbkmbt dgrjms gvmrshw hbe e`rmjtiy phrt`j`phtme b khsshjrms, sukkhry mxmjut`gbs

    gd j`v`i`hbs-`bjiue`bn wgkmb hbe jc`iermbaurb`bns gd tgwbs hbe v`iihnms, hbe tcm

    dgrj`aim empgpuiht`gb gd w`em swhtcms gd ihbe igbn `bcha`tme ay tcm Dur, Khshi`t hbe

    \hnchwh. Ucm Lhblhwmme k`i`t hs, Kusi`k i`fm tcm Hdr`jhb nrgups tcmy htthjf, chvm

    emstrgyme kgsqums, f`iime Kusi`k rmi`n`gus imhemrs, hbe emsmjrhtme Xgrhbs amigbn`bn tg

    tcm`r mbmk`ms.

    Ucm ngvmrbkmbt hbe `ts Lhblhwmme hii`ms chvm f`iime tcgushbes gd Dur, Khshi t, hbe\hnchwh-- gdtmb `b jgie aigge, rhpme wgkmb, hbe emstrgyme v`iihnms, dgge stgjfs hbe

    gtcmr suppi`ms mssmbt`hi tg tcm j`v`i`hb pgpuiht`gb. Ucmy chvm er`vmb kgrm tchb gbm

    k`ii`gb j`v`i`hbs, kgstiy dhrkmrs, btg jhkps hbe smttimkmbts b Ehrdur wcmrm tcmy i`vm

    gb tcm vmry menm gd surv`vhi, cgsthnm tg Lhblhwmme hausms. Kgrm tchb 88?,??? gtcmrs

    chvm dime tg bm`ncagur`bn Jche aut tcm vhst khlgr`ty gd whr v`jt`ks rmkh`b trhppme b

    Ehrdur.

    Uc`s jgbdi jt chs c`stgr`jhi rggts aut msjhihtme `b Dmaruhry 1??:, wcmb twg rmami nrgups,

    tcm Zuehb I`amrht`gb Hrky/Kgvmkmbt (ZIH/K) hbe tcm Lust`jm hbe Mquhi`ty

    Kgvmkmbt (LMK) erhwb drgk kmkamrs gd tcm Dur, Khshi`t, hbe \hnchwh mtcb`j nrgups,emkhbeme hb mbe tg jcrgb`j mjgbgk`j khrn`bhi`zht`gb hbe sgunct pgwmr-schr`bn w`tc`b

    tcm Hrha-ruime Zuehbmsm sthtm. Ucmy hisg sgunct ngvmrbkmbt hjt`gb tg mbe tcm hausms gd

    tcm`r r`vhis, Hrha phstgrhi`sts wcg wmrm er`vmb gbtg Hdr`jhb dhrkihbes ay ergunct hbe

    emsmrt`d`jht`gbhbe wcg che h bgkhe`j trhe`t`gb gd hrkme k`i`t`hs.

    Ucm ngvmrbkmbt chs rmspgbeme tg tc`s hrkme hbe pgi`t`jhi tcrmht ay thrnmt`bn tcm j`v`i`hb

    pgpuiht`gbs drgk wc`jc tcm rmamis wmrm erhwb. @t arhzmbiy mbnhnme b mtcb`j

    khb`puiht`gb ay grnhb`z`bn h k`i`thry hbe pgi`t`jhi phrtbmrsc`p w`tc sgkm Hrha bgkhes

    jgkpr`s`bn tcm Lhblhwmme6 hrkme, trh`bme, hbe grnhb`zme tcmk6 hbe prgv`eme mddmjt`vm

    `kpub`ty dgr hii jr`kms jgkk`ttme.

    Ucm ngvmrbkmbt-Lhblhwmme phrtbmrsc`p `s jchrhjtmr`zme ay lg`bt htthjfs gb j v`i`hbs

    rhtcmr tchb gb tcm rmami dgrjms. Ucmsm htthjfs hrm jhrr`me gut ay kmkamrs gd tcm

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    C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H) 1

    Zuehbmsm k`i`thry hbe ay Lhblhwmme wmhr`bn ub`dgrks tcht hrm v`rtuhiiy be`st`bnu schaim

    drgk tcgsm gd tcm hrky.

    Hitcgunc Lhblhwmme hiwhys gutbukamr rmnuihr sgie`mrs, eur`bn htthjfs tcm ngvmrbkmbt

    dgrjms usuhiiy hrr`vm d`rst hbe imhvm ihst. @b tcm wgres gd gbm e`spihjme v`iihnmr, Ucmy

    Vtcm sgie`mrs[ smm mvmrytc`bn tcht tcm Lhblhwmme hrm eg`bn. Ucmy jgkm w`tc tcmk, tcmy

    d`nct w`tc tcmk hbe tcmy imhvm w`tc tcmk.

    Ucm ngvmrbkmbt-Lhblhwmme htthjfs hrm drmqumbtiy suppgrtme ay tcm Zuehbmsm h`r dgrjm.

    Khby hsshuits chvm emj`khtme skhii dhrk`bn jgkkub`t`ms, w`tc emhtc tgiis sgkmt`kms

    hpprghjc`bn gbm cuberme pmgpim. Kgst hrm ubrmjgreme.

    Cukhb Q`ncts htjc spmbt twmbty-d`vm ehys b hbe gb tcm menms gd mst Ehrdur,

    egjukmbt`bn hausms `b rurhi hrmhs tcht wmrm prmv`gusiy wmii-pgpuihtme w`tc Khshi`t hbe

    Dur dhrkmrs. Z`bjm Hunust 1??:, w`em swhtcms gd tcm`r cgkmihbes, hkgbn tcm kgstdmrt`im `b tcm rmn`gb, chvm ammb aurbme hbe empgpuihtme. ^`tc rhrm mxjmpt`gbs, tcm

    jgubtrys`em `s bgw mkpt`me gd `ts gr`n`bhi Khshi t hbe Dur `bcha`thbts. Mvmrytc`bn tcht

    jhb susth`b hbe sujjgur i`dm i`vmstgjf, dgge stgrms, wmiis hbe pukps, aihbfmts hbe

    jigtc`bn chs ammb iggtme gr emstrgyme. T`iihnms chvm ammb tgrjcme bgt rhbegkiy, aut

    systmkht`jhiiy gdtmb bgt gbjm, aut tw`jm.

    Ucm ubjgbtrgiime prmsmbjm gd Lhblhwmme `b tcm aurbme jgubtrys`em, hbe `b aurbme hbe

    hahbegbme v`iihnms, chs er`vmb j`v`i`hbs btg jhkps hbe smttimkmbts guts`em tcm ihrnmr

    tgwbs, wcmrm tcm Lhblhwmme f`ii, rhpm, hbe p`iihnmmvmb stmhi`bn mkmrnmbjy rmi`md `tmks--

    w`tc `kpub`ty.

    Emsp`tm btmrbht`gbhi jhiis dgr bvmst`nht`gbs btg hiimnht`gbs gd nrgss cukhb r`ncts

    hausms, tcm ngvmrbkmbt chs rmspgbeme ay emby`bn hby hausms wc`im httmkpt`bn tg

    khb`puihtm hbe stmk `bdgrkht`gb imhfs. @t chs i`k`tme rmpgrts drgk Ehrdur `b tcm

    bht`gbhi prmss, rmstr`jtme btmrbht`gbhi kme`h hjjmss, hbe chs tr`me tg gastrujt tcm digw gd

    rmdunmms `btg Jche. Gbiy hdtmr s`nb`d`jhbt emihys hbe `btmrbht`gbhi prmssurm, wmrm twg

    c`nc-imvmi ]B hssmsskmbt tmhks pmrk`ttme tg mbtmr Ehrdur. Ucm ngvmrbkmbt chs

    prgk`sme ubc`bemrme cukhb`thr hb hjjmss, aut chs dh`ime tg emi`vmr. @bstmhe, rmjmbt

    rmpgrts gd ngvmrbkmbt thkpmr`bn w`tc khss nrhvms hbe gtcmr mv`embjm sunnmst tcm

    ngvmrbkmbt s duiiy hwhrm gd tcm `kkmbs`ty gd ts jr`kms hbe s bgw httmkpt`bn tg jgvmrup hby rmjgre.

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    : C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H)

    ^`tc tcm rh`by smhsgb sthrt`bn `b ihtm Khy hbe tcm mbsu`bn ign`st`jhi e`dd`juit`ms

    mxhjmrahtme ay Ehrdurs pggr rghes hbe bdrhstrujturm, hby btmrbht`gbhi kgb`tgr`bn gd

    tcm schfy Hpr`i jmhsmd`rm hbe jgbt`bu`bn cukhb r`ncts hausms, hs wmii hs hjjmss tg

    cukhb`thr`hb hss`sthbjm, w`ii amjgkm kgrm e`dd`juit. Ucm ]b`tme Zthtms Hnmbjy dgr

    @btmrbht`gbhi Emvmigpkmbt chs whrbme tcht ubimss tcm Zuehbmsm ngvmrbkmbt armhfs

    w`tc phst prhjt jm hbe nrhbts duii hbe `kkme`htm cukhb`thr`hb hjjmss, ht imhst 8??,???whr-hddmjtme j v`i`hbs jguie e`m `b Ehrdur drgk ihjf gd dgge hbe drgk e`smhsm w`tc`b tcm

    bmxt twmivm kgbtcs.

    Ucm `btmrbht`gbhi jgkkub`ty, wc`jc sg dhr chs ammb sigw tg mxmrt hii pgss`aim prmssurm

    gb tcm Zuehbmsm ngvmrbkmbt tg rmvmrsm tcm mtcb`j jimhbs`bn hbe mbe tcm hssgj`htme

    jr`kms hnh`bst cukhb`ty `t chs jhrr`me gut, kust hjt bgw. Ucm ]B Zmjur`ty Jgubj`i, `b

    phrt`juihr, scguie thfm urnmbt kmhsurms tg mbsurm tcm prgtmjt`gb gd j`v`i`hbs, prgv`em dgr

    tcm ubrmstr`jtme emi`vmry gd cukhb`thr`hb hss`sthbjm hbe rmvmrsm mtcb`j jimhbs`bn b

    Ehrdur. @t w`ii sggb am tgg ihtm.

    Z]KKHQP [email protected]

    Ug tcm Ngvmrbkmbt gd Zuehb

    Ngvmrbkmbt dgrjms hbe ngvmrbkmbt-suppgrtme Lhblhwmme k`i`t`hs kust

    `kkme`htmiy jmhsm tcm`r jhkph`nb gd mtcb`j jimhbs`bn hbe htthjfs gb j`v`i`hbs hbe

    j`v`i`hb prgpmrty `b Ehrdur.

    @kkme`htmiy e`shrk hbe e`sahbe tcm Lhblhwmme k`i`t`hs `b Ehrdur hbe w`tcerhw

    tcmk drgk tcgsm phrts gd Ehrdur tcmychvmgjjup`me drgk 1??: tg tcm prmsmbt. Jgbeujt prgkpt, `kphrt`hi hbe `bempmbembt `bvmst`nht`gbs gd hausms ay tcm

    Lhblhwmme k i`t`h dgrjms hbe tcm Zuehbmsm hrkme dgrjms `b Ehrdur, prgsmjutm

    hiimnme pmrpmtrhtgrs b hjjgrehbjm w`tc btmrbht`gbhi dh`r tr`hi sthbehres, hbe

    prgv`em rmphrht`gbs dgr tcm v`jt`ks gd sujc hausms, bjiue`bn ay rmjgvmr`bn hbe

    rmturb`bn hii iggtme prgpmrty.

    Ug tcm Ngvmrbkmbt gd Zuehb hbe tcm gppgs`t`gb ZuehbmsmI`amrht`gb Hrky/Kgvmkmbt (ZIH/K) hbe tcm Lust`jm hbe Mquhi`tyKgvmkmbt (LMK)

    Dhj`i`thtm tcm duii, shdm hbe ub`kpmeme hjjmss gd cukhb`thr`hb pmrsgbbmi hbe tcm

    urnmbt emi`vmry gd cukhb`thr`hb hss`sthbjm tg hii pgpuiht`gbs `b bmme `b Ehrdur.

    Uhfm `kkme htm hbe mddmjt`vm kmhsurms tg mbhaim tcm vgiubthry rmturb gd

    rmdunmms hbe e`spihjme pmrsgbs tg tcm`r cgkms b shdmty hbe e`nb`ty.

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    C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H) 5

    Dhj`i`thtm tcm msthai`sckmbt gd, hbe jggpmrhtm w`tc, h ].B. cukhb r`ncts

    kgb`tgr`bn k`ss`gb, hbe hb btmrbht`gbhi Jgkk`ss`gb gd Mxpmrts tg `bvmst`nhtm

    hbe rmhjc jgbjius`gbs gb tcm mv`embjm jgbjmrb`bn jr`kms hnh`bst cukhb`ty, whr

    jr`kms, hbe gtcmr v`giht`gbs gd `btmrbht`gbhi cukhb`thr`hb ihw jgkk`ttme ay hii

    phrt`ms b Ehrdur b 1??:-1??5.

    Ug tcm kmkamrs gd tcm ]. B. Zmjur`ty Jgubj`i

    Uhfm kmhsurms, bjiue`bn tcrgunc tcm hegpt`gb gd h rmsgiut`gb, tcht smmf tg mbe

    hbe rmvmrsm mtcb`j jimhbs`bn b Ehrdur, mbsurm tcm prgtmjt`gb gd j`v`i`hbs ht

    r`sf, jrmhtm hb mbv`rgbkmbt jgbeuj`vm tg tcm vgiubthry rmturb b shdmty hbe

    e`nb`ty gd hii rmdunmms hbe e`spihjme pmrsgbs, hbe prgv`em dgr tcm mddmjt`vm hbe

    ubrmstr`jtme emi`vmry gd cukhb`thr`hb hss`sthbjm.

    Msthai`sc hb kphrt`hi Jgkk`ss`gb gd Mxpmrts tg bvmst`nhtm hbe rmhjc

    jgbjius`gbs gb tcm mv`embjm jgbjmrb`bn jr`kms hnh`bst cukhb`ty, whr jr`kms

    hbe gtcmr v`giht`gbs gd `btmrbht`gbhi cukhb`thr`hb ihw jgkk`ttme ay hii phrt`ms`b Ehrdur b 1??:-1??5.

    Msthai`sc hb `btmrbht`gbhi cukhb r`ncts kgb`tgr`bn k`ss`gb w`tc d`mie gdd`jms `b

    Ehrdur hbe Fchrtguk khbehtme tg pmr`ge`jhiiy puai`jiy rmpgrt gb cukhb r`ncts

    hbe cukhb`thr`hb ihw v`giht`gbs.

    Ug tcm Hdr`jhb ]b`gb

    Qhp`eiy empigy tcm Jmhsmd`rm Jgkk`ss`gb hbe jmhsmd`rm gasmrvmrs tg Ehrdur hbe

    mbsurm tcht hemquhtm bukamrs gd gasmrvmrs hrm empigyme amdgrm tcm sthrt gd tcm

    rh`by smhsgb. Mbsurm tcht jmhsmd`rm gasmrvmrs pmr`ge`jhiiy puai`jiy rmpgrt gb hii v`giht`gbs gd

    tcm jmhsmd`rm hnrmmkmbt `bjiue`bn tcm phrt`ms jgkpi`hbjm w`tc `btmrbht`gbhi

    cukhb`thr`hb ihw.

    Kgb`tgr hjjmss tg, hbe tcm prgv`s`gb gd, cukhb`thr`hb hss`sthbjm tg whr-hddmjtme

    j`v`i`hbs.

    Ug ].B. kmkamr sthtms

    Jgbtr`autm pmrsgbbmi, mqu`pkmbt, gtcmr rmsgurjms hbe dube`bn tg tcm Hdr`jhb

    ]b`gb jmhsmd`rm kgb`tgr`bn k`ss`gb.

    Jgbtr`autm tg tcm mjgbgk`j hbe sgj`hi rmjgbstrujt`gb gd Ehrdur hbe suppgrt

    `btmrbht`gbhi cukhb`thr`hb hss`sthbjm hbe cukhb r`ncts kgb`tgr`bn hbe

    `bvmst`nht`gbs b Ehrdur.

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    = C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H)

    Ug ].B. cukhb`thr`hb hnmbj`ms hbe cukhb`thr`hb bgbngvmrbkmbthigrnhb`zht`gbs

    _rgkgtm tcm prgtmjt`gb gd j`v`i`hbs s`kuithbmgus w`tc tcm e`str`aut`gb gd

    cukhb`thr`hb hss`sthbjm6 emjmbtrhi`zm h`e e`str`aut`gb rhtcmr tchb jgbjmbtrhtm `t

    `b e`spihjme jhkps hbe smttimkmbts, tg tcm nrmhtmst mxtmbt pgss`aim w`tc`b

    smjur`ty i`k`ts.

    Khfm mddgrts tg prmvmbt tcm jrmht`gb gd pmrkhbmbt e`spihjme pmrsgbs jhkps tcht

    rm`bdgrjm tcm mtcb`j jimhbs`bn hbe dgrjme e`spihjmkmbt tcht chs gjjurrme.

    Jgkpimtm rmjgkkmbeht gbs hppmhr bmhr tcm mbe gd tcm rmpgrt.

    AHJFNQG]BE

    Ehrdur s Zuehbs ihrnmst rmn`gb, gb ts wmstmrb agremr w`tc I`ayh, Jche, hbe tcm Jmbtrhi

    Hdr`jhb Qmpuai`j. Ehrdur chs ammb e`v`eme `btg Zgutc, ^mst, hbe Bgrtc s`bjm 8005. Ucm

    prmegk`bhbt mtcb`j nrgups gd mst Ehrdur hrm tcm Khshi`t hbe Dur, wcg chvm gdtmb

    ub`tme b khrr`hnm w`tc Hrhas hbe gtcmr Hdr`jhbs.8

    ^mst Ehrdur, w`tc h pgpuiht`gb gd kgrm tchb 8.> k`ii`gb,1`s mtcb`jhiiy k`xme hitcgunc

    Hdr`jhb nrgups prmegk`bhtm< `b Nmbm`bh hbe Cha`ih prgv`bjms tcm Khshi`t hrm tcm

    khlgr`ty (4? pmrjmbt), dgiigwme ay tcm Hrhas hbe gtcmr Hdr`jhbs, bhkmiy, \hnchwh,

    Mrmbnh, N`kr, Ehlg, Agrng hbe Dur. @b \hi`bnm`, Lmami Khrrh, hbe he` Zhi`c prgv`bjms

    tcm Dur prmegk`bhtm. @b Fuiaus prgv`bjm hpprgx`khtmiy =? pmrjmbt s N`kr, :? pmrjmbtMrmbnh, 8= pmrjmbt \hnchwh, hbe = pmrjmbt Hrha. Ugnmtcmr tcm Dur hbe tcm Khshi`t

    jgkpr`sm tcm khlgr`ty gd tcm pgpuiht`gb gd mst Ehrdur. Ehr Khshi`t, gr cgkmihbe gd

    8Ucm tmrks Hdr`jhb hbe Hrha chvm ammb usme tg emsjr`am tcm jgbdi`jt `b Ehrdur ymt dh`i tg jhpturm tcm

    mtcb`jhiiy e`vmrsm sgj`mty gd Ehrdur hbe tcm buhbjme rmiht`gbsc`ps hkgbn mtcb`j nrgups. Mspmj`hiiy s`bjm tcm

    amn`bb`bn gd tcm jgbdi`jt `b 1??:, kmkamrs gd tcm \hnchwh, Dur, hbe Khshi`t jgkkub`t`ms chvm usme tcmsm

    tmrks tg emsjr`am tcm nrgw`bn rhj`hi hbe mtcb`j pgihr`zht`gb `b Ehrdur, pmrjm`vme tg rmsuit drgk e`sjr`k`bht`gb

    hbe a`hs mkhbht`bn drgk tcm jmbtrhi ngvmrbkmbt.

    @b tc`s rmpgrt, Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc usms tcm tmrk Hdr`jhb kh`biy tg emsjr`am tcm \hnchwh, Dur, hbe Khshi`t,

    tcm pr`bj`phi v`jt`ks gd tcm ngvmrbkmbts k`i`thry jhkph`nb hnh`bst tcm rmami `bsurnmbjy `b Ehrdur `b 1??:-1??5.Ucm tmrk Hrha `s usme tg emsjr`am tcm Hrha`zme, Hrha`j-spmhf`bn nrgups gd bgkhe`j hbe smk`-bgkhe`j

    pmgpim wcg chvm ammb rmjru`tme hbe empigyme hs Lhblhwmme k`i`t`h. Ucm usm gd tcmsm tmrks `s bgt `btmbeme tg

    nigss gvmr tcm jgkpimx`ty gd tcm mtcb`j p`jturm `b Ehrdur. Khby gd tcm skhiimr Hdr`jhb hbe Hrha mtcb`j nrgups hrm

    bgt e`rmjt phrt`j`phbts `b tcm jgbdi`jt. Zmm Hppmbe`x H dgr h sukkhry gd tcm gbiy mtcb`j jmbsus `b Zuehb, thfmb

    `b 80=4.1Zmm Hppmbe`x A dgr h nmgnrhpc`jhi armhfegwb gd tcm pgpuiht`gb gd ^mst Ehrdur `b 8000.

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    C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H) 4

    tcm Khshi`t,:`s igjhtme hrgube Nmbm`bhtcm sthtm jhp`thihbe bgrtc hbe sgutc higbn

    tcm agremr.

    Ucm Khshi`t, Dur, hbe gtcmr smembthry Hdr`jhb dhrkmrs `b Ehrdur chvm h c`stgry gd jihscms

    gvmr ihbe w`tc phstgrhi`sts drgk Hrha tr`ams, pr`khr`iy tcm jhkmi- hbe jhttim-cmre`bn Amb`

    Cussm`b drgk tcm Fhafha`yh hrmh gd Bgrtc Ehrdur hbe tcm Amb` Chiah gd Zgutc Ehrdur.

    ]bt`i tcm 80>?s, tcmsm tmbs`gbs wmrm fmpt ubemr jgbtrgi ay trhe`t`gbhi jgbdi`jt rmsgiut`gb

    kmjchb`sks ubemrp`bbme ay ihws `bcmr`tme drgk tcm Hbnig-Mnypt`hb Jgbegk`b`uk

    (8303-80=4). ^c`im jihscms gvmr rmsgurjms tggf pihjm, tcmy wmrm usuhiiy rmsgivme

    tcrgunc bmngt`ht`gbs amtwmmb jgkkub`ty imhemrs.5 @t `s bgt tcm jhsm, hs tcm Zuehbmsm

    ngvmrbkmbt kh`bth`bs, tcht tcm jurrmbt v`gimbjm s kmrmiy h prgigbnht`gb gd tcm

    prmegk`bhbtiy mjgbgk`j tr`ahi jgbdi`jts tcht chvm hiwhys mx`stme `b tcm rmn`gb.

    @b rmjmbt emjhems, h jgka`bht`gb gd mxtmbeme pmr`ges gd ergunct6 jgkpmt`t`gb dgr

    ew`bei`bn rmsgurjms6 tcm ihjf gd ngge ngvmrbhbjm hbe emkgjrhjy6 hbe mhsy hvh`iha`i`ty gd

    nubs chvm khem igjhi jihscms `bjrmhs`bniy aiggey hbe pgi`t`j`zme. = H w`em-rmhjc`bn

    8005 hek`b`strht`vm rmgrnhb`zht`gb ay tcm ngvmrbkmbt gd _rms`embt Gkhr Mi Ahsc`r b

    Ehrdur nhvm kmkamrs gd Hrha mtcb`j nrgups bmw pgs`t`gbs gd pgwmr, wc`jc tcm Khshi`t,

    i`fm tcm`r Dur hbe \hnchwh bm`ncagrs, shw hs hb httmkpt tg ubemrk`bm tcm`r trhe`t`gbhi

    imhemrsc`p rgim hbe tcm pgwmr gd tcm`r jgkkub`t`ms `b tcm`r cgkmihbe. 4

    Jgkkubhi cgst`i`t`ms argfm gut b ^mst Ehrdur hkgbn gtcmr pihjms b 8003 hbe 8000

    wcmb Hrha bgkhes amnhb kgv`bn sgutc w`tc tcm`r digjfs mhri`mr tchb usuhi.>Eur`bn tcm

    8003 jihscms, kgrm tchb s`xty Khshi`t v`iihnms wmrm aurbme, gbm Hrha v`iihnm whs aurbme,

    :Ehrrgunciy jgrrmspgbes tg cgkmihbe gr cgkm tmrr`tgry.

    5Uc`s rmpgrt dgjusms gb tcm rmjmbt jgbdi`jt hbe hausms `b tcm Khshi`t hrmh gd ^mst Ehrdur. Dgr durtcmr

    ahjfnrgube gb tcm jgbdi`jt `b tcm Ehrdur rmn`gb, `bjiue`bn Bgrtc hbe Zgutc Ehrdur, smm Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc,

    Ehrdur b Dihkms< Htrgj`t`ms b mstmrb Zuehb, Tgi. 84, Bg.= (H), Hpr`i 1??5.=Ucm ihrnmst Hdr`jhb mtcb`j nrgup `b Ehrdur `s tcm Dur, wc`im tcm Khshi`t hbe \hnchwh hrm hkgbn tcm ihrnmst.

    4Zmm Ehwue @arhc`k Zhi`c, Kuchkkhe Hehk Phcyh, Haeui Chd`z Gkhr Zchr`md hbe Gskhb Haahfgrhc,

    Qmprmsmbtht`vms gd Ucm Khsshim`t Jgkkub`ty `b Mx`im, Ucm C`eemb Zihunctmr hbe Mtcb`j Jimhbs`bn `b ^mstmrb

    Zuehb. Jh`rg, Mnypt, Hpr`i 3, 8000, [email protected] Lhbuhry 8000, eur`bn h jgbdrgbtht`gb gvmr hb`khis trhkpi`bn jrgps, hbnry Khshi`t dhrkmrs scgt ht Khshi`t

    hbe Hrha tr`ahi cmhes wcg jhkm tg rmstgrm jhik, f`ii`bn hb Hrha jc`md. Ucm Zuehbmsm ngvmrbkmbt jih`kme tcht

    tcm Khshi`t wmrm h d`dtc jgiukb gd tcm Zuehb _mgpims I`amrht`gb Hrky (Z_IH, sgutcmrb-ahsme Hdr`jhb rmamis),

    hbe smhime gdd Ehr Khshi`t. Qmpgrtmeiy tcm Hrha k`i`t`hs tcmb f`iime kgrm tchb 8,??? Khshi`t. Ucm ngvmrbkmbtsmt up spmj`hi jgurts tg try imhemrs gd tcm jihscms, smbtmbj`bn dgurtmmb pmgpim tg emhtc, hbe spgbsgrme h tr`ahi

    rmjgbj`i`ht`gb jgbdmrmbjm. @t jgbjiueme tcht 101 Khshi`t hbe smvmb Hrhas wmrm emhe6 1,4>: cgusms aurbme

    egwb6 hbe ihrnm bukamrs gd i`vmstgjf iggtme, w`tc tcm Khshi`t suddmr`bn kgst. Ucm Hrha tr`ams rmdusme tg phy

    jgkpmbsht`gb. Hagut 10,=?? dmhrdui Khshi`t rmdunmms rmkh`bme `b Jche, wcmrm tcm Hrha k`i`t`hs rmpgrtmeiy

    jhkm tg f`ii m`ncty Khshi`t rmdunmms `b k`e-8000. Zmm Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc, Zuehb, Jchptmr drgk ^grie

    Qmpgrt 1??? (Mvmbts gd 8000) (Bmw Pgrf< Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc, 1???).

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    > C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H)

    hpprgx`khtmiy s`xty-b`bm Khshi`t hbe mimvmb Hrhas wmrm f`iime, hbe kgrm tchb =,???

    Khshi`t wmrm e`spihjme, kgst dimm`bn m`tcmr btg Nmbm`bh tgwb gr tg Jche. Emsp`tm hb

    hnrmmkmbt dgr jgkpmbsht`gb dgr agtc s`ems bmngt`htme ay igjhi tr`ahi imhemrs,3jihscms

    rmsukme `b 8000 wcmb bgkhe`j cmreskmb hnh`b kgvme sgutc mhri`mr tchb usuhi.

    Ucmsm 8000 jihscms wmrm mvmb aigge`mr, w`tc kgrm tchb 81= Khshi t v`iihnms phrt hiiy gr

    tgthiiy aurbme gr mvhjuhtme hbe khby cuberme pmgpim f`iime, `bjiue`bn h bukamr gd

    Hrha tr`ahi jc mds. Ucm ngvmrbkmbt argunct `b k`i`thry dgrjms `b hb httmkpt tg qumii tcm

    v`gimbjm hbe hppg`btme h k`i`thry khb rmspgbs`aim dgr smjur`ty gvmrhii, w`tc tcm pgwmr tg

    gvmrruim mvmb tcm mst Ehrdur sthtm ngvmrbgr. H rmjgbj`i`ht`gb jgbdmrmbjm cmie b 8000

    hnrmme gb jgkpmbsht`gb dgr Khshi`t hbe Hrha igssms.0Khby Khshi`t `btmiimjtuhis hbe

    bgthaims wmrm hrrmstme, kpr`sgbme, hbe tgrturme `b tcm tgwbs hs ngvmrbkmbt-suppgrtme

    Hrha k`i`t`hs amnhb tg htthjf Khshi`t v`iihnms6 h bukamr gd Hrha jc`mds hbe j`v`i`hbs wmrm

    hisg f`iime `b tcmsm jihscms. Ucm ahrgkmtmr gd v`gimbjm jrmpt stmhe`iy upwhre.

    HA]ZMZ AP UCM NGTMQBKMBU-LHBLH^MME @B ^MZU EHQD]Q

    Z`bjm tcm ZIH htthjf gb Dhscmr b Hpr`i 1??:, hbe phrt`juihriy s`bjm tcm msjhiht`gb gd tcm

    jgbdi`jt `b k`e-1??:, tcm ngvmrbkmbt gd Zuehb chs pursume h k`i`thry strhtmny tcht chs

    emi`amrhtmiy thrnmtme j`v`i`hbs drgk tcm shkm mtcb`j nrgups hs tcm rmamis.

    Ugnmtcmr tcm ngvmrbkmbt hbe Hrha Lhblhwmme k i`t`hs thrnmtme tcm Dur, Khshi`t, hbe

    \hnchwh tcrgunc h jgka`bht`gb gd `be`sjr`k`bhtm hbe emi`amrhtm hmr`hi agkahrekmbt,

    emb`hi gd hjjmss tg cukhb`thr`hb hss`sthbjm, hbe sjgrjcme-mhrtc thjt`js tcht e`spihjme

    cubermes gd tcgushbes gd j`v`i`hbs.8? Ngvmrbkmbt dgrjms hisg rmnuihriy hra trhr`iy

    emth`bme hbe sgkmt`kms tgrturme Dur, \hnchwh, hbe Khshi`t stuembts, pgi`t`jhi hjt`v`sts,

    hbe gtcmr `be`v`euhis `b Ehrdur hbe Fchrtguk suspmjtme gd chv`bn hby hiimn`hbjm tg tcm

    rmami kgvmkmbts.

    3Ucm 8003 hnrmmkmbt `bjiueme aigge phykmbts gd >? k`ii`gb Zuehbmsm pgubes hbe 0 k`ii`gb Zuehbmsm pgubes

    drgk tcm rmspmjt`vm Hrha hbe Khshi`t jgkkub`t`ms. ]bpuai`scme rmpgrt gb d`im w`tc Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc.0Uc`s hnrmmkmbt prgv`eme tcht bgkhe`j tr`ams wguie bgt jgkkmbjm kgvmkmbt sgutcwhre ubt`i Dmaruhry 13 gd

    mhjc ymhr, tcht mvmrygbm wguie am hiigwme hjjmss tg whtmr sgurjms, hbe tcht sthtm hutcgr`t`ms wguie prgv`em

    smjur`ty hbe gath`b rmsgurjms dgr igbnmr tmrk emvmigpkmbt gd whtmr prglmjts. @a`e.8?Ucm rmami nrgups `b Ehrdur eg bgt chvm h`rjrhdt, sg `t jhb am hssukme tcht tcm Hbtgbgv hbe K`N pihbms hbe

    htthjf cmi`jgptmrs usme tg agka v`iihnms amigbn tg tcm Zuehbmsm hrkme dgrjms. @b hee`t`gb, mymw`tbmssms chvm

    smmb tcm Hbtgbgvs, K`Ns, hbe cmi`jgptmrs ht ngvmrbkmbt h`rpgrts `b Ehrdur.

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    C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H) 3

    Khss F`ii`bns Ay tcm Ngvmrbkmbt hbe Lhblhwmme

    Cukhb Q`ncts htjcs Khrjc-Hpr`i bvmst`nht`gbs ubjgvmrme ihrnm-sjhim f`ii`bns b

    dgurtmmb bj`embts b Ehr Khshi`t higbm b wc`jc kgrm tchb >>? j`v`i`hbs pmr`scme

    amtwmmb Zmptmkamr 1??: hbe ihtm-Dmaruhry 1??5. Ucmsm hrm bgt tcm gbiy bj`embts tcht

    gjjurrme b Ehr Khshi`t eur`bn tcgsm s`x kgbtcs, aut rhtcmr tcgsm wc`jc Cukhb Q`ncts

    ^htjc whs haim tg jgrrgagrhtm w`tc tmst`kgby drgk w`tbmssms hbe gtcmr jrme`aim

    sgurjms. Cukhb Q`ncts htjc gath`bme durtcmr bdgrkht`gb drgk w`tbmssms tg khss

    mxmjut`gbs `b tcm Dur hrmhs gd ^he` Zhi`c prgv`bjm `b tcm pmr`ge drgk Bgvmkamr 1??:

    tcrgunc Hpr`i 1??5. Hitcgunc tc`s `bdgrkht`gb `s hisg dhr drgk jgkpimtm n`vmb tcm

    e`dd`juity gd hjjmss tg v`jt`ks i`v`bn `b ngvmrbkmbt-jgbtrgiime tgwbs hbe jhkps dgr tcm

    e`spihjme, `t `be`jhtms tcht tcm htthjfs gb Khshi`t hbe Dur v`iihnms gdtmb dgiigw h s`k`ihr

    phttmrb.

    Htthjfs hbe khsshjrms `b Ehr Khshi`t

    Hii dgurtmmb `bj`embts `b Ehr Khshi`t `bvgivme jggre`bhtme htthjfs ay tcm hrky hbe

    Lhblhwmme. Dgur wmrm jgbeujtme w`tc pr`gr h`r htthjfssthrt`bn `b ihtm Emjmkamr 1??:.

    @b twg `bj`embts pr`gr tg ihtm Emjmkamr, cmi`jgptmrs i`dtme suppi`ms hbe/gr trggps `btg

    tcm hrmh amdgrm tcm htthjfs. @b d`vm gd tcm bj`embts, h igjht`gb whs sualmjtme tg htthjf

    kgrm tchb gbjm. Ht imhst s`x gd tcm dgurtmmb bj`embts bvgivme jiustmrs gd v`iihnms, up tg

    tc`rty `b gbm mxhkpim.

    Drgk k`e-1??:, htthjfs gb v`iihnms rhtcmr tchb rmami pgs`t`gbs chvm ammb tcm bgrk

    rhtcmr tchb tcm mxjmpt`gb. ^c`im khby gd tcm a`nnmr v`iihnms chvm smid-emdmbsm ub`ts

    d`rst smt up `b tcm 800?s tg n`vm h kmhsurm gd prgtmjt`gb hnh`bst Hrha rh`emrs - khby chvm

    che i`ttim gr bg hrkme prmsmbjm ht hii. Ucm ZIH `b Ehr Khshi`t, ht imhst wcmb Cukhb

    Q`ncts ^htjc v`s`tme, e`e bgt ahsm hrkme kmb `b v`iihnms6 tcmy wmrm c`eemb ubemr

    gutjrgpp`bns gd rgjfs hbe b rhv`bms. @b smvmrhi bsthbjms wcmb tcm rmamis httmkptme tg

    `btmrvmbm b htthjfs gb Khshi`t dhrk`bn jgkkub`t`ms, tcmy hrr`vme tgg ihtm tg prmvmbt

    emstrujt`gb hbe emhtc. Gb gtcmr gjjhs`gbs, tcm rmpgrtme prmsmbjm gd rmamis b h khrfmt

    chs ammb sudd`j`mbt tg tr`nnmr hb htthjf.

    Ucm khlgr`ty gd tcm v`jt`ks `b tcm Khshi`t htthjfs egjukmbtme ay Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc

    chvm ammb kmb. Uc`s wguie smmk tg am amjhusm v`iihnms `b tcm phtc gd kga`i`zme

    ngvmrbkmbt hbe Lhblhwmme dgrjms chvm ammb himrtme ay dr`mbes, rmiht`vms, hbe tr`ahi

    f`bdgif, wcg chvm smbt rubbmrs tg n`vm whrb`bn. gkmb hbe jc`iermb chvm ammb smbt

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    0 C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H)

    hwhy ay egbfmy tg Jche gr tcm bmhrmst tgwb, wcmb t`km whs gb tcm`r s`em6 ay dggt, tg

    bmhray vhiimys wcmrm trmms hbe rgjfs k`nct prgv`em jgvmr, wcmb t whs bgt.

    @b kgst gd tcmsm htthjfs, scggt`bn ay ngvmrbkmbt hbe Lhblhwmme hppmhrme tg am thrnmtme

    ht tcm j`v`i`hb pgpuiht`gb. Dhthi`t`ms `b hii aut tcm skhiimst v`iihnms hrm hikgst hiwhys `b

    eguaim d`nurms r`s`bn hs c`nc hs m`ncty `b tcm kgst mxtrmkm jhsms. Ucm bukamr gd

    emhtcs s hihrk`bn hs tcm v`iihnms htthjfme smiegk chvm kgrm tchb h dmw cuberme

    `bcha`thbts. @t `s i`fmiy, kgrmgvmr, tcht tcm emhtc tgii rmsuit`bn drgk tcmsm htthjfs chs

    r`smb, ubrmjgreme, b tcm ehys hbe wmmfs hdtmr tcm htthjfs hs wgubes, e`smhsm, hbe tcm

    chresc`ps gd e`spihjmkmbt tggf tcm`r bmv`thaim tgii.

    Khsshjrms gr khss f`ii`bns gd j`v`i`hbs b Dur, Khshi`t, hbe \hnchwh hrmhs chvm thfmb

    tcrmm dgrks< mxtrhlue`j`hi mxmjut`gbs gd kmb, ay hrky hbe Lhblhwmme6 htthjfs b wc`jc

    ngvmrbkmbt sgie`mrs hbe Lhblhwmme chvm pihyme hb mquhi rgim, d`nct`bn s`em ay s`em6 hbe

    htthjfs b wc`jc ngvmrbkmbt dgrjms chvm pihyme h suppgrt`bn rgim tg Lhblhwmme --

    sgdtmb`bn up v`iihnms w`tc cmhv`mr wmhpgbs tchb tcgsm jhrr`me ay tcm Lhblhwmme,

    prgv`e`bn ign`st`jhi suppgrt hbe, b tcm gp`b`gb gd khby v`iihnmrs btmrv`mwme, n`v`bn

    tcm Lhblhwmme prgtmjt`gb hs tcmy imhvm.88

    Lhblhwmme hiwhys gutbukamr ngvmrbkmbt sgie`mrs, aut hrr`vm w`tc tcmk hbe imhvm w`tc

    tcmk. @t `s bgt jimhr wc jc dgrjm `s tcm jgkkhbe`bn dgrjm. @t `s jimhr tcht tcm Lhblhwmme

    hrm bgt rmstrh`bme, b hby why, ay tcm ub`dgrkme ngvmrbkmbt dgrjms wcg hjjgkphby

    tcmk `b hrky jhrs hbe trujfs.

    Ucm dgiigw`bn rmpgrts gd khss f ii`bns hrm ahsme gb tcm tmst`kgb`ms gd j`v`i hbs wcg wmrme`spihjme drgk tcm v`iihnms jgbjmrbme hbe wcg spgfm tg Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `b Khrjc

    hbe Hpr`i 1??5.81 Ucmsm rmpgrts hrm bmjmsshr`iy `bjgkpimtm. Ucm e`spmrshi gd

    jgkkub`t`ms, hbe tcm e`dd`juity gd nmtt`bn emth`ime `bdgrkht`gb drgk ngvmrbkmbt-

    jgbtrgiime tgwbs hbe e`spihjme jhkps, khfms `bvmst`nht`gb e`dd`juit.

    8. Kgrgrg v`iihnm, jigsm tg tcm Khshi`t-Dur agremr< dgrty emhe

    Gb Hunust :?, 1??:, sgie`mrs hbe Lhblhwmme htthjfme hbe aurbme Kgrgrg, stmhi`bn jhttim

    hbe f`ii`bn s`xtmmb pmgpim. Ucmy rmturbme tcm dgiigw`bn ehy hbe f`iime twmbty-dgur kgrm

    88Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mws, Jche, Khrjc-Hpr`i 1??5.81Khby che hb gbiy hpprgx`khtm `emh gd t`km h dmw kgbtcs hng `b Khrjc hbe ehtms khy bgt hiwhys

    am mxhjt hs kgst ihjf jhimbehrs hbe whtjcms hbe khby i`vme gbiy `b rurhi hrmhs.

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    C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H) 8?

    pmgpim, hii ygubn kmb s`bjm wgkmb hbe jc`iermb che hirmhey rub hwhy. Gbm gd tcm

    htthjfmrs imhemrs rmpgrtmeiy scgutme< ^m kust nmt tcmsm pmgpim gut gd tc`s pihjm!

    Ucm v`iihnms smid-emdmbjm nrgup whs rmpgrtmeiy vmry skhii hbe jguie gddmr bg rms`sthbjm.

    @b tcm dgiigw`bn wmmfs, h dmw v`iihnmrs rmturbme hbe au it rgunc scmitmrs. Aut `b

    Bgvmkamr h ihrnm dgrjm gd Lhblhwmme hbe hrky rmturbme hbe aurbme tcm v`iihnm dgr h

    smjgbe t`km, f`ii`bn h ai`be khb. Ucm v`iihnm whs hnh`b hahbegbme. 8:

    1. Ucm Kurbm` hrmh, twmivm v`iihnms< m`ncty-twg emhe

    Gb Gjtgamr 0, 1??:, sgie`mrs hbe Lhblhwmme htthjfme twmivm v`iihnms b tcm Kurbm` hrmh

    E`bng, Fgrgkh, hrh`, Cyerh, Hberu, \haub`, Uhrhbfh, Zurtubu, Bhrl`ah, Eurmysh,

    Ihbnh hbe Dglg - f`ii`bn m`ncty-twg pmgpim `bjiue`bn wgkmb, jc`iermb, hbe wgrsc`ppmrs

    `b h kgsqum, hjjgre`bn tg rmpgrts jgiimjtme ay igjhi imhemrs. Lukhh, h twmbty-twg-ymhr-

    gie dhrkmr drgk tcm v`iihnm gd Ngfur, v`s`t`bn rmiht`vms `b tcm hrmh ht tcm t`km, sh`e `t whs

    rh`b`bn chre hbe mvmb tcm sgie`mrs wmrm gb cgrsmahjf.

    Ucmy mbj rjime tcm v`iihnm. @ c`e `b tcm nrhss hbe cmhre tcm jgkkhbemr

    shy`bn gvmr c`s Ucurhyh Vshtmii`tm pcgbm[< ^m hrm bmhr tcm v`iihnm bg.

    8=58. ^m dgube tcm smid-emdmbsm nrgups hbe f`iime tcmk. Ucmy aurbme

    mvmrytc`bn, iggtme mvmrytc`bn. Ucmy aurbme hii tcm kgsqums tcht wmrm

    bgt khem gd ar`jfs. Ucm Lhblhwmme tggf n`ris `btg tcm nrhss hbe rhpme

    tcmk tcmrm `b E`bng hbe Fgrgkh. Ucmy rhpme tc`rtmmb `bjiue`bn

    m`nctmmb-ymhr-gie Fche`lh.85

    Lukhh sh`e sgkm gd tcm v`iihnms che smid-emdmbjm ub`ts, aut tcmy wmrm `bempmbembt gd tcm

    ZIH hbe wmrm purmiy emdmbs`vm. Ucm ZIH whs bgwcmrm bmhr, cm sh`e. Ucmy wmrm `b

    tcm kgubth`bs. Ucm ngvmrbkmbt `s bgt hdtmr tcm ZIH. Ucmy whbt tg put Hrhas `b tcm

    v`iihnms.8=

    Lukhh sh`e tcm hrmh whs aurbme dgr h smjgbe t`km `b Emjmkamr.

    8:Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Kgchkkme, Hpr`i 1, 1??5. Hii bhkms gd w`tbmssms hbe sgkm gtcmr `embt`dy`bn

    emth`is chvm ammb jchbnme tg prgtmjt tcm `embt`t`ms gd tcm w`tbmssms.85Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Jche, Khrjc 13, 1??5.8=

    @a`e.

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    88 C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H)

    :. Khbng, b tcm Umramah-Hrhrh hrmh< ht imhst twmbty f`iime

    @b Bgvmkamr 1??:, Lhblhwmme htthjfme ht imhst dgur v`iihnms jigsm tg Khbng - Hbnhr,

    Ahyeh, Bygrgbnth hbe Zcuscth hbe rmkh`bme `b tcm v`iihnms hdtmr aurb`bn tcmk. @zchq,

    h dgrty-twg-ymhr-gie dhrkmr drgk Khbng Ngam, sh`e cmi`jgptmr nubsc`ps hisg ihbeme b

    tcm hrmh. Bg gbm whs hiigwme hbywcmrm bmhr tcm hrmh amdgrm tcm cmi`jgptmrs jhkm, cm

    sh`e. ^m tc`bf tcmy wmrm ar`bn`bn wmhpgbs. Uwg gr tcrmm ehys ihtmr tcmy htthjfme

    Khbng.84

    @b lust gbm v`iihnm b tcm Khbng jiustmr, Khbng Aurhtth, sgie`mrs hbe Lhblhwmme f`iime

    twmbty pmgpim.8> Hehk , h dgrty-gbm-ymhr-gie dhrkmr, sh`e tcmy stgim hii tcm jhttim `b tcm

    v`iihnm hbe aurbme tcm mbt`rm v iihnm. Gb tcht shkm ehy, tcmy htthjfme mimvmb v`iihnms,

    cm sh`e. Bgt h s`bnim cgkm whs imdt. Hbtgbgvs hbe cmi`jgptmrs jhkm tcm bmxt ehy.

    ^cy7 Cgw jhb wm fbgw7 Ug smm `d hbygbm whs imdt, @ suppgsm. Ucmy e`ebt agka. 83

    Zcmr`d, h tc`rty-d`vm-ymhr-gie dhrkmr, sh`e v`iihnmrs khbhnme tg aury tcm emhe b tcm b`nct,

    amdgrm tcm h`rpihbms jhkm. Ucmy tcmb wmbt tg Jche, w`tc bg pgssmss`gbs, d`bhiiy er`vmb

    gut ay tcm jgka`bht`gb gd ngvmrbkmbt hbe Lhblhwmme dgrjms.

    @t tggf tmb cgurs whif`bn. ^m igst hii gur jhttim. ^m chvm bg nrh`b gr

    smshkm gr nrgubebuts. Ucm prgaimk amnhb hrgube 800> w`tc tcm Hrha

    bgkhes. @t whsbt Lhblhwmme hbe ngvmrbkmbt sgie mrs Vtcmb[, i`fm tc`s V`s

    bgw[. Bgw tcm ngvmrbkmbt chs khby cmi`jgptmrs.80

    5. ]ruk, bmhr Cha`ih< 881 f`iime b twg htthjfs

    ]ruk, wc`jc amjhkm h jmbtrm dgr Khshi`t j`v`i`hbs e`spihjme drgk bmhray v`iihnms, whs

    htthjfme tw`jm. ^cy e`e tcmy f`ii sg khby pmgpim `b ]ruk 811 `b twg htthjfs gvmr h

    kgbtc7 @ egbt fbgw. Aut khby v`iihnms wmrm aurbme amdgrm ]ruk hbe tcm j`v`i`hbs

    wmrm `b ]ruk. Ucm v`iihnms aurbme `bjiueme Ngrgrn, Eurmysh, U`rlh, Khi hk, Kgrgrg,

    Ngrrh hbe Fgrfglgf, sh`e tc`rty-smvmb-ymhr-gie Hckhe, h dgrkmr ]ruk rms`embt.1?

    84Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, @zchq Khrjc 14,1??5.

    83Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Hehk, Jche, Khrjc 14, 1??5.

    80Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Zcmr`d, Jche, Khrjc 14, 1??5.

    1?Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Hckhe, Jche, Hpr`i 4, 1??5.

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    C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H) 81

    Gb tcm d`rst gjjhs`gb, `b Bgvmkamr 1??:, mymw`tbmssms rmpgrtme tcht Lhblhwmme jhkm

    w`tcgut tcm hrky hbe aurbt m`ncty gd :?? cuts. Ucmy tggf :,??? cmhe gd jhttim hbe f`iime

    dgrty-twg kmb, kgst gd tcmk ygubn kmb.

    Ucmrm whs h dubmrhi tcht ehy dgr hb m`ncty-ymhr-gie khb, Phcyh Haeui Fhr`k, hbe

    pmgpim wmrm `b tcm kgsqum rmhe`bn dubmrhi prhymrs dgr c`k, sh`e mymw`tbmss Hckhe.

    Z`xtmmb gd tcm dgrty-twg wmrm f`iime b tcm kgsqum. 18Ucm `khk hbe c`s tcrmm-ymhr-gie

    nrhbesgb wmrm f`iime, tcmb tcm htthjfmrs jchsme hdtmr gtcmrs dimm`bn hbe scgt tcmk egwb

    hs wmii.

    Ucm `khk, Phcyh ^hrschi, rhb drgk tcm kgsqum tg c`s cgkm tg nmt c`s

    tcrmm-ymhr-gie nrhbesgb, wcg whs hb grpchb. Ucm Lhblhwmme dgiigwme

    c`k hbe f`iime c`k hbe tcm jc`ie. Ucm ygutc gd tcm v`iihnm e`ebt d`nct.

    Ucmy wmrm rubb`bn tg shvm tcmksmivms. Ucm Lhblhwmme nhiigpme hdtmr

    tcmk hbe f`iime tcmk. Kgrm tchb :,??? jgws wmrm stgimb hbe nghts hbe

    scmmp, cgrsms hbe egbfmys. Ucm Lhblhwmme wgrm fchf` tcm shkm hs tcm

    hrky.11

    H smjgbe, lg`bt htthjf ay hrky hbe Lhblhwmme dgiigwme `b tcm d`rst wmmf gd Emjmkamr

    vhr`gusiy rmpgrtme hs Emjmkamr, 4 gr >, 1??:. Ucm Lhblhwmme rmturbme, tc`s t`km w`tc tcm

    hrky, ht 4

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    8: C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H)

    @b tcrmm v`iihnms b tcm Ahrmc hrmh Hrmy, Chsfhb`th hbe Umrjchbh Lhblhwmme

    hjjgkphb`me ay tcrmm jhr-ighes gd sgie`mrs f`iime 888 pmgpim b gbm ehy, Emjmkamr 88,

    1??:, hjjgre`bn tg surv`vgrs. T`iihnm imhemrs sh`e tcm v`iihnms che 53= cuts `b hii - 3?,

    1??, hbe 1?= rmspmjt`vmiy hbe suddmrme twmbty-tcrmm, tc`rty-d`vm hbe d`dty-tcrmm emhe

    rmspmjt`vmiy. Ucm emhe `bjiueme twmbty-tcrmm wgkmb hbe h gbm cuberme-ymhr-gie khb,

    Ahrrh Pgub`s, drgk Umrjchbh.

    Ahrrh Pgub`s jguiebt whif hbe tcm Lhblhwmme aurbme c`k hi`vm b c`s cut, sh`e h dgrty-

    twg-ymhr-gie Umrjchbh khb, Hehk. Ucmy shw c`k tcmrm hbe tcmy aurbme c`k.15

    Hehk sh`e tcm htthjf amnhb ht 0

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    C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H) 85

    tcm v`iihnm hbe sgie`mrs ngt gut. Ucmb tcm sgie`mrs hbe Lhblhwmme wcg che ammb wh`t`bn

    guts`em tcm v`iihnm jhkm `b. Ucmy wmrm wmhr`bn `embt`jhi ub`dgrks aut dgr tcm dhjt tcht

    tcm sgie`mrs wmrm h ehrfmr schem gd nrmmb. Ucm htthjf imdt hpprgx`khtmiy d`dty pmgpim

    emhe - `bjiue`bn d`dtmmb wgkmb, tmb jc`iermb hbe h Khshi`t pgi`jmkhb `b h pgpuiht`gb

    mst`khtme hpprgx`khtmiy =?? (smvmbty-tcrmm cuts). Zgkm wmrm f`iime hs tcmy wmrm

    rubb`bn hwhy6 sgkm wmrm scgt emhe `bs`em tcm`r cuts. Ucm htthjfmrs tggf hii tcm nubsdrgk tcm pgi`jm stht`gb hbe hisg `ts z`bj rggd. Ucm Lhblhwmme tggf tcm jhttim hbe imdt.

    Ucm sgie`mrs tcmb aurbme tcm v iihnm.1>

    >. Fgbegi`, b tcm K`stmrm` hrmh< twmbty-dgur f`iime

    T`iihnmrs drgk tcm K`stmrm` hrmh sh`e Lhblhwmme kgvme `btg K`stmrm` ht tcm mbe gd 1??:.

    Gbm w`tbmss, Burmee`bm, h twmbty-m`nct-ymhr-gie dgrkmr pgi`jmkhb, sh`e tcmy jhkm drgk

    Nmbm`bh, `b b`bm hrky jhrs, hbe argunct tcm`r gwb dgge. Ucmy jhkm `b twg nrgups,

    cm sh`e. Gbm nrgup lg`bme tcm hrky pgst hbe tcm gtcmr tcm pgi`jm pgst. Ucmy phtrgiime

    ay tcmksmivms `b tcm ausc dgr h wmmf. 13

    Zggb hdtmr tc`s, gb Emjmkamr 13, 1??:, sgie`mrs hbe Lhblhwmme f`iime twmbty-dgur pmgpim

    `bjiue`bn d`vm wgkmb `bjiue`bn Fchk`sh Chrgub, dgrty-smvmb6 Zchkh Hehk, tc`rty-

    tcrmm, Khr`hk Fchk`s, twmbty-d`vm, hbe @lmih Kgchkkme, tc`rty-m`nct - `b tcm v`iihnm gd

    Fgbegi`, h dmw k`ims guts`em K`stmrm`. Fgbegi`, w`tc 8=? cuts, che h pgpuiht`gb gd

    hagut 8,??? pmgpim. Phych, h tc`rty-twg-ymhr-gie dhrkmr, sh`e hrky hbe Lhblhwmme che

    kgvme `btg tcm v`iihnm tcm prmv`gus ehy, Emjmkamr 1>.

    ^m wmrm hdrh`e hbe whbtme tg rub hwhy, cm sh`e, aut tcmy sh`e< Bg, bg. ^m egbtwhbt tg curt ygu. m hrm tcm ngvmrbkmbt. Egbt am hdrh e. ^m hrm jgk`bn tg shvm

    ygu. Ucm 5?? Lhblhwmme prgtmjtgrs khem h pihjm dgr tcmksmivms gb tcm mhstmrb s`em

    gd tcm v`iihnm. Ucm bmxt ehy tcmy htthjfme Fgbegi`, scggt`bn h tcrmm-ymhr-gie jc`ie ht

    pg`bt aihbf rhbnm, wc`im khf`bn rhj`hi mp`tcmtsCukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Jche, Hpr`i 4, 1??513

    Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Burmee`bm, Hpr`i =, 1??5.

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    8= C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H)

    sh`e< Nmt up sg wm jhb smm ygu. Aut cm whs hdrh`e. Zg tcmy scgt c`k.

    Cm whs jhiime Khl` Nukr \hcfhr`hc hbe cm whs tcrmm ymhrs gie.10

    Ucm surv`vgrs dime tg Jche, dgur cgurs hwhy. Ucmy tggf mvmrytc`bn hbe aurbme tcm

    mbt`rm v`iihnm. . . . m jhbt ng ahjf ht b`nct tg nmt dgge amjhusm Lhblhwmme hrm gb tcm

    rghe. :?

    3. Bgur`, bmhr Kurbm`< 8:4 f`iime

    Bgur`, h ihrnm hrmh gd smvmrhi v`iihnms jgkpr`s`bn 0??-8,??? cuts, gr hagut >,??? pmgpim,

    whs htthjfme ay Lhblhwmme hbe hrky gb Emjmkamr 10, 1??:. T`iihnmrs `btmrv mwme

    smphrhtmiy sh`e hagut 8>? v`iihnmrs wmrm f`iime `b twmbty-dgur cgurs. Ucmy sh`e twg

    cmi`jgptmr nubsc`ps rgjfmtme tcm hrmh amdgrm nrgube dgrjms hrr`vme. Ucmy wmrm diy`bn sg

    igw tcht pmgpim b tcm ihrnmst v`iihnm, Bgur` Lhiig, jguie smm tcm p`igt.

    _mgpim wmrm vmry hdrh`e amjhusm tcmy che bmvmr smmb tcmk Vcmi`jgptmrs[ amdgrm, sh`e h

    dgrkmr pgi`jm gdd`jmr, Hi`. Ucmy sh`e tcmy wmrm diy`bn sg igw tcht `d ygu tcrmw

    sgkmtc`bn, ygu jguie c`t tcmk.:8

    Kgchkkme, h tc`rty-ymhr-gie egjtgr drgk tcm hrmh, sh`e tcrmm Ihbe Jru`smrs jhrry`bn

    sgie`mrs hbe khby Lhblhwmme jhkm tg tcm pgi`jm stht`gb `b Bgur` Lhiig amdgrm tcm htthjf

    hbe hsfme hagut tcm ZIH. Ucm pgi`jm rmpi`me< ^m egbt chvm hby. Qmhiiy wm egbt.

    Ucmb, Er. Kgchkkme sh`e, tcm htthjfmrs aurbme tcm v`iihnm hbe f`iime smvmbty-d`vm

    pmgpim `bjiue`bn d`vm wgkmb. Kgst gd tcm emhe wmrm kmb amjhusm wgkmb hbe

    jc`iermb sthyme Vc`eemb[ `b tcm cuts.:1

    @b tcm ihrnmst v`iihnm, Bgur` Lmami, dgrty-s`x age`ms wmrm jgubtme bjiue`bn smvmb gr m`nct

    jc`iermb. Ucm htthjfmrs khem gdd w`tc tcm z`bj rggd gdd tcm v`iihnm sjcggi.

    @b Bgur` Cmni`n, wcmrm tcmrm wmrm s`xty-dgur cuts, tcm htthjf amnhb ht >

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    C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H) 84

    Ucm hrky whs `b Ihbe Jru`smrs hbe tcm Lhblhwmme gb cgrsms hbe jhkmis.

    . . . . Ucm Lhblhwmme mbtmrme tcm v`iihnm d`rst, dgiigwme ay tcm jhrs. Ucmy

    wmrm scggt`bn `be`sjr`k`bhtmiy. Ucmy wmbt `btg tufisVcuts[ hbe f`iime

    pmgpim wcg wmrm c`e`bn ubemr tcm`r ames.::

    Dm`shi sh`e smvmb v`iihnmrs wmrm f`iime. _mgpim wmbt tg aury tcmk, cm sh`e, aut tcm

    Lhblhwmme hbe hrky jhkm ahjf tg aurb tcm v`iihnm. Ucmy aurbme mvmrytc`bn. Bgt h

    s`bnim tufi whs imdt. Ucm pmgpim gbiy che t`km tg jgvmr tcm age`ms w`tc nrhss amjhusm gd

    tcm cmht. Ucm sgie`mrs hbe tcm Lhblhwmme aurbme tcm age`ms:5

    Ucm Bgur` hrmh whs htthjfme h smjgbe t`km, gb Dmaruhry 8?, 1??5. _mgpim che rmturbme

    tg tcm hrmh amjhusm tcmy che ammb tgie ay igjhi ngvmrbkmbt gdd`j`his `b Kurbm` hbe Z`ss`

    tcht tcmy scguie.

    Ht 8?

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    8> C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H)

    _mgpim rhb w`tcgut tcm`r jc`iermb amjhusm tcmrm wmrm sg khby auiimts, sh`e twmbty-

    twg-ymhr-gie Hehk, wcg suasmqumbtiy lg`bme tcm ZIH.:4Ucmy jguie bgt stgp tg p`jf

    tcmk hii up. Zg khby jc`iermb wmrm f`iime. Mvmrytc`bn whs aurbme. Gb tcm shkm ehy

    tcmy aurbme Aurhbnh. Ucmy iggtme aut e`e bgt aurb Zulu.:>

    8?. Z`ie`, sgutc-mhst gd Nmbm`bh< twmivm f`iime

    Z`ie` whs htthjfme, d`rst ay h r hbe tcmb ay ihbe, gb Dmaruhry >, 1??5. Haeui, h dgrty-twg-

    ymhr-gie dhrkmr, sh`e twg Hbtgbgvs agkame d`rst, emstrgy`bn twg cuts hbe smbe`bn

    wgkmb hbe jc`iermb rubb`bn dgr scmitmr `b tcm c`iis.

    Ucmb tcm Lhblhwmme hbe tcm ngvmrbkmbt jhkm, cm sh`e. Uwmivm wmrm f`iime `b tcm

    v`iihnm, tcmb t whs aurbme. Zgkm wmrm f`iime pg`bt-aihbf.

    Ucmy f`iime twmivm pmgpim `bjiue`bn twg wgkmb. Ucm wgkmb wmrm

    Hsch Hehk, s`xty, wcg whs f`iime `b cmr cgkm, hbe Hrah Kgchkkme,

    dgrty. Zcm whs tgie tg ar`bn tcm whtmr dgr tcm sgie`mrs, aut rmdusme. Ucm

    Lhblhwmme f`iime cmr. Ucmy aurbme hii tcm v`iihnm hbe wm jhkm tg Jche.:3

    Agtc tcm Lhblhwmme hbe tcm ngvmrbkmbt jhkm btg tcm v`iihnm hbe scgt tcm v`iihnmrs.

    Uc`s w`tbmss jguie tmii tcm e ddmrmbjm amtwmmb tcm Lhblhwmme hbe tcm hrky sgie`mrs gbiy

    amjhusm gd bs`nb`h gb tcm ub`dgrks.

    Ucm Lhblhwmme chvm h cgrsm gb tcm`r pgjfmts hbe tcm sgie mrs egbt. Ucmimhemr gd tcm Lhblhwmme chs str`pms gb c`s scguiemrs, lust hs tcmy eg b

    tcm hrky. :0

    Hbgtcmr dhrkmr, dgrty-ymhr-gie Hckhe, sh`e cm shw gbiy gbm Hbtgbgv ht 3

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    C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H) 83

    88. Uubdufh, sgutc gd Kurbm`< twmbty-s`x f`iime

    Uubdufh whs htthjfme, ay h`r hbe ihbe, gb Dmaruhry >, 1??5, f`ii`bn ht imhst twmbty-s`x

    pmgpim, hjjgre`bn tg v`iihnmrs bgw `b Jche. @zchq, h twmbty-dgur-ymhr-gie dhrkmr, sh`e

    twg Hbtgbgvs agkame dgr hb cgur hbe f`iime m`nct pmgpim - `bjiue`bn tcrmm kmb, tcrmm

    jc`iermb hbe twg gie wgkmb. Cm sh`e smvmb jhkmis hbe tc`rtmmb jgws wmrm f`iime, hbe

    tcm v`iihnm amnhb tg aurb.58

    Ucm hrky hrr`vme `b vmc`jims hbe tcm Lhblhwmme dgiigwme hb cgur ihtmr, scgut`bn rhj`hi

    hausm, scggt`bn m`nctmmb pmgpim emhe hbe iggt`bn tcm jhttim, hjjgre`bn tg tc`s w`tbmss, 1??5, hjjgre`bn tg tcm igjhi tr`ahi imhemr gr gkeh, tc`rty-smvmb-ymhr-gie

    Kush, ngvmrbkmbt sgie`mrs w`tc a`n nubs egsfcfhs hbe rgjfmt-prgpmiime nrmbhems

    htthjfme K`iimammeh v`iihnm tgnmtcmr w`tc Lhblhwmme.=: Kush che imdt tcm v`iihnm d`dtmmb

    k`butms amdgrm tcm htthjf hbe e`e bgt w`tbmss `t. Aut cm qugtme v`iihnmrs hs shy`bn tcmy

    hii wgrm gbm ub`dgrk. Cm sh`e tc`rty-gbm v`iihnmrs wmrm f`iime `bjiue`bn dgur wgkmb,

    tcrmm jc`iermb hbe h Khshi`t rmami d`nctmr, twmbty-smvmb-ymhr-gie @arhc`k @skhmi.=5

    Hjjgre`bn tg h v iihnmr, sgkmgbm drgk bmhray K stmrm` smbt whrb`bn gd tcm htthjf,

    shy`bn< Ucm Lhblhwmme khy htthjf `b tcm bmxt dmw ehys amjhusm tcmy shy tcm ZIH `s `b

    tcm v`iihnm.==

    Ucm jggre`bhtme htthjf whs jgbeujtme ay cubermes gd hrky sgie`mrs hbe Lhblhwmme wcg

    emsjmbeme gb tcm v`iihnm drgk tcrmm e`rmjt`gbs. H v`iihnmr wcg w`tbmssme tcm htthjf,

    tc`rty-ymhr-gie Aufchr`., sh`ecubermes gd Lhblhwmme hbe ngvmrbkmbt sgie`mrs jhkm `b

    tcrmm nrgups drgk tcm bgrtc, sgutc hbe mhst w`tc jhkmis hbe cgrsms. =4

    ^cmb tcmy jhkm `btg tcm v`iihnm, Aufchr` sh`e, tcmy amnhb scggt`bn pmgpim. @ shw ky

    ubjim Hrahr, dgrty-d`vm, imhvm c`s cgusm, ubhrkme, hbe rub hwhy. Ucmy scgt c`k drgk

    1?? yhres. Cm che dgur jc`iermb. Ucmb tcm pgi`jm amnhb tg rms`st - tcmrm wmrm gbiy smvmb

    gr m`nct gd tcmk, aut tcmy wmrm hii Hdr`jhbs - hbe @ sujjmmeme `b msjhp`bn w`tc ky w`dm

    hbe twg-ymhr-gie sgb.=>

    Khss Mxmjut`gbs gd jhpturme Dur kmb `b ^he` Zhi`c< 85= f`iime

    Gb Khrjc =, 1??5, ngvmrbkmbt hbe Lhblhwmme dgrjms mxmjutme ht imhst 85= kmb

    amigbn`bn tg tcm Dur tr`am `b ^he` Zhi`c, gbm gd ^mst Ehrdur sthtms s`x prgv`bjms. Ucm

    kmb wmrm f`iime gb tcm shkm ehy b e`ddmrmbt pihjms b`bm Dur jc`mds b pr`sgbs b

    =:Egscfhs hrm hbt`-h`rjrhdt nubs hbe Q_Ns hrm rgjfmt-prgpmiime nrmbhems.=5Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Kush, Jche, Hpr`i 83, 1??5.==Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Aufchr` , Jche, Khrjc :8, [email protected]`e.=>

    @a`e.

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    C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H) 11

    Kunl`r hbe Nhrs`ih, wcmrm tcmy che ammb thfmb h wmmf mhri`mr,=3smvmbty-gbm jhpturme Dur

    kmb `b h vhiimy sgutc gd Emim`n, hbe hbgtcmr s`xty-d`vm jhpturme kmb `b h vhiimy `b tcm

    Kunl`r hrmh wmst gd Emim`n. =0

    Ucm kmb mxmjutme `b tcm vhiimy sgutc gd Emim`n wmrm phrt gd h ihrnmr nrgup rgubeme up

    `b h bukamr gd v`iihnms mhri`mr b tcm ehy, hdtmr am`bn hsfme tcm`r v`iihnms gd gr`n`b.

    ^`tbmssms sh`e tcm ngvmrbkmbt hbe Lhblhwmme wmrm s`bni`bn gut kmb e`spihjme drgk

    v`iihnms tcht che ammb prmv`gusiy aurbme w tc spmj`hi mkpchs`s gb tcm \hkmy hrmh

    sgutc gd Emim`n.

    Ucm khss mxmjut gbs `b ^he` Zhi`c, gbm gd tcm nhtmwhys tg tcm ZIHs cmhequhrtmrs `b tcm

    Lmami Khrrh kgubth`bs, khy chvm ammb `b rmthi ht`gb dgr hb ZIH htthjf gb ngvmrbkmbt

    trggps `b tcm Kunl`r hrmh gd tcm prgv`bjm h kgbtc mhri`mr, gb Dmaruhry 8, `b wc`jc tcm

    ZIH shys `t f`iime kgrm tchb gbm cuberme ngvmrbkmbt sgie`mrs.

    H surv`vgr gd gbm gd tcm khss f`ii`bns, h dhrkmr wcg whs scgt `b tcm ahjf rhtcmr tchb tcm

    bmjf, tgie h bm`ncagr tcht tcm hrrmstme kmb wmrm thfmb, `b hrky trujfs hbe jhrs, tg h

    vhiimy h dmw k ims sgutc gd Emim`n. Ucmb tcmy i bme us up, khem us fbmmi egwb hbe

    ambe gur cmhes hbe scgt us drgk amc`be, cm tgie h bm`ncagr. @ whs imdt dgr emhe

    Ucm mxmjut`gbmrs wmrm hrky sgie`mrs hbe Lhblhwmme, gpmrht`bn tgnmtcmr.4?

    Ucm bm`ncagr, wcg jhb am `embt`d`me gbiy hs Haeui,48sh`e pmgpim `b tcm cmhrt gd tcm

    ^he` Zhi`c hrmh wgfm up gb Khrjc = tg d`be tcm wcgim hrmh surrgubeme ay ngvmrbkmbt

    sgie`mrs hbe Lhblhwmme jgkkhbeme ay Hi` Fwgsc`a. Fwgsc`a rmpgrtmeiy msthai`scme h

    Lhblhwmme ahsm `b Nhrs`ih `b Luiy 1??: hbe, hdtmr am`bn n`vmb 8,=?? hutgkht`j r`dims ay tcmhrky, aurbme h ihrnm hrmh gd ^he` Zhi`c. Egzmbs gd v`iihnms hrgube Emim`n chvm ammb

    aurbme ay tcm ngvmrbkmbt hbe khby pmgpim che dime tg ^he` Zhi`c, cm sh`e. 41

    H s`k`ihr cubt dgr kmb e`spihjme drgk tcm aurbme v`iihnms tggf pihjm `b gtcmr hrmhs gd

    ^he` Zhi`c. Ucm ngvmrbkmbt hbe Lhblhwmme jhkm hbe hsfme kmb hnme amtwmmb twmbty

    =3Ucmy `bjiueme Hehk Hehk E`nbmyms` gd Dumng v`iihnm, Kgchkkme Zuim`khb Haeui Zchd` gd Fhbhrg v`iihnm

    hbe Hehk Hckhe gd Hrwhih v`iihnm.

    =0Zmm Hppmbe`x E gd khsshjrm v`jt`ks4?H Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc prmss rmimhsm k`sthfmbiy gk`ttme tcm hrky sgie`mrs drgk tcm mxmjut`gbmrs. Zuehb, 1??5, f`ii`bn m`nct pmgpim

    `bjiue`bn Haeg Kgchkkme, Hb-Bur Kgchkkme \m`b, Hehk Kgchkkme @er`ss,Fche`lh Kgchkkme hbe Hsch Phhjgua. H twmbty-m`nct-ymhr-gie v`iihnmr, wcg

    w`tbmssme tcm agkahrekmbt, @zchq, sh`e tcm Hbtgbgvs rmturbme tcm dgiigw`bn ehy, aut

    e`e bgt agka. Cm surk`sme tc`s whs amjhusm tcm v`iihnm che ammb jgkpimtmiy

    emstrgyme.4>

    Aut tcm kgst imtchi jgbd`rkme jhsm gd hmr`hi agkahrekmbt gjjurrme `b tcm tgwb gb

    Cha`ih gb Hunust 1>, 1??:. Cha`ih whs ht tcm t`km phjfme w`tc j`v`i`hbs e`spihjme drgk

    v`iihnms tcht che hirmhey ammb jimhrme hkgbn tcmk, ]ruk, Uubdufh, Uuiius, Hbehbnh

    hbe Chllhr Ahyeh.

    [email protected]`e.44ZmmEhrdur `b Dihkmsdgr durtcmr `bdgrkht`gb gb `be`sjr`k`bhtm hmr`hi agkahrekmbt gd \hnchwh j`v`i`hbs `b

    Bgrtc Ehrdur.4>

    Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, @zchq, Jche, Hpr`i 85, 1??5.

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    1= C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H)

    Lhkhi, h tc`rty-ymhr-gie ihwymr, whs `b Cha`ih ht tcm t`km v`s`t`bn dhk`iy. Cm sh`e twmbty-

    dgur pmgpim hii j`v`i`hbs e`me `b tcm agkahrekmbts, `bjiue`bn dgur gd c`s gwb

    rmiht`vms< c`s argtcmr Kusthdh, twmbty-smvmb6 s`stmr Zhe yh, twmbty-d`vm6 hbe twg

    bmpcmws, Zhdh, smvmb, hbe Kheh, dgur. D`vm gtcmr rmiht vms wmrm wgubeme - c`s kgtcmr

    L`kc`h, twg argtcmrs hbe twg bmpcmws.43

    Hbtgbgvs agkame Cha`ih s`x t`kms tcht ehy, cm sh`e. Uwmbty-dgur pmgpim wmrm

    f`iime. Hii wmrm j`v`i`hbs. Ucm rms`embts surk`sme tcht Cha`ih whs sg mxtmbs`vmiy

    agkame emsp`tm tcm prmsmbjm gd pgi`jm hbe hrky amjhusm `t whs duii gd e`spihjme pmgpim.

    Ucmrm hrm khby qumst`gbs hagut tc`s agka`bn< tcmrm wmrm pgi`jm `b

    Cha`ih, hbe hrky. Ucm pgi`jm wmrm Khshi`t, aut tcm hrky whs k`xme

    Khshi`t hbe Hrhas. Cha`ih whs duii gd e`spihjme. ^m tc`bf tcm agka`bn

    whs amjhusm gd tcm e`spihjme.40

    Nubsc`ps chvm ammb usme tg rmjgbbg`trm v`iihnms `b hevhbjm gd nrgube htthjfs. Gb

    Lhbuhry =, 1??5, h s`bnim cmi`jgptmr nubsc`p dimw gvmr Fgrfgr`h v`iihnm, bmhr Nmbm bh.

    Gkhr, h tc`rty-gbm-ymhr-gie dhrkmr, sh`e tcm nubsc`p whs diy`bn ht cut-imvmi sunnmst`bn

    `t whs bgt mxpmjt`bn hby nrgube d rm. Cm sh`e `t e`e bgt agka. Ucm bmxt ehy, cgwmvmr, h

    nrgup gd hpprgx`khtmiy 8=? Lhblhwmme htthjfme Fgrfgr`h, f`ii`bn dgur pmgpim hbe imhv`bn

    gbiy gbm cut ubaurbme.>?

    Nubsc`ps chvm hisg ammb usme tg rmjgbbg`trm v`iihnms `kkme`htmiy hdtmr tcmy chvm ammb

    aurbme hbe htthjfme hrr`v`bn w`tc`b gbm tg tcrmm ehys gd tcm `b`t`hi htthjfs, hjjgre`bn

    tg v`iihnmrs. Zcm`fc Haeuiihc gd Umramah sh`e nubsc`ps hbe Hbtgbgvs dimw gvmr Umramah

    tcrmm gr dgur ehys hdtmr tcm v`iihnm whs emstrgyme. Ucmy e`e bgt agka, cm sh`e. ^m

    tc`bf tcmy wmrm iggf`bn tg smm wcht whs tcmrm hbe tg khfm surm tcm v`iihnm whs

    mkpty. @t whs tcm shkm `b K`iimammeh, jigsm tg tcm agremr w`tc Jche< Hbtgbgvs dimw

    gvmr tcrmm ehys hdtmr tcm htthjf, hjjgre`bn tg Gkeh Kush. K`iimammeh, tgg, whs

    emsmrtme.>8

    43Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Lhkhi, Jche, Khrjc 14, [email protected]`e.>?Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Gkhr, Jche, Khrjc 14, 1??5.>8

    Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Haeuiihc, Jche, Khrjc 15, 1??5.

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    C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H) 14

    Zystmkht`j Uhrnmt`bn gd Khrshi` hbe Dur, Aurb`bns gd Khrshi`t

    T`iihnms hbe Emstrujt`gb gd Dgge Ztgjfs hbe Gtcmr Mssmbt`hi @tmks

    Cukhb Q`ncts htjc rmsmhrjc b Ehrdur b Khrjc hbe Hpr`i 1??5 jgbd`rkme rmpgrts

    drgk rmdunmms b Jche hbe gtcmr sgurjms tcht Zuehbmsm ngvmrbkmbt dgrjms hbeLhblhwmme chvm systmkht`jhiiy htthjfme hbe emstrgyme v`iihnms, dgge stgjfs, whtmr sgurjms

    hbe gtcmr `tmks mssmbt`hi dgr tcm surv`vhi gd Dur hbe Khshi`t v`iihnmrs `b ihrnm phrts gd

    ^mst Ehrdur.>1

    T`iihnms wmrm bgt htthjfme ht rhbegk, aut wmrm mkpt`me hjrgss w`em hrmhs `b gpmrht`gbs

    tcht rmpgrtmeiy ihstme dgr smvmrhi ehys gr wmrm rmpmhtme smvmrhi t`kms ubt`i tcm pgpuiht`gb

    whs d`bhiiy er`vmb hwhy. Khby j`v`i hbs wmrm f`iime `b tcm jgursm gd tcmsm htthjfs hs

    emsjr`ame `b kgrm emth`i hagvm hbe amigw. @b gbm gd tcm hrmhs systmkht`jhiiy survmyme ay

    Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `b Hpr`i, hii v`iihnms wmrm phrt`hiiy gr tgthiiy aurbme. Dgge stgrhnm

    jgbth`bmrs hbe gtcmr `tmks bmjmsshry dgr tcm stgrhnm hbe prmphrht`gb gd dgge wmrm hiiemstrgyme.

    Ucm s`tuht`gb whs tcm shkm `b hbgtcmr hrmh survmyme - imss systmkht`jhiiy, amjhusm gd tcm

    prmsmbjm gd Lhblhwmme b khby gd tcm v`iihnms aurbme - amtwmmb tcm v`iihnms gd K`stmrm`

    hbe Ahyeh. Ucm gbiy j`v`i`hb i`dm mbjgubtmrme whs h tmrr`d`me nrgup gd sgkm d`dtmmb

    pmgpim kmb hbe wgkmb, hii p`t`duiiy tc`bwcg wmrm httmkpt`bn tg rmhjc tcm`r dgrkmr

    v`iihnm tg e`n up aur`me dgge stgrms. Khby v`iihnmrs rmpgrtme chv`bn sthrtme aury`bn tcm r

    nrh`b `b p`ts hikgst tmb dmmt emmp `b rmjmbt kgbtcs `b hbt`j`pht`gb gd htthjfs gb tcm`r

    v`iihnms. ^m amnhb aury bn nrh`b hagut dgur kgbtcs hng, sh`e tc`rty-d`vm-ymhr-gie

    Gkhr, gd Ngfhr v`iihnm. Aut tcmrm `s bg why tg ng ahjf tg nmt `t. @d tcmy smm ygu, tcmyf`ii ygu.>:

    @b sgkm phrts gd Ehrdur, Cukhb Q`ncts htjc rmjm`vme rmpgrts tcht Lhblhwmme dgrjms

    emi`amrhtmiy eun up hbe emstrgyme aur`me nrh`b b sgkm v`iihnms gr amht pmgpim tcmy

    dgube try`bn tg rmturb hbe shivhnm tcmsm dgge stgjfs.>5

    Cubermes gd v`iihnms chvm ammb thrnmtme ay tcm ngvmrbkmbts jhkph nb gd emi`amrhtm

    emstrujt`gb. Gb Dmaruhry >, 1??5, Z`ie`, sgutc-mhst gd Nmbm`bh, whs htthjfme, d`rst ay h`r

    hbe tcmb ay ihbe. Mymw`tbmssms sh`e tc`rty v`iihnms wmrm htthjfme, b h khttmr gd ehys, `b

    >1Zmm hisg Ehrdur b Dihkms,pp. ::-:4.>:Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Gkhr, Hpr`i 1, 1??5.>5

    Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mws `b Ehrdur hbe Jche, Dmaruhry Hpr`i, 1??5. Zmm hisg Ehrdur b Dihkms.

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    1> C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H)

    tcm swmmp tcht emstrgyme, Z`ie`-- Bgur`, By`r`bgb, Jchfgfm, ]ram, Lhaub, Auim,

    Ehbnhlurg, Nubeg, Lme`eh, Hrhrh, Fhstmrm, Nhihih, Byhr`yh, mrlmf, Z`ie`, Hrhzh, Bgrg,

    Qgl`, Ztuhrmy, Fgbe`, Hremah, Jcmrfgie`, ]sthb`, Uhfhth, Ayggt Umimth, F`f`ig, Cgngbmy,

    Hka`f`i`, K`scmemrh. @b gtcmr `bj`embts egjukmbtme ay Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc, up tg

    d`dtmmb v`iihnms wmrm htthjfme hbe emstrgyme b h s`bnim ehy hs rmjmbtiy hs Khrjc 1??5.

    Gbm dhrkmr drgk Z`ie`, 5?-ymhr-gie Hckhe, sh`e tcm Lhblhwmme jhkm w`tc cgrsms hbe

    jhkmis hbe amc`be tcmk tcm hrky w`tc jhrs. Lhblhwmme gb cgrsms f`iime tcm kmb hbe

    tggf tcm jgws. Lhblhwmme gb jhkmis tggf tcm sgrncuk, jigtcms hbe ames. Zgie`mrs `b

    dgur jhrs wmrm scggt`bn. Ucmy f`iime 8: pmgpim `bjiue`bn twg wgkmb, aut kgrm e`me

    ihtmr drgk tcm`r wgubes. Mvmrygbm wgrm ub`dgrks. ^m shw bgtc`bn aut ub`dgrks.

    Ucmy sh`e< m hrmbt ng`bn tg imhvm hby gd ygu cmrm. ^m hrm ng`bn tg aurb hii tcmsm

    v`iihnms.

    Ucm ngvmrbkmbt hbe tcm Hrhas jhkm tgnmtcmr ht 3

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    C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H) 13

    sgutcmrb Zuehb, hrm Kusi`ks. Hikgst hii Ehrdur`hbs amigbn tg tcm U`lhb`yh smjt gd Zud`

    @sihk tcht mxtmbes drgk Zmbmnhi tg Zuehb.

    @b tcm phst ymhr, ngvmrbkmbt hbe Lhbhlwmme dgrjms chvm f`iime `khks, emstrgyme

    kgsqums hbe prhymr khts. @b sgkm v`iihnms, tcmy chvm tgrb up hbe emdmjhtme gb Xgrhbs.

    ^m eg bgt fbgw wcy tcm ngvmrbkmbt aurbs gur kgsqums hbe f`iis gur `khks, sh`e

    @khk Haeuiihc, s`xty-d`vm, gd Lhihbnh Fueuk`. Gur @sihk `s ngge. ^m prhy hii tcm

    t`km. ^m rmhe tcm Xgrhb hii tcm t`km.

    Pmt ngvmrbkmbt dgrjms hbe Lhblhwmme chvm aurbme ht imhst s`xty-d`vm kgsqums `b Ehr

    Khshi`t>>hbe chvm f`iime sjgrms gd pmgpim `b kgsqums. Lhblhwmme wcg htthjfme ]ruk `b

    Bgvmkamr 1??: f`iime s`xtmmb kmb hs tcmy kgurbme m`ncty-ymhr-gie Phcyh Haeui

    Fhr`k, hbe tcm `khk hbe c`s grpchbme tcrmm-ymhr-gie nrhbesgb. Lhblhwmme hisg rgem

    `btg tcm kgsqum `b Kuii` hbe scgt emhe tmb pmgpim `bjiue`bn tcm `khk, Phcyh Nhaht.

    @b Zhbe`fgrg, h lg`bt hrky-Lhblhwmme dgrjm tgrm Xgrhbs hbe emdmjhtme gb tcmk. @b

    Fgbegi`, tcmy f`iime tcm `khk, @arhc`k Eurrh, tcm smjgbe `khk, hbe tcm kumzz`b eur`bn

    prhymrs.

    Ucm ngvmrbkmbt whbts tg f`ii hii Hdr`jhb pmgpim, Kusi`k gr bgt Kusi`k, sg hs tg put

    Hrhas `b tcm`r pihjms, sh`e @khk Haeuiihc. Ucmy hrm bgt ngge Kusi`ks.>3

    F`ii`bns hbe hsshuit hjjgkphby`bn iggt`bn gd prgpmrty

    ^c`im kgst htthjfs gb v`iihnms hrm jhrr`me gut ay h jgka`bht`gb gd Lhblhwmme hbe

    ngvmrbkmbt dgrjms, `t `s tcm Lhblhwmme wcgk v`iihnmrs aihkm dgr tcm i`gbs schrm gd tcm

    iggt`bn tcht chs str`ppme tcm Khshi`t hbe Dur gd kujc gd tcm`r wmhitc pr`khr`iy jhttim,

    aut hisg cgrsms, nghts hbe scmmp.

    Ucm e`ddmrmbjm amtwmmb tcm Lhblhwmme hbe ngvmrbkmbt iggt`bn gd rmjmbt ymhrs hbe tcm

    iggt`bn gd Hrha bgkhes `b tcm phst `s tcht kujc gd tcm iggt`bn tgehy `s phrt hbe phrjmi

    gd h emi`amrhtm pgi`jy gd dgrj`aim e`spihjmkmbt hbe `s usuhiiy hjjgkphb`me ay w`emsprmhe

    f`ii`bn. Ucm tcmdt gd jgws smmb ay khby Khshi`t hs h rmwhre tg tcm Lhblhwmme dgr

    >>Zmm Hppmbe`x J.>3

    Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, @khk Haeuiihc, Jche, Hpr`i :. 1??5.

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    10 C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H)

    Hrha`zht`gb smrv`jms rmbemrme tg tcm ngvmrbkmbt - bgw ngms chbe b chbe w`tc tcm

    emi`amrhtm hbe w`emsprmhe f`ii`bn gd tcgsm gd Khshi`thbe Dur mtcb`j`ty.

    @b tcm wgres gd Hsch, h s`xty-twg-ymhr-gie wgkhb drgk Fueukuim v`iihnm< Ucm

    prgaimk amnhb tmb ymhrs hng. @t amnhb w`tc tcm stmhi`bn gd jgws. Uwg ymhrs hng tcmy

    sthrtme f`ii`bn gur kmb.>0

    Gb Hpr`i 1:, 1??:, Lhblhwmme htthjfme tcm wmmfiy khrfmt b Kuii`, mhst gd Nmbm`bh gb

    tcm Cha`ih rghe, hbe f`iime dgrty-tcrmm pmgpim khby gd tcmk `b tcm kgsqum.3?

    Bmhr tg tcm khrfmt tcmrm s h pihjm dgr prhymrs, sh`e Hi`, h twmbty-m`nct-ymhr-gie

    dhrkmr. Cm emsjr`ame cgw tcm htthjfmrs f`iime tcm `khk hbe tmb pmgpim prhy`bn, tcmb

    scgutme rhj`hiiy emrgnhtgry bvmjt`vms hs tcmy turbme gb gtcmrs

    Gb Dmaruhry 8:, 1??5, Lhblhwmme mbtmrme tcm v`iihnm gd Haub tg iggf dgr jhttim. Bmhray

    v`iihnms che hirmhey ammb agkame ay Hbtgbgvs hbe aurbme, hbe Haub whs mkpty aut

    dgr kmb wcg che sthyme amc`be tg try tg aury dgge stgjfs hbe gtcmr bgb-pmr`schaim

    `tmks `b hbt`j`pht`gb gd am`bn haim tg rmturb gbm ehy. Lhkhi, h bht`vm gd Haub,sh`e tcm

    Lhblhwmme f`iime gbm khb twmbty-dgur-ymhr-gie Hehk Ahfc`t hbe jhpturme hbe amht

    tmb gtcmrs, hsf`bn tcmk< ^cmrm hrm tcm jgws hbe tcm jhkmis733

    3:

    Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Kush, Jche, Hpr`i 4, 1??5.35Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Hi`, Jche, Hpr`i 4, 1??5.3=Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Dutr, Jche, Hpr`i 4, 1??5.34Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, @er`ss, Jche, Hpr`i 8:, 1??5.3>@a`e.33

    Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Lhkhi, Jche, Khrjc 14, 1??5.

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    :8 C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H)

    Ucmy amht tcmk vmry chre. Ucmy sh`e< ^m fbgw tcm jgws hbe jhkmis hrm

    `b Jche hbe kust nmt tcmk. Ucmy hsfme dgr nubs. Ucmy smhrjcme aut

    e`ebt d`be hby. Ucmy aurbme hii tcm cgusms tcht wmrmbt v`s`aim drgk

    tcm kh`b Nmbm`bh-Cha`ih rghe. Ucmy tggf aihbfmts, kgbmy hbe jigtcms.

    Ucmy tggf hb`khis. 30

    Ucm Lhblhwmme wmrm e`v`eme gvmr wcmtcmr tg f`ii tcm pr`sgbmrs gr bgt. Ucmy d`bhiiy

    rmimhsme tcmk hbe gremrme tcmk hwhy drgk tcm v`iihnm dgr ngge< ^m egbt whbt tg smm

    ygu hnh`b b tc`s pihjm. @t `s dgr us, gur jhkmis hbe jgws. Imhvm `t sggb.0?

    Kujc gd tgehys jhttim rusti`bn `s grnhb`sme gb hb hikgst `beustr`hi sjhim. Egzmbs gd

    e`spihjme v`iihnmrs tgie Cukhb Q`ncts htjc tcht stgimb jgws hrm nhtcmrme b Lhblhwmme

    jhttim jhkps gr jgiimjt`gb pg`bts tcm ihrnmst gd tcmk rmpgrtmeiy ht ]k Zchihyh

    drgk wcmrm tcmy hrm er`vmb tg tcm ngvmrbkmbt sihunctmrcgusm b Byhih dgr mxpgrt drgkByhih, ay h`r, tg Hrha jgubtr`ms i`fm I`ayh, Zyr`h hbe Lgrehb. 08

    @ts vmry, vmry a`n aus`bmss hbe ar`bns tcm ngvmrbkmbt h igt gd kgbmy, gbm w`tbmss

    sh`e. Uchts wcy tcm ngvmrbkmbt i`fms tcm Hrhas. Ucmy egbt nmt kujc rmturb drgk

    pggr dhrkmrs.01

    F`ii`bns eur`bn iggt`bn mxpme`t`gbs hrm bgt i`k`tme tg kmb, hbe `bjiuem wgkmb hbe

    jc`iermb. Fueukuim, guts`em K`stmrm`, whs htthjfme, gb Dmaruhry 15, 1??5.

    Ucm Lhblhwmme jhkm hbe htthjfme tcm v`iihnm hbe stgim tcm jhttim, sh`e s`xty-twg -ymhr-

    gie Hsch. Hahfhr Kgchkkme whs emdmbe`bn tcm v`iihnm. Cm whs tc rty ymhrs gie.

    ^cmb cm wmbt tg nmt tcm jhttim, tcmy f`iime c`k. Ucmy hisg f`iime c`s smvmb-ymhr-gie

    b`mjm, Khr`hk Hckhe.0:

    [email protected]`e.

    [email protected]`e.08Ucm i`vmstgjf `beustry `b Ehrdur chs igbn ammb gbm gd tcm sthtms kh`b rmvmbum sgurjms. Dgrarhbnh

    VDgrgarhbnh gb sgkm khps[, h tgwb gb tcm agremr gd ^mst Ehrdur sthtm hbe Jche, `s gbm gd tcm ihrnmst i`vmstgjf

    khrfmts `b tcm rmn`gb, w`tc smiimrs hbe purjchsmrs erhwb drgk smvmrhi jgubtr`ms.01Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mws, Jche, Khrjc hbe Hpr`i, 1??5.0:

    Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Hsch, Jche, Hpr`i 8:, 1??5.

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    C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H) :1

    T`iihnmrs smiegk prgtmst Lhblhwmme hjt`gbs tg hrky gr pgi`jm, ami`mv`bn tcm hrky tg am

    gbm w`tc tcm Lhblhwmme hbe tcm pgi`jm tg am `bmddmjtuhi hbe pgwmrimss. Gb tcm rhrm

    gjjhs`gbs tcht tcmy chvm prgtmstme, tcmy chvm bgt che sht`sdhjt`gb.

    Hisg gb Dmaruhry 15, 1??5, Lhblhwmme drgk guts`em K`stmrm` iggtme ihrnm bukamrs gd

    jgws drgk `bs`em tcm tgwb. Kgst gd tcmsm jgws amigbnme tg e`spihjme pmgpim wcg che

    ngbm tg K`stmrm` dgr shdmty drgk tcm lg`bt ngvmrbkmbt-Lhblhwmme htthjfs gb v`iihnms.

    Ucm pmgpim hppmhime dgr cmip tg tcm igjhi hrky jc`md h E`bfh drgk sgutcmrb Zuehb,

    fbgwb tg tcm Khshi`t rms`embts gbiy hs Hbng.

    Hbng wmbt hbe argunct hagut chid gd tcm nghts hbe scmmp tcht che ammb thfmb, aut bg

    jgws, sh`e twmbty-d`vm-ymhr-gie Kgc`mee`bm. Ht tc`s pg`bt, sgkm pmgpim imdt dgr Jche.

    Khby gtcmrs dgiigwme hdtmr tcm bmxt ihrnm-sjhim iggt`bn h kgbtc ihtmr.

    Gb Khrjc 11, tcm Lhblhwmme khem h smjgbe rh`e hbe stgim 5?? jgws.Ucmy wgrm tcm shkm ub`dgrk hs tcm ngvmrbkmbt. Hbng dgiigwme hnh`b

    hbe hnh`b argunct chid gd tcm nghts hbe scmmp aut bg jgws. ^m

    emj`eme tg ng tg Jche hbe imdt `b tcm b`nct. 05

    @t `s bgt lust tcm tcmdt gd hssmts i`fm i`vmstgjf tcht smbe Khshi`t dimm`bn tg Jche. Dgr pggr

    pmgpim wcg chvm dmw hssmts, skhii igssms c`t chre. Gkhr, h tc`rty-smvmb-ymhr-gie dhrkmr

    drgk Ngfhr Hk`bth, imdt dgr Jche hdtmr Lhblhwmme stgim c`s whtjc `b tcm strmmt. Ucm

    Lhblhwmme hausme hbe pmrsmjutme tcgsm wcgk tcmy e`e bgt mxpmi

    @b h jhsm gd tgrturm rmpgrtme drgk tcm Nhrs`ih hrmh `b Hpr`i, h Dur khb whs emth`bme hbewc`ppme ubt i hii tcm sf`b whs dihyme drgk c`s ahjf. Ucm wc`p chbeim whs tcmb usme tg

    ngunm cgims `b c`s dimsc. Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc hisg rmjm`vme rmpgrts gd kmb am bn

    aur`me hi`vm hrgube Nhrs`ih hbe Emim`n ay lhblhwmme kmkamrs.03

    E`spihjme pmgpim jgbt`bume tg rmpgrt tcht Lhblhwmme jgkk`ttme jr`kms hnh`bst tcmk

    `bjiue`bn v`gimbt htthjfs, e`shppmhrhbjms, hbe iggt`bn gd tcm`r rmkh`b`bn i`vmstgjf. Ucmsm

    jr`kms chvm ammb jgkk`ttme `b bukmrgus e`spihjme jhkps hrgube Nmbm`bh, Byhih, hbe

    gtcmr ihrnm tgwbs ubemr ngvmrbkmbt jgbtrgi.00Mvmb rmi`md suppi`ms e`str`autme tg tcmk

    chvm ammb iggtme.

    Qhpm hbe gtcmr dgrks gd smxuhi v`gimbjm

    Qhpm hppmhrs tg am h dmhturm gd kgst htthjfs `b Dur, Khshi`t, hbe \hnchwh hrmhs gd

    Ehrdur. Ucm mxtmbt gd tcm rhpm s e`dd`juit tg emtmrk`bm s`bjm wgkmb hrm rmiujthbt tg thif

    hagut t hbe kmb, hitcgunc w`ii`bn tg rmpgrt t, spmhf gbiy b nmbmrhi`t`ms. Cukhb Q`ncts

    ^htjc rmjm`vme rmpgrts gd rhpm `b rgunciy chid tcm v`iihnms `t jgbd`rkme wmrm aurbme.

    Ucm rmhi d`nurm s jmrth`biy c`ncmr.

    04Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Chwh, Jche, Hpr`i 1, 1??5.0>Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Ehrdur, Hpr`i 1??5.03

    Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mws, Ehrdur, Hpr`i 1??5.00Ehrdur Jr`s`s, Zuehb< ]B ^mmfiy Cukhb`thr`hb Qgubeup 1= Hpr - 1 Khy 1??5, ].B. Qms`embt Jggre`bhtgr, ht

    cttp:4a33aaj:j81=45d4??5j3he=/jm4d0:aa50:4a:?ej81=4m30??1da3m87

    GpmbEgjukmbt (hjjmssme Khy 5, 1??5).

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    C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H) :5

    @b tcm v`iihnms gd E`bng hbe Fgrgkh b Ehr Khshi`t, dgr mxhkpim, kmb sh`e tcm

    Lhblhwmme tggf n`ris `btg tcm nrhss hbe rhpme tcmk tcmrm. Gbm gd tcm n ris rhpme whs

    gbiy tc`rtmmb ymhrs gie. Bmhr Z`ss`, tcrmm wgkmb, hnme tc`ry-twg, twmbty-twg hbe

    twmbty-d`vm, wmrm haeujtme ht h whtmr cgim hbe thfmb tg Bgur` sjcggi, wc`jc whs

    hahbegbme, hbe wmrm rhpme. 8?? @b tcm v`iihnm gd Eurmysh, gb tcm Khshi`t-Dur agremr, hsmvmbtmmb-ymhr-gie n`ri wcg rms`stme rhpm whs f`iime hbe cmr bhfme agey imdt gb tcm

    strmmt.

    Qhpm jgbt`bums tg thfm pihjm b hbe hrgube tcm e`spihjme smttimkmbts hbe tgwbs ubemr

    ngvmrbkmbt jgbtrgi, mvmb hdtmr j`v`i`hbs chvm dime tcm`r v`iihnms. @b Hpr`i, h e`spihjme Dur

    wgkhb jgiimjt`bn d`rmwgge guts`em Nhrs`ih tgwb whs htthjfme ay Lhblhwmme wcg tr`me tg

    rhpm cmr. Zcm whs amhtmb sg aheiy scm ihtmr e`me.8?8

    Mddgrts tg _rmvmbt Qmturb gd E`spihjme Khshi`t hbe Dur

    Lhblhwmme hrm bgw jhkpme `b sgkm gd tcm v`iihnms tcmy chvm aurbme `b Ehr Khshi`t,

    nuhrhbtmm`bn tcht bg Khshi`t j`v`i`hbs w`ii rmturb tg tcm hrmh. Hb ZIH jgkkhbemr,

    Haeui Xhss`k Ugah, tgie Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc tcht h str`bn gd v iihnms gb tcm mhstmrb

    s`em gd Ehr Khshi`t wmrm gjjup`me ay Lhblhwmme b rmjmbt kgbtcs hkgbn tcmk Uuiius,

    ]ruk hbe Eurmyshc. Drgk cmrm, cm sh`e, tcmy hrm ng`bn `btg tcm kgubth`bs mvmry ehy

    iggf`bn dgr tcm ZIH.

    Cukhb Q`ncts htjc hisg shw Lhblhwmme jhkpme b v`iihnms dhr drgk tcm ZIHs ahsms `b

    tcm kgubth`bs jigsm tg tcm agremr w`tc Jche gb tcm wmstmrb menm gd tcm Khshi`t hrmh.Drgk tcmsm v`iihnms, tcm Lhblhwmme kgubtme rh`es hjrgss tcm agremr btg Jche hbe

    mxmrtme sgkm jgbtrgi gvmr tcm kgvmkmbt gd e`spihjme pmrsgbs. Ucm`r kmrm prmsmbjm

    jigsm tg tcm agremr mbsurme tcht rmdunmms `b Jche e`e bgt httmkpt tg jrgss ahjf `btg

    Ehrdur tg shivhnm aur`me nrh`b gr gtcmr amigbn`bns.

    Gb Khrjc 1=, H`sch, h :=-ymhr-gie wgkhb drgk Haub, imdt Jche `b tcm b`nct tg httmkpt

    tg ar`bn dgge drgk cmr v`iihnm. Zcm hbe gbm gtcmr wgkhb whifme dgr twg ehys. ^m

    dgube tcm Lhblhwmme `b gur cgusms, simmp`bn gb gur ames, scm sh`e. Gbiy Lhblhwmme,

    w`tc jgws. Ucmy wgrm ub`dgrks i`fm tcm hrky. @d tcmy shw km, tcmy wguie chvm f iime

    km.8?1

    8??Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Dm`shi, Ehrdur, Hpr`i =, 1??5.8?8Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Ehrdur, Hpr`i 1??5.8?1

    Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, H`sch, Jche, Khrjc 14, 1??5.

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    := C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H)

    Zgkm Dur v`iihnms hrgube he` Zhi`c rmkh`b bthjt, aut gbiy amjhusm rms`embts chvm ph`e

    ihrnm suks gd prgtmjt`gb kgbmy tg Lhblhwmme wcg jgbtrgi tcm`r kgvmkmbts hbe

    j`rjuiht`gb `b tcm hrmh. ^`tbmssms tgie Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc tcht mvmb smvmrmiy `ii gr

    wgubeme v`iihnmrs wmrm dgrjme tg rmkh`b `b tcm r cgkm v`iihnms hbe emb`me hjjmss tg

    ihrnmr tgwbs w`tc cgsp`this hbe cmhitc jhrm ubimss tcmy che lhblhwmme msjgrts. E`spihjme`b ngvmrbkmbt hbe Lhblhwmme-jgbtrgiime tgwbs jgbt`bum tg suddmr systmkht`j htthjfs.

    Mvmb gie wgkmb try`bn tg jgiimjt d`rmwgge guts`em tcm tgwbs r`sf amht`bns hbe rhpm `d

    tcmy imhvm tcm tgwbs.

    Ucm `bsmjur`ty jgupime w`tc tcm jgkpimtm emstrujt`gb gd dgge stgjfs hbe gtcmr mssmbt his

    sujc hs whtmr sgurjms durtcmr nuhrhbtmms tcht e`spihjme Khshi`t w`ii bgt rmturb tg tcm`r

    cgkm v`iihnms. Ucm rmpmhtme htthjfs ay Lhblhwmme hbe ngvmrbkmbt dgrjms, aurb`bn gd

    v`iihnms hbe emstrujt`gb gd i`vmi`cgges chs imdt e`spihjme Khshi`t hbe Dur emst`tutm hbe

    empmbembt gb rmi`md h`e.

    H rmjmbt ]B cukhb`thr`hb k ss`gb tg Ehrdur dgube tcht pmgpim whbt tg rmturb cgkm

    aut hrm ubw`ii`bn tg eg sg ubt`i tcmy hrm rmhssurme tcht smjur`ty chs ammb rmstgrme.8?:

    Zgkm chvm httmkptme tg rmturb, aut gdtmb tcmy mbe up dimm`bn hnh`b hs h rmsuit gd

    rmbmwme htthjfs. @b sgkm Dur hrmhs gd ^mst Ehrdur, j`v`i hbs chvm ph`e suks gd kgbmy

    tg tcm Lhblhwmme b gremr tg rmturb tg tcm`r v`iihnms, gbiy tg dhjm durtcmr htthjfs gbjm tcmy

    rmturbme. Ucmsm mxhkpims jimhriy `be`jhtm tcm `kpgss`a`i`ty gd rmturb wc`im tcm lhblhwmme

    rmkh`b mbjhkpme `b hbe hrgube tcm v`iihnms gd tcm e`spihjme.

    Qmjmbt ].B. rmpgrts be`jhtm tcht b sgkm pihjms tcm ngvmrbkmbt s bgw try`bn tg dgrjmpmgpim tg rmturb tg tcm`r v`iihnms emsp`tm tcm`r ihjf gd hjt`gb tg e`shrk hbe e`sahbe tcm

    Lhblhwmme, gr rmkgvm tcmk drgk tcm hrmhs tcmy gjjupy.8?5 Ucmsm mddgrts hrm vmry i`fmiy

    eum tg `bjrmhsme btmrbht`gbhi prmssurm hbe hwhrmbmss gd tcm khss`vm cukhb`thr`hb jr`s`s

    tcrmhtmb`bn tcm rmn`gb, aut bg rmturbs scguie thfm pihjm ubt`i hemquhtm smjur`ty s b pihjm

    `bjiue`bn e`skhbti`bn hbe rmkgvhi gd tcm Lhblhwmme dgrjms.

    8?:]B Bmws Zmrv`jm, Zuehb< Jgbd`rk`bn Khss`vm Cukhb`thr`hb Jr`s`s `b Ehrdur, ]B Emkhbes Amttmr Zmjur`ty,

    Khy 8, 1??5, ht cttp

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    C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H) :4

    Gjjupht`gb hbe Qmsmttimkmbt gd Khshi`t T`iihnms ay Lhblhwmme

    Khshi`t pmrsgbs b Nmbm`bh rmpgrtme smm`bn wgkmb hbe jc`iermb tcmy sh`e wmrm tcm

    dhk`i`ms gd Lhblhwmme d`nctmrs kgv`bn sgutc tcrgunc Nmbm`bh, amn`bb`bn ht tcm mbe gd

    Khrjc 1??5. Ucm kgvmkmbt jg`bj`eme w`tc h arghejhst gb sthtm-rub Nmbm`bh rhe`g

    jhii`bn gbm gd tcm kgst dmhrme Lhblhwmme imhemrs, Chk`e Ehwh`, tcm mk`r gd tcm mk`rhtm

    gd Ehr Khshi`t. Gbm Khshi`t jc`md rmpgrtme tcht tcmsm wgkhb hbe jc`iermb wmrm

    trhvmii`bn w`tc hb hrky msjgrt.

    H twmbty-smvmb-ymhr-gie dhrkmr jhiime Dm`shi sh`e cm shw Lhblhwmme dhk`i ms jgk`bn

    drgk tcm bgrtc w`tc tcm`r tmbts hbe ahnnhnm `b tcm d`rst wmmf gd Hpr`i. Ucmy hrr`vme `b

    Nmbm`bh `b jhrs w`tc ngvmrbkmbt jhrs amc`be, cm sh`e. Drgk Nmbm`bh, tcmy tggf jhrs

    sgutc tg Cha`ih hbe Dgrarhbnh. A`n jhrs, w`tc tc`rty tg dgrty `b mhjc jhr. @ jgubtme

    hagut tc`rtmmb dhk`i`ms. Ehr Khshi`t `s amjgk`bn hb Hrha hrmh. Ucmy hrm ng`bn tg ar`bn

    tcm`r dhk`i`ms. Hsfme cgw cm rmjgnb`zme tcm trhvmiimrs hs Hrhas, cm sh`e< ^cy eg yguhsf tc`s7 Eg ygu tc`bf wm eg bgt fbgw7 @t `s tcm`r jgigr, tcm`r ihbnuhnm hbe tcm`r

    jigtcms. Ucmy hrm bgt hs wm hrm.8?=

    Hitcgunc tcm kgvmkmbt gd dhk`i`ms hppmhrs tg am skhii ht tc`s t`km, h bukamr gd

    e`spihjme kmb chvm rmpgrtme smm`bn Hrha wgkmb hbe jc`iermb `b pihjms wcmrm

    prmv`gusiy tcmrm wmrm gbiy hrkme kmb. Chsshb, h twmbty-twg-ymhr-gie dhrkmr drgk

    Ngfhr, rmpgrtme smm`bn Hrhas w`tc tcm`r w`vms hbe jc`iermb hbe khby jgws b tcm

    v`iihnms gd Uur, ]ruk hbe Uuiius.8?4

    Hb miemriy khb drgk Uubdufh sh e cm dgube h chbedui gd Hrha dhk`i`ms `b Uubdufh wcmbcm wmbt ahjf gbm b`nct rmjmbtiy tg try tg shivhnm amigbn`bns. Cm sh`e gbm dhk`iy che

    au`it h bmw ewmii`bn, bgt b tcm trhe`t`gbhi Khshi`t styim, wc`im hbgtcmr whs i`v`bn b hb

    ubaurbme cut tcht che amigbnme tg h khb jhiime Haeui Khn`e Dhecmi. Ucm Hrhas che

    au`it h bmw kgsqum `b tcm v`iihnm, cm sh`e. Hsfme wcht tcm wgkmb wmrm eg`bn, cm sh`e

    8?=Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Jche, Hpr`i 85, 1??5.8?4Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Jche, Hpr`i 1, 1??5.8?>

    Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Jche, Hpr`i :, 1??5.

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    :> C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H)

    @kpme`bn tcm drmm kgvmkmbt gd j`v`i`hbs

    @b rmjmbt kgbtcs, w`tc nrmhtmr btmrbht`gbhi httmbt`gb gb tcm htrgj`t`ms b Ehrdur, tcmrm

    chvm ammb bjrmhs`bn rmpgrts gd tcm Lhblhwmme hbe ngvmrbkmbt dgrjms gastrujt`bn

    e`spihjme j`v`i`hbs drgk smmf`bn rmdunm `btg Jche gr kgv`bn tg ihrnm urahb jmbtmrs i`fm

    Byhih. Khshi`t hbe Dur imhemrs ami`mvm tc`s `s tg prmvmbt `bdgrkht`gb hagut tcm mtcb`j

    jimhbs`bn gd Ehrdur rmhjc`bn tcm guts`em wgrie. Zusp`j`gbs tcht tcmsm mddgrts hrm

    mbjgurhnme ay tcm ngvmrbkmbt hrm strmbntcmbme ay tcm gdd`j`hi imttmr tg tcm gbiy Khshi`t

    gkeh wcgsm v`iihnms chvm bgt ammb aurbme, hpphrmbtiy amjhusm gd tcm`r prgx`k`ty tg

    Jche, urn`bn c`k tg jgkm ahjf tg Zuehb w`tc hii ygur pmgpim.8?3

    Gbm ehy amdgrm tc`s igjhi imhemr rmjm`vme tcm imttmr, smbt ay igjhi ngvmrbkmbt gdd`j`his,

    Lhblhwmme imhemr Chk`e Ehwh jhiime h kmmt`bn w`tc Khshi t imhemrs argunct tg K`stmrm`

    `b hrky trujfs hbe hsfme tcmk tg grnhb`sm smjur`ty tg stgp tcm`r pmgpim jrgss`bn btg

    Jche. Cm prgk`sme ihrnm phykmbts `d tcmy e`e. Uwg pmgpim wcg httmbeme tcm kmmt`bnsh`e tcm Khshi`t tgie Ehwh`< ^m egbt i`fm ygur kgbmy. ^m egbt ami`mvm `b ygur

    smjur`ty. ^m hrm suddmr`bn drgk Hrha k`i`t hs. Ehkh` rmspgbeme< @d ygu egbt khfm

    smjur`ty, @ w`ii f`ii hii ygur j`v`i`hbs.8?0

    H kgbtc mhri`mr, Lhblhwmme wcg che kgvme `btg tcm hrky ahsm b K`stmrm` jigsme tcm

    rghe tg Jche hdtmr pmgpim amnhb imhv`bn b emsph`r ht w`emsprmhe iggt`bn.

    Ucm Lhblhwmme sh`e< ^cy hrm ygu ng`bn7 ^m hrm cmrm tg shvm ygu - hbe jigsme tcm

    rghe, sh`e twmbty-d`vm-ymhr-gie Kgl`mee`bm. Ucm Lhblhwmme hrm ht tcm cmhrt gd tcm

    wcgim hek`b`strht`gb.

    Ay Khrjc 1??5 tcmrm wmrm tmb Lhblhwmme jcmjfpg`bts amtwmmb Herm (lust bs`em tcm

    Jche agremr) hbe Nmbm`bh. Qmdunmms emsjr`ame tcm j`rju`tgus rgutms tcmy che tg thfm tg

    hvg`e tcm jcmjfpg`bts, bjrmhs`bn ay smvmrhi ehys tcm`r lgurbmys tg shdmty b Jche.

    @b hee`t`gb tg try`bn tg prmvmbt pmgpim drgk imhv`bn Ehrdur hbe jrgss`bn btg Jche,

    ngvmrbkmbt dgrjms chvm urnme Jche`hb hutcgr`t`ms tg prmssurm tcm Zuehbmsm rmdunmms tg

    rmturb tg Ehrdur, emsp`tm tcm vgiht`i`ty gd tcm s`tuht`gb, tcm dhjt tcht smjur`ty rmkh`bs

    hasmbt b tcm tgwbs hbe rurhi hrmhs gd Ehrdur, hbe ngvmrbkmbt dgrjms hbe Lhblhwmmejgbt`bum tg mblgy duii kpub`ty dgr tcm`r htthjfs gb j`v`i`hbs.

    8?3Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Kush, Jche, Hpr`i 83, 1??5.8?0

    Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc @btmrv`mw, Hpr`i :, 1??5.

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    C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H) :3

    Gb Hpr`i 85, 1??5 h Zuehbmsm ngvmrbkmbt emimnht`gb hjjgkphb`me ay Jche`hb gdd`j`his

    hbe k`i`thry jgbvmbme h kmmt`bn w`tc Zuehbmsm rmdunmm imhemrs `b Dgrjchbh rmdunmm

    jhkp `b Jche, cgkm tg tcgushbes gd Khshi`t hbe gtcmr Zuehbmsm rmdunmms. Kgst

    rmdunmm imhemrs rmdusme tg phrt`j`phtm. H dmw `be`v`euhis mvmbtuhiiy turbme up hbe tcm

    Zuehbmsm emimnht`gb emkhbeme tcht tcm rmdunmms rmturb tg Ehrdur.

    Ucm kmmt`bn emtmr`grhtme hs tcm rmdunmms amnhb tcrgw`bn stgbms ht tcm Zuehbmsm

    emimnht`gb hbe tcm Jche`hb k`i`thry d`rme scgts `b tcm h`r. Uwg rmdunmms wmrm hpphrmbtiy

    hrrmstme hbe emth`bme hbe smvmrhi wmrm hiimnmeiy amhtmb ay Jche`hb sgie`mrs.88? Ucm

    Zuehbmsm ngvmrbkmbt ssume h sthtmkmbt tcht rmdunmms wmrm rmturb`bn tg Zuehb scgrtiy

    tcmrmhdtmr, emsp`tm drmsc mv`embjm tcht j`v`i`hbs jgbt`bum tg dimm Ehrdur btg Jche.888

    Lhblhwmme khbb`bn jcmjfpg`bts emth`b, rhpm hbe f`ii Khshi`t hbe Dur j`v`i`hbs hbe thx

    vmc`jims kgv`bn higbn rghes, e`sjgurhn`bn khby drgk httmkpt`bn tg trhvmi amtwmmbtgwbs gr drgk tgwbs tg tcm ausc. Ucmy `kpgsm thxht`gb gb jhrs kgv`bn amtwmmb

    tgwbs, hbe tcrmhtmb emhtc gr `kpr`sgbkmbt `d phykmbt `s bgt kmt. Ucmy tcrmhtmb tcm

    er`vmrs w`tc hjjusht`gbs< Pgu hiwhys jhrry rmamis drgk tcm ausc tg tcm tgwbs.

    Dm`shi drgk Bgur` whs stgppme ht h Lhblhwmme jcmjfpg`bt ht Kmjckh`rmy, gb tcm rghe tg

    Nmbm`bh, mhriy `b 1??5. Ucm Lhblhwmme, wcg che h Ucurhyh tmimpcgbm, emkhbeme tcht cm

    hbe c`s dmiigw trhvmiimrs phy 1??,??? Zuehbmsm gr wm w`ii f ii smvmb pmgpim. @b tcm

    mbe tcmy smttime dgr =?,??? hbe tcm jhr jgbt`bume gb tg Nmbm`bh. Ht tcm d`rst

    Lhblhwmme jcmjfpg`bt guts em Nmbm`bh tcmy wmrm stgppme hnh`b hbe h Lhblhwmme w tc h

    Ucgrhyh tmimpcgbm hsfme< cy e`ebt ygu phy tcm duii hkgubt `b Kmjckh`rmy7881

    E`spihjme Dur j`v`i`hbs b Nhrs`ih, Emim`n, Kunl`r hbe gtcmr tgwbs jgbtrgiime ay

    ngvmrbkmbt dgrjms hbe Lhblhwmme hrm rmnuihriy dgrjme tg phy ar`ams hbe sualmjtme tg

    v`gimbjm ay Lhblhwmme gdd`j`his wcmb httmkpt`bn tg kgvm guts`em tcm e`spihjme

    smttimkmbts hbe jhkps hrgube tcmsm tgwbs. ^gkmb wcg httmkpt tg imhvm tcm tgwbs tg

    jgiimjt d`rmwgge rub h smr`gus r`sf gd hsshuit hbe rhpm.

    J`v`i`hbs hrm hisg prmvmbtme drgk trhvmii`bn drgk skhiimr v`iihnms tg tcmsm ihrnmr tgwbs

    w`tcgut ngvmrbkmbt hutcgr`zht`gb. Ucm ihrnmr tgwbs hrm jurrmbtiy tcm gbiy pihjms w`tc

    88?Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc tmimpcgbm `btmrv`mw, Hpr`i 1?, 1??5.888Bmw Ehrdur hrr`vhis rmpgrtme `b Jche hs whtmr, dgge rub igw, ]BCJQ prmss rmimhsm, Hpr`i 1>, 1??5.881

    Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Dm`shi, Jche, Hpr`i =, 1??5.

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    :0 C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H)

    hby dubjt`gb`bn sgj`hi smrv`jms bjiue`bn cmhitc jhrm. Gbm w`tbmss drgk h v`iihnm

    hpprgx`khtmiy 8= fk drgk Nhrs`ih tgie Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc tcht c`s jc`ie e`me hdtmr cm

    whs dgrjme tg wh t s`x ehys dgr h Lhblhwmme msjgrt amdgrm thf`bn tcm jc`ie tg h cmhitc

    jmbtmr b Nhrs`ih.88:

    Eum tg tcm rmstr`jt`gbs gb kgvmkmbt hbe jgbt`bu`bn htthjfs ay Lhblhwmme k`i`t`hs, khby

    e`spihjme j`v`i`hbs ihjf mssmbt`hi tmks sujc hs scmitmr khtmr`his, hemquhtm whtmr, dgge hbe

    dumi dgr jggf`bn. Mvmb wcmrm dgge `s hvh ihaim `b igjhi khrfmts, e`spihjme Dur hbe

    Khshi`t j`v`i`hbs hrm gdtmb ubhaim tg trhvmi tg tcgsm khrfmts tg purjchsm t.

    [email protected] [email protected] @B ^MZU EHQD]Q

    @b tc`s rmpgrt, Cukhb Q`ncts htjc chs egjukmbtme h phttmrb gd cukhb r`ncts

    v`giht`gbs `b mst Ehrdur tcht hkgubt tg h ngvmrbkmbt pgi`jy gd mtcb`j jimhbs`bn gd

    jmrth`b mtcb`j nrgups, bhkmiy tcm Dur hbe tcm Khshi`t, drgk tcm`r hrmhs gd rms`embjm.885Gtcmr jrme`aim sgurjms, b phrt`juihr tcm Mkmrnmbjy Qmi`md Jg-gre`bhtgr gd tcm ].B.

    systmk hbe tcm dgrkmr Qms`embt Jg-gre`bhtgr gd tcm ].B. systmk b Zuehb, Kufmsc

    Fhp`ih, chvm khem s`k`ihr jih`ks.88=

    Hitcgunc mtcb`j jimhbs`bn `s bgt dgrkhiiy emd`bme ubemr `btmrbht`gbhi ihw, h ].B.

    Jgkk`ss`gb gd Mxpmrts chs emd`bme tcm tmrk hs h purpgsmdui pgi`jy ems`nbme ay gbm

    mtcb`j gr rmi`n`gus nrgup tg rmkgvm ay v`gimbt hbe tmrrgr-`bsp`r`bn kmhbs tcm j`v`i`hb

    pgpuiht`gb gd hbgtcmr mtcb`j gr rmi`n`gus nrgup drgk jmrth`b nmgnrhpc`j hrmhs. . . . Uc`s

    purpgsm hppmhrs tg am tcm gjjupht`gb gd tmrr`tgry tg tcm mxjius`gb gd tcm purnme nrgup

    gr nrgups.884

    88:Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc `btmrv`mw, Ehrdur, Hpr`i 1??5.885^c`im h s`k`ihr phttmrb khy am `b mddmjt `b Bgrtc Ehrdur, `b tcm \hnchwh cgkmihbe, tcm sjgpm gd tc`s rmpgrt `s

    i`k`tme tg ^mst Ehrdur. Dgr durtcmr `bdgrkht`gb gb hausms `b tcm \hnchwh cgkmihbe `b Bgrtc Ehrdur, pimhsm smm

    Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc rmpgrt Ehrdur b Dihkms.88=ZmmH Ar`md`bn _hpmr gb tcm Ehrdur Jr`s`s< Mtcb`j Jimhbs`bn, Gdd`jm gd tcm ]B Qms`embt hbe Cukhb`thr`hb

    Jg-gre`bhtgr dgr tcm Zuehb ehtme Khrjc 1=, 1??5 gb d`im w`tc Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc6 ].B. prmss rmimhsm, Zuehb3? (8001), 1> Khy 8005, smjt`gb @@@.A ht cttp

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    C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H) 5?

    Ucm Jgkk`ss`gb gd Mxpmrts miuj`ehtme tcm kmhb`bn gd mtcb`j jimhbs`bn hs `tgjjurrme `b

    tcm dgrkmr Pungsihv`h

    Ucm ]b`tme Bht`gbs chs rmpmhtmeiy jchrhjtmr`zme tcm prhjt`jm gd mtcb`j jimhbs`bn hs h

    v`giht`gb gd btmrbht`gbhi cukhb`thr hb ihw, hbe chs emkhbeme tcht pmrpmtrhtgrs gd

    mtcb`j jimhbs`bn am argunct tg lust`jm.883Ucm `be`v`euhi cukhb r`ncts hausms tcht

    jchrhjtmr`zm mtcb`j jimhbs`bn hrm jr`kms hnh`bst cukhb`ty hbe whr jr`kms.

    Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc chs dgube jrme`aim mv`embjm tcht tcm ngvmrbkmbt gd Zuehb chs

    purpgsmduiiy sgunct tg rmkgvm ay v`gimbt kmhbs tcm Khshi`t hbe Dur pgpuiht`gbs drgk

    ihrnm phrts gd Ehrdur `b gpmrht`gbs tcht hkgubt tg mtcb`j jimhbs`bn. Ucm htthjfs e`rmjtme

    hnh`bst j`v`i`hbs, tcm aurb`bn gd tcm`r v`iihnms, tcm khss f`ii`bns gd pmrsgbs ubemr tcm`r

    jgbtrgi, tcm dgrjme e`spihjmkmbt gd pgpuiht`gbs, tcm emstrujt`gb gd tcm`r dgge stgjfs,

    i`vmi`cgges hbe tcm iggt`bn gd tcm`r i`vmstgjf ay ngvmrbkmbt hbe k`i`t`h dgrjms hrm bgt

    kmrmiy h sjgrjcme mhrtc thjt`j gr hb mimkmbt gd h jgubtmr`bsurnmbjy strhtmny. Ucm`r h`k

    hppmhrs tg am tg rmkgvm tcgsm mtcb`j nrgups drgk ihrnm hrmhs gd tcm rmn`gb hbe

    rme`str`autm tc`s pgpuiht`gb, kh`biy `btg tcm v`j`b`ty gd ngvmrbkmbt-jgbtrgiime tgwbs

    wcmrm tcmy jhb am jgbjmbtrhtme, jgbd`bme hbe jgbtrgiime.

    Ucm suasmqumbt emb`hi gd cukhb`thr`hb hss`sthbjm tg tc s pgpuiht`gb ay tcm ngvmrbkmbt

    gd Zuehb, `b jgbe`t`gbs wcmrm tcm pgpuiht`gb chs ammb rmbemrme mbt`rmiy empmbembt gb

    rmi`md, jhb hisg am jgbs`emrme hs phrt gd h strhtmny tg wmhfmb hbe pmrchps emstrgy h ihrnm

    prgpgrt`gb gd tcm e`spihjme pgpuiht`gb hbe prmvmbt tcm`r rmturb tg tcm`r cgkm v`iihnms.

    Ucm s`tuht`gb chs ammb mxhjmrahtme ay tcm gjjupht`gb hbe hpphrmbt rmsmttimkmbt gd

    sgkm Khshi`t hbe Dur hrmhs ay Lhblhwmme hbe rmihtme Hrha mtcb`j nrgups. Ucm mtcb`j

    j`v`i`hbs. Ihstiy, tcm Jgkk`ss`gb bgtms tcht tcmsm ubihwdui hjts hrm gdtmb cmrhieme ay tcm pmrpmtrhtgrs hs

    pgs`t`vm, phtr`gt`j hjjgkpi`sckmbts.88>@a`e.883ZmmZmjur`ty Jgubj`i rmsgiut`gbs >>8 (8001), >3? (8001), 3?3 (800:), 31? (800:), hbe 058 (8005), hbe ].B.

    Nmbmrhi Hssmkaiy rmsgiut`gbs 54/151 hbe 5>/3?.

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    58 C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H)

    khfm-up gd tcm rmn`gb w`ii am pmrkhbmbtiy hitmrme d tcm ihrnm-sjhim e`spihjmkmbt tcht chs

    gjjurrme s bgt urnmbtiy heermssme hbe rmvmrsme.

    Cukhb Q`ncts htjcs nmbmrhi d`be`bns gd mtcb`j jimhbs`bn hrm smt gut amigw.

    @bempmbembt hbe kphrt`hi bvmst`nht`gbs, sujc hs ay h ].B. Jgkk`ss`gb gd Mxpmrts, hrm

    bmjmsshry tg p`bpg`bt `be`v`euhi jr`k`bhi rmspgbs`a`i`ty dgr mtcb`j jimhbs`bn, `bjiue`bn

    rmihtme jr`kms hnh`bst cukhb`ty hbe whr jr`kms.

    D`rst, tcm ngvmrbkmbt gd Zuehb s rmspgbs`aim dgr rmjru`t`bn, hrk`bn, hbe phrt`j`pht`bn b

    lg`bt htthjfs w`tc k`i`t`h dgrjms tcht chvm amjgkm tcm kh`b `bstrukmbt dgr htthjfs gb hbe

    tcm e`spihjmkmbt gd tcm j`v`i`hb pgpuiht`gb. Hs egjukmbtme cmrm hbe mismwcmrm,

    Zuehbmsm hrky hbe k`i`t`h dgrjms chvm ammb rmspgbs`aim dgr jr`kms hnh`bst cukhb`ty, whr

    jr`kms hbe gtcmr v`giht`gbs gd `btmrbht`gbhi cukhb`thr`hb ihw.

    Zmjgbe, tcm htthjfs gb Khshi`t hbe Dur v`iihnms ay Zuehbmsm ngvmrbkmbt hbe k`i`t`hdgrjms dgiigw jimhr phttmrbs hbe wmrm jhrr`me gut `b wcht hppmhrme tg am jggre`bhtme hbe

    pihbbme gpmrht`gbs. T`iihnms wmrm bgt htthjfme ht rhbegk, aut wmrm mkpt`me hjrgss w`em

    hrmhs b gpmrht`gbs tcht ihstme dgr smvmrhi ehys gr wmrm rmpmhtme smvmrhi t`kms ubt`i tcm

    pgpuiht`gb whs d`bhiiy er`vmb hwhy. ^c`im Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc whs `b Ehrdur, dgurtmmb

    v`iihnms sgutc-wmst gd Nmbm`bh wmrm htthjfme hbe aurbme `b h s`bnim ehy, Khrjc 1>,

    1??5. Ucm shkm kgbtc, ngvmrbkmbt dgrjms hbe Lhblhwmme jimhrme hbe aurbme egzmbs gd

    v`iihnms `b tcm K`iimammeh hrmh, jigsm tg tcm Jche agremr, aurb`bn m`nct v`iihnms `b h s`bnim

    ehy b mhriy Khrjc. Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc survmyme hb hrmh gd hpprgx`khtmiy s`xty squhrm

    f`igkmtrms gr twmbty-d`vm squhrm k`ims, hbe dgube tcm hrmh, gbjm wmii-pgpuihtme hbe

    `btmbsmiy dhrkme, tg am jgkpimtmiy emsmrtme.

    Uc`re, khby gd tcm htthjfs wmrm jhrr`me gut `b h s`k`ihr khbbmr< hmr`hi suppgrt `b

    agka`bn hbe rmjgbbh`sshbjm ay tcm Zuehbmsm h`r dgrjm dgiigwme ay nrgube htthjfs ay

    ngvmrbkmbt dgrjms hbe Lhblhwmme. Lhblhwmme chvm ammb n`vmb mxpi`j`t hbe `kpi`j`t

    hutcgr`ty gvmr hrmhs vhjhtme ay tcgsm tcmy chvm dgrjme gut. Ucm Lhblhwmme khb

    jcmjfpg`bts gb kh`b rghes hbe rmnuihtm tcm kgvmkmbt gd ngges hbe pmgpim.

    Dgurtc, tcm ngvmrbkmbt hbe k`i`t`h htthjfs gb tcm Khshi`t hbe Dur v`iihnms hppmhr

    `btmbeme tg e`sjgurhnm jgbt`bume cha`tht`gb ay tcm pgpuiht`gb. Gd dgurtmmb v`iihnms `b

    tcm hrmh mxhk`bme ay Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc, mimvmb che ammb jgkpimtmiy aurbt `bjiue`bn Chllhr Zuim`khb, Umramah, Zhbyhamy, U`rt`, Byhit`th (twg smphrhtm v`iihnms),

    Haglmy, Fch r ^hl`e hbe Fmby`kmlm. Ucrmm wmrm hahbegbme amjhusm gd tcm aurb`bnUcm Zuehbmsm ngvmrbkmbt amnhb tg hrk Hdr`jhb Bumr k`i`t`hs, fbgwb hs Hbyh-Byh 1, hs sggb hs tcmsm

    nrgups igst pgwmr w`tc`b tcm bhsjmbt Z_IH rmamis `b Mtc`gp`h hbe dime ahjf tg Zuehb `b 803:.813Hrks jgbt`bume tg digw tg tcm kurhcmimmb tcrgunc tcm Ehrdur sthtm hek`b`strht`gb hbe ]kkh _hrtyngvmrbkmbt gd Zhe`q hi Khce` (mimjtme ngvmrbkmbt 8034-30). Ucm ]kkh _hrty trhe` t`gbhiiy ermw suppgrt drgk

    tcm Hbshr Zubb` Zud` @sihk`j smjt, dgubeme ay _r`km K`b`stmr hi Khce`s hbjmstgr wcgsm Ahnnhrh Ehrdur`hb

    dgiigwmrs ergvm tcm Mnypt`hbs drgk Zuehb `b 8338.810Dgr hee`t`gbhi `bdgrkht`gb gb tcm Ahnnhrh k`i`t`hs usme tg d`nct tcm j`v`i`hbs hssgj`htme w`tc tcm rmami dgrjms

    `b Ahcr Mi Nchzhi, smm Dhk`bm b Zuehb, 8003< Ucm Cukhb Q`ncts Jhusms(Bmw Pgrf< Cukhb Q`ncts ^htjc,

    8000).8:?Zihvm-thf`bn `s h pcmbgkmbgb gjjurr`bn `b htthjfs gb sgutcmrb Zuehbmsm aut hitcgunc tcmrm chvm ammb

    bukmrgus haeujt`gbs gd jc`iermb hbe wgkmb `b Ehrdur, sg dhr `t `s bgt jimhr wcmtcmr hby sujc phttmrb `s

    mkmrn`bn.

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    5= C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H)

    Khby gr kgst gd tcm Lhblhwmme imhemrs wmrm mk`rs gr gkehsdrgk Hrha tr`ams, hbe smvmrhi

    wmrm hppg`btme ay tcm ngvmrbkmbt `b tcm hek`b`strht`vm rmgrnhb`zht`gb gd tcm k`e-

    800?s. Ucm phrt`j`pht`gb ay mtcb`j-pgi`t`jhi imhemrs imhes tg `bjrmhs`bn mtcb`j pgihr`zht`gb

    hs kmkamrs gd gbm mtcb`j nrgup hrm sukkgbme hbe rmjru`tme ay tcm`r imhemrs tg lg`b b h

    drmm-dgr-hii whr hnh`bst hbgtcmr mtcb`j nrgup.

    Ucm Lhblhwmme hrm bgt s`kpiy h dmw s`em-i`bme gstrhj`zme gutihws, hs tcm ngvmrbkmbt

    sunnmsts. Hkgbn tcm imhemrs phrt`j`pht`bn b tcm whr `b Ehrdur hnh`bst tcm Dur, Khshi`t,

    hbe \hnchwh hrm hs gd k`e-1??:) dgr h khb

    w`tc h cgrsm gr jhkmi, hbe 1??,??? h kgbtc (].Z. $ >0) dgr h khb w`tcgut rgunciytw`jm hs kujc hs h sgie`mr gd s`k`ihr rhbf.8:1

    @er`ss, dgrty-tcrmm-ymhr-gie imhemr gd h igjhi Khshi`t smid-emdmbsm nrgup b Ngzamee`bm

    bmhr Cha`ih, sh`e phykmbts tg Lhblhwmme b c`s hrmh jhkm drgk tcm ngvmrbkmbt C]KHB [email protected] ^HUJC TGI. 84, BG. 4(H)

    khchi`yhs8:4gbm gd Byhih hbe tcm gtcmr gd Fhs, tcm jhp`thi hbe h ihrnm tgwb `b Zgutc

    Ehrdur, rmspmjt`vmiy.

    @t tchbfs tcm jgkk`ss`gbmrs gb amchid gd tcm sthtm k`b`stmr gd tcm btmr`gr hbe tcm

    ngvmrbgr dgr tcm`r mddgrts hnh`bst tcm rmamis, wc`jc wmrm c`nciy hpprmj`htme. @t

    rmhdd`rks h jgkk`tkmbt tg hb hnrmmkmbt khem amtwmmb tcm k`b`stmr hbe tcm

    jgkk`ss`gbmrs gb hii hjt`gbs hnh`bst tcm rmamis hbe hsfs tcm jgkk`ss`gbmrs tg

    `kpimkmbt t. Ucm imttmr bmxt i`sts prgk`sme egbht`gbs hbe prglmjts, hpphrmbtiy tg ambmd`t

    tcm lhblhwmme jgkkub`ty, wc`jc `bjiuem h jhkph`nb tg vhjj`bhtm jhkmis hbe cgrsms6

    au`ie`bn gd tcrmm jihssrggks hbe egbht`gb gd aggfs, emsf, hbe jigtcms dgr stuembts6

    jgbstrujt`gb gd h cmhitc ub`t hbe egbht`gb gd twmbty-dgur chbe pukps dgr m`nct

    v`iihnms.8:>

    Qmjru`tkmbt gd jr`k`bhis tg imhe tcm Lhblhwmme

    @b Ehrdur, tcm ngvmrbkmbt s hisg rmjru`t`bn jr`k`bhis tg spmhrcmhe tc`sjgubtmr`bsurnmbjy gpmrht`gb, w`tc prme`jthaim rmsuits. Ucm kgst prgk`bmbt Lhblhwmme

    imhemr b mst Ehrdur sthtm `s Haeui Qhc`k Hckhe Kgchkkme, h dgrkmr hrky gdd`jmr

    fbgwb ub`vmrshiiy ay c`s b`jfbhkm gd Zcufurthiihc.8:3Cm mkmrnme ht tcm cmhe gd tcm

    Lhblhwmme `b Ehr Khshi`t hdtmr cm whs hrrmstme gb jchrnms gd f`ii`bn j`v`i`hbs.

    Zcufurthiihc `s h kmkamr gd tcm Khchr`yh mtcb`j nrgupdrgk Hraufb` v`iihnm lust guts`em

    Nmbm`bh. Cm rmpgrtmeiy smrvme b tcm Zuehbmsm hrky b Luah dgr smvmrhi ymhrs b tcm ihtm

    800?s amdgrm am`bn trhbsdmrrme ahjf tg Nmbm`bh. @b 8000, hjjgre`bn tg Khshi t rms`embts

    gd Nmbm`bh, cm whs thfmb tg jgurt ay rmiht`vms gd kmb cm whs hjjusme gd f`ii`bn. Cm whs

    smbtmbjme tg tmb ymhrs kpr`sgbkmbt, aut whs rmimhsme hbe sggb hdtmr hppmhrme ht tcmcmhe gd tcm Lhblhwmme dgrjms b Ehr Khshi`t.

    Hckhe, h Khshi t dhrkmr drgk tcm Nmb