darfur a genocide we can stop presented by hsin-yi lee director of academics, ntumun

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Darfur A Genocide We can Stop Presented by Hsin-yi Lee Director of Academics, NT UMUN

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  • Darfur A Genocide We can Stop

    Presented by Hsin-yi LeeDirector of Academics, NTUMUN

  • What is Peacekeeping?UN definition :a way to help countries torn by conflict create conditions for sustainable peaceauthorized by the Security Council UN army?

  • Process Peace treaty signed Comprehensive Peace AgreementSecurity Council creates mission SC resolution 1590, 24 March 2005 United Nations Mission in Sudan(UNMIS)Department of Peacekeeping OperationForm ad hoc coalitions

  • United Nations Mission in Sudan

  • Three Central PowersHead of Mission DeputySpecial Representative of the Secretary-General Force Commander

  • UNMIS to UNAMIDfunding problem for the AU Mission in the Sudan (AMIS) Refusal of UNMIS expansion by Sudanese GovernmentIdea of hybrid mission

  • On August 24, Sudan rejected attending a United Nations Security Council meetingSudan asked AU force to leave"they have no right to transfer this assignment to the United Nations or any other party. This right rests with the government of Sudan."

  • Darfur Peace AgreementSigned 5 May, 2006Government of Sudan and the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (Minni Minawi)

  • UNAMIDThe hybrid UN/AU force was finally approved on 31 July 2007UNAMID will take over from AMIS by 31 December 2007

  • Genocide or Not?UN report in 2005: mass murders and rapes, genocidal intent appears to be missing.Arab world: "not genocide," simply "war crimes."

  • NEVER AGAINthen there was Rwanda

    NOW DARFURThe first genocide in the 21st Century

  • UN Aid AgenciesOCHA - Humanitarian Affairs UNHCHR - Human RightsUNDP - Development UNHCR - RefugeesUNICEF - ChildrenWFP - Food WHO - Health

  • World Food ProgramEmergency food assistanceCountry ProgramSchool feeding

  • UNICEF The United Nations Children's Fund

    Water and environmental sanitationHealth and nutritionEducationChild protectionRelief and shelter

  • World Health OrganizationHealth actions in crisis ECOSOC (Economic and Social Council) OCHA (Coordination of Humanitarian Action) UNDG (United Nations Development Group) ECHA (Executive Committee on Humanitarian Affairs)

    Health as a bridge to peace

  • WHAT CAN YOU DO? 400,000 DEATHS2 million more driven from home

  • Harvard Darfur Action Group "Students Dream for Darfur" vigil at 2:00 PM in Harvard Yard on Sunday, October 7, 2007.

  • Created by high school studentsAwareness through StoriesFundraising IdeasNational Action CampaignPetitionDonations

  • Darfur A Genocide YOU can Stop

    1.Such assistance comes in many forms, including confidence-building measures, power-sharing arrangements, electoral support, strengthening the rule of law, and economic and social development. Accordingly UN peacekeepers (often referred to as Blue Helmets because of their light blue helmets) can include soldiers, civilian police officers, and other civilian personnel. 2.The Charter of the United Nations gives the UN Security Council the power and responsibility to take collective action to maintain international peace and security. For this reason, the international community usually looks to the Security Council to authorize peacekeeping operations, as all UN Peacekeeping missions must be authorized by the Security Council. 3. Most of these operations are established and implemented by the United Nations itself with troops serving under UN operational command. In these cases, peacekeepers remain members of their respective armed forces, and do not constitute an independent "UN army,"

    UN peacekeepers at the African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) Headquarters in El Fasher, capital of North Darfur, Sudan. 28 December 2006.

    Graduation ceremony for 493 newly trained police officers (former SPLA soldiers trained with the assistance of UNMIS) The graduating class included 69 women. Torit, Eastern Equatoria, Sudan, 15 November 2006. The Security Council, by its resolution 1590 of 24 March 2005, decided to establish the United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS) to support implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed by the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army on 9 January 2005; and to perform certain functions relating to humanitarian assistance, and protection and promotion of human rights

    StructureA United Nations peacekeeping mission has three power centers. 1.The first is the Special Representative of the Secretary-General, the official leader of the mission. This person is responsible for all political and diplomatic activity, overseeing relations with both the parties to the peace treaty and the UN member-states in general. They are often a senior member of the Secretariat. 2.The second is the Force Commander, who is responsible for the military forces deployed. They are a senior officer of their nation's armed services, and are often from the nation committing the highest number of troops to the project. 3.Finally, the Chief Administrative Officer oversees supplies and logistics, and coordinates the procurement of any supplies needed.On the 8th April 2004, under the auspices of President Idriss Deby of Chad and the Chairperson of the African Union Commission, and in the presence of international observers and facilitators, the Sudanese parties signed a Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement HCFA on the Darfur Conflict and a Protocol on the Establishment of Humanitarian Assistance in Darfur. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1706 was a United Nations Security Council resolution intended to resolve the Darfur conflict. It was passed on 31 August 2006, with twelve in favor, and three abstentions: the People's Republic of China, Qatar, and Russia. It calls for 22,500 UN troops and police officers to support the 7,000-member AU force in Sudan. Sudan has refused to participate in the UNSC session and has strongly rejected the resolution. On September 5, the AU announced it will be withdrawing its forces when its peacekeeping mandate expires on September 30. The next day, however, the US hinted that the AU force might, in fact, remain in the region past the deadline.On October 2, the AU chair announced that it will extend its mandate to December 31, 2006, in light of the failure to implement the UN peacekeeping force outlined in Resolution 1706. About 200 UN military support personnel are to be attached to the AU force. On October 9, the Arab League reported that Sudan's president has rejected an initial proposal to send peacekeeping soldiers to the region, but promised alternatives in the near future.

    On September 14, 2006, the leader of the now defunct Sudan Liberation Movement, currently Senior Assistant to the President of the Republic and Chairman of the Regional Interim Authority of Darfur, stated that he does not object to the new UN peacekeeping force, thereby breaking ranks with the Sudanese government who consider such a deployment to be an act of Western invasion. Minnawi claimed that the AU force "can do nothing because the AU mandate is very limited." Khartoum, however, remained sternly against the UN peacekeeping force, with Sudanese president Al-Bashir depicting it as a colonial plan, and stating that "we do not want Sudan to turn into another Iraq."

    on August 24, the International Rescue Committee reported that hundreds of women were raped and sexually assaulted around the Kalma refugee camp during the last several weeks. August 25, the head of the US State Department's Bureau of African Affairs, Assistant Secretary Jendayi Frazer, warned that the region faces a security crisis unless the proposed UN peacekeeping force is allowed to deploy August 31, 2006, the UNSC approved a resolution to send a new peacekeeping force of 17,300 to the region. Sudan has expressed strong opposition to the resolution. On September 1, 2006, African Union officials reported that Sudan had launched a major offensive in Darfur. According to the AU, over 20 people were killed and 1,000 were displaced during clashes that began earlier in the week. On September 5, by the end of the month, adding that they have no right to transfer this assignment to the United Nations or any other party. This right rests with the government of Sudan."

    On October 6, the UNSC voted to extend the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Sudan until April 30, 2007Chad's president Idriss Dby voiced support for the new UN peacekeeping force. The AU, whose peacekeeping force mandate expires on September 30, 2006, has confirmed that they will do so. The next day, however, a senior US State Department official who declined to be identified, told reporters that the AU force might remain in the region past the deadline, citing this possibility as a "viable, live option."

    On October 12, the Foreign Minister of Nigeria Joy Ogwu arrived in Darfur for a two-day visit. She urged the Sudanese government to accept a UN formula. Speaking in Ethiopia, Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo spoke against "stand[ing] by and see[ing] genocide being developed in Darfur. France and Britain announced they will push for a U.N. resolution to dispatch African Union and United Nations peacekeepers to Darfur and will push for an immediate cease-fire in Darfur and are prepared to provide "substantial" economic aid "as soon as a cease-fire makes it possible." On November 17, reports of a potential deal to place a "compromise peacekeeping force" in Darfur were announced,but would later appear to have been rejected by Sudan. The UN, nonetheless, claimed on November 18 that Sudan agreed to the deployment of UN peacekeepers. Sudan's Foreign Minister Lam Akol stated that "there should be no talk about a mixed force" and that the UN's role should be restricted to technical support. Also on November 18, the AU reported that Sudanese military and Sudanese-backed militias had launched a ground and air operation in the region which resulted in about 70 civilian deaths. The AU stated that this "'was a flagrant violation of security agreements.'"

    On Friday the 5th of may 2006, the Government of Sudan and the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (Minni Minawi) have signed the Darfur Peace Agreement. This agreement puts an end to three years of fighting which resulted in the killing of tens of thousands of people and forcing two million to flee their homes.The peace agreement, which covers security, wealth-sharing and power-sharing, is the result of two years of painstaking negotiations mediated by the African Union (AU).To fully and effectively implement this Agreement that covers Power Sharing; Wealth Sharing; Comprehensive Ceasefire and Final Security Arrangements as well as the Darfur-Darfur Dialogue and Consultation, and Implementation Mechanisms; That the following documents shall form part of the Agreement (as Annexures), and shall from this point forward be implemented by the Parties in accordance with the relevant provisions in the Chapters of this Agreement: Agreement on Humanitarian Ceasefire on the Conflict in Darfur, of the 8th day of April 2004 (Annexure 1). Protocol on the Establishment of Humanitarian Assistance of the 8th day of April 2004, N'djamena, Chad (Annexure 2). Agreement with Sudanese Parties on the Modalities for the Establishment of the Ceasefire Commission and the Deployment of Observers in Darfur, of the 28th day of May, 2004 (Annexure 3). Protocol between the Government of the Sudan (GoS), the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) on the improvement of the humanitarian situation in Darfur, of the 9th day of November 2004 (Annexure 4). Protocol between the Government of the Sudan (GOS), the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) on the Enhancement of the Security Situation in Darfur (Annexure 5). Declaration of Principles for the Resolution of the Sudanese Conflict in Darfur, of the 5th day of July 2005 (Annexure 6). This Agreement shall be referred to as the "Darfur Peace Agreement" (DPA).

    with the unanimously approved United Nations Security Council Resolution 1769. at the latest, and has an initial mandate up to 31 July 2008.

    On September 18, 2004, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 1564, which called for a Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to assess the Sudanese conflict. The UN report released on January 31, 2005 stated that while there were mass murders and rapes, they could not label it as genocide because "genocidal intent appears to be missing".[129][130]In 2005, Rep. Henry Hyde (R-IL) and Sen. Sam Brownback (R-KS) introduced the Darfur Peace and Accountability Act, which calls on the United States to take a more active role in stopping the alleged genocide, encourages NATO participation, and endorses a Chapter VII mandate for a UN mission in Darfur. The bill was passed by the House and Senate and as of August 2006 is in conference committee. In August 2006, the Genocide Intervention Network released a Darfur scorecard, rating each member of Congress on legislation relating to the conflict. [131

    Gerard Prunier, a scholar specializing in African conflicts, argues that the world's most powerful countries have largely limited their response to expressions of concern and demands that the United Nations take action. The UN, lacking both the funding and military support of the wealthy countries, has left the African Union to deploy a token force (AMIS) without a mandate to protect civilians. In the lack of foreign political will to address the political and economic structures that underlie the conflict, the international community has defined the Darfur conflict in humanitarian assistance terms and debated the "genocide" label

    Human rights advocates and opponents of the Sudanese government portray China's role in providing weapons and aircraft as a cynical attempt to obtain oil and gas just as colonial powers once supplied African chieftains with the military means to maintain control as they extracted natural resources.Political China has offered Sudan support threatening to use its veto on the U.N. Security Council to protect Khartoum from sanctions and has been able to water down every resolution on Darfur in order to protect its interests in Sudan.[137] There has been further evidence of the Sudanese government's murder of civilians to actually facilitate the extraction of oil. The U.S.-funded Civilian Protection Monitoring Team, which investigates attacks in southern Sudan concluded that "As the Government of Sudan sought to clear the way for oil exploration and to create a cordon sanitaire around the oil fields, vast tracts of the Western Upper Nile Region in southern Sudan became the focus of extensive military operations."[138] Sarah Wykes, a senior campaigner at Global Witness, an NGO that campaigns for better natural resource governance, says: "Sudan has purchased about $100m in arms from China and has used these weapons against civilians in Darfur."[135] There are additional concerns that Chinese oil companies are devastating the environment further inhibiting the local population's ability to survive. This includes the clearing of forests for timber exports that increases vulnerability to erosion, river silting, landslides, flooding and loss of habitat for plant and animal species.

    On the opposite side of the issue, publicity given to the Darfur conflict has been strongly criticized in the Arab and Muslim world as exaggerated. Statements to this effect in the Arab press take the view that "the (Israeli) lobby prevents any in-depth discussion and diverts the attention from the crimes committed every day in Palestine and Iraq."[145] and that Western attention to the Darfur crisis is "a cover for what is really being planned and carried out by the Western forces of hegemony and control in our Arab world." [146] While "in New York, ... there are thousands of posters screaming 'genocide' and '400,000 people dead," in reality only "200,000 have been killed." Furthermore, "what has been done" in Darfur is "not genocide," simply "war crimes."[147] Another complaint made is that "there is no ethnic cleansing being perpetrated" in Darfur, only "great instability" and "clashes between the Sudanese government, rebel movements and the Janjaweed."

    This militia has come to be known as the Janjaweed (loosely translated as devil on horseback), who have terrorized, murdered, and displaced civilians in more than half of Darfurs villages, using mass murder, rape, and the systematic destruction of livelihoods. After the holocaustWorld leaders pledged never againThen there was Cambodia bosnia and RwandaNow Darfur

    On October 16, 2006, Minority Rights Group (MRG) published a critical report, challenging that the UN and the great powers could have prevented the deepening crisis in Darfur and that few lessons appear to have been drawn from their ineptitude during the Rwandan Genocide. MRG's executive director, Mark Lattimer, stated that: "this level of crisis, the killings, rape and displacement could have been foreseen and avoided ... Darfur would just not be in this situation had the UN systems got its act together after Rwanda: their action was too little too late."

    WFPs Emergency Food assistance to populations affected by conflict aims to save lives, improve and sustain the nutritional status of vulnerable populations and promote peace building with a budget valued at US$685 million. WFP food aid will play a significant factor in supporting peace building at the community level and consolidating the peace process in the South. In Darfur, the East and the Three Areas, WFP wants to contribute to maintaining and improving the nutritional status of the vulnerable populations with an emphasis on women and children. It also seeks to increase food security and protect livelihoods, minimising migration into camps and other regions. The operation also includes an emergency school feeding component, with a special focus on camps for internally displaced people. WFP's Country Programme plays an important role in strengthening recovery and development in Sudan. It aims to improve food security and enable households to invest in capital through education and training. The programme is fully harmonised, in terms of its objectives and timing, with the United Nations Development assistance Framework (UNDAF) and targets about half a million people. The two core elements of the country programme are school feeding and food-for-work. The total cost of the programme for the period 2002-2007 is US$66.4 million. Through school feeding WFP aims to improve access, quality and level of education for primary and secondary school children, particularly girls. The programme also makes it possible for poor families to gain and preserve assets through food for work activities. Action Current UNICEF Chad activities to assist both Sudanese refugees and local Chadian communities include: distribution of blankets; measles vaccination and Vitamin A campaigns; delivery of school-in-a-box kits; supply of Arabic school books from UNICEF Sudan to support education activities; provision of basic school materials; distribution of family water kits; delivery of mid-wife kits; supply of therapeutic milk; hygiene education; monitoring of separated children; water and sanitation activities; and, the supply of recreational materials for play. UNICEF and its partners are providing humanitarian aid in the following key areas:Over 2.3 million people, or 70 per cent of the conflict-affected population, assisted in gaining access to safe waterFormation and maintenance of health and hygiene committees.Eighty per cent of the UNICEF-supported health centres are providing expanded immunization services.Vaccination support, such as special campaigns on polio, measles and vitamin A supplementationTraining health workers in the treatment of malnutrition, and emergency and disease preparednessDistributing therapeutic milk, UNIMIX and BP-5 nutritional supplementsSupplying health kits for mobile facilities, midwifery kits and emergency obstetric kitsProviding bicycles and motorcycles for health workers.Education More than 380,000 (46 per cent girls) children enrolled in school.Constructing teachers offices and temporary classroomsRehabilitating and providing furniture for existing permanent schoolsProviding student and classroom kits, as well as sports and recreation equipmentTraining teachersProviding school uniforms for children, particularly girls.Child protection Child-friendly spaces and psycho-social activities reaching over 170,000 internally displaced persons and conflict-affected childrenProviding psycho-social support to children through schools and child-friendly spacesPrevention and response to gender-based violence Reporting rape and gender-based violence with local authoritiesTraining of humanitarian agency and government staff in child protection measures, and reducing childrens and womens risk of sexual violenceRelief and shelter Procuring priority non-food items such as plastic sheeting, rope, soap, cups, buckets, jerry cans, sanitary clothing, baby blankets, cooking pots and bowls, insecticide-treated bed nets to reduce In order to advocate for health action in crises, WHO participates in the annual humanitarian segment of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) which allows for substantial debates with all stakeholders involved in humanitarian assistance and for keeping health high on the political/humanitarian agenda.Also, to bring health action in crises to the forefront of humanitarian action and contribute to inter-agency coordination, WHO works with the UN Department for the Coordination of Humanitarian Action (OCHA), the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) and other initiatives and entities as relevant. WHO, as a member of the United Nations Development Group (UNDG), is an active player in processes of joint assessments and planning for recovery and reconstruction conducted by the UN and the World Bank. WHO is also part of the United Nations Executive Committee on Humanitarian Affairs (ECHA) which meets on a monthly basis to ensure health as an important component of humanitarian action. To ensure an adequate representation of health needs in the Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP), WHO provides input on the Consolidated Appeals, Common Humanitarian Action Plans (CHAP) and Flash Appeals.

    Armed conflict is one of the biggest challenges facing humanity and directly and indirectly affects health. Violence is a major source of disease.War is a major source of disease causing: death and injury, the breakdown of and reduced access to health systems, the increase incidence of communicable diseases, reduced water and sanitation and disease prevention, psychosocial effects, malnutrition, etc.We need to deliver health in conflict situations. Health can be a neutral meeting point to bring conflicting parties to discuss mutually beneficial interventions. Health workers are ideally placed because of their professional and ethical position within the community.

    In Sudan WHO intends: to sustain the survival of vulnerable peoples, to ensure the delivery of priority health services across the country, to back the transitional & peacekeeping processes, to facilitate the recovery of the health sector in the South and to support the decentralization efforts of MoH.

    National, regional and global health policy formulation and implementation; Planning, program and management of national health programs; Planning and management of WHO collaborative activities in the country; Mobilization and rationalization of the use of available resources; Guidance and supervision of WHO field staff in the country; Coordination within the country and with External partners; Representation of the totality of the Organization at country level.A 21 September 2006 article by the official UN News Service stated that "UN officials estimate over 400,000 people have lost their lives and some 2 million more have been driven from their homes." This now appears to be the official UN figure.

    Harvard Darfur Action Group brings together students from Harvards graduate and undergraduate campuses, all committed to waging constructive and efficient campaigns to help end the genocide in Sudan. Harvard Darfur Action Group is the official Harvard Chapter of the national organization STAND: Students Taking Action Now: Darfur. HDAG is committed to raising awareness about the ongoing genocide in Darfur, Sudan, and to waging campaigns to help end it, to support Darfur's displaced citizens, and to hold its perpetrators accountable. Political AdvocacyThe Harvard Darfur Action Group organizes events and campaigns to raise awareness about the status of the genocide and ways to help. It hosts regular call-in days and postering campaigns, coordinates with regional STAND chapters, promotes the Genocide Intervention Network (GI-Net) and helps organize and bring Harvard students to conferences, rallies, vigils, and more. Humanitarian AidThe Harvard Darfur Action Group (HDAG) fundraises for the World Food Program and other relief efforts in Darfur and Chad. This money helps these programs feed internally displaced persons (IPDs) in Darfur and Chad, who have extremely limited access to health care, food, and good water. HDAG fundraises at events hosted by HDAG or relevant to its mission, such as speaker events and concerts. It also runs its own fundraising campaigns. Kukummi is a Bushman (San) word for stories, news, gossip, messages This word is the title of our organization because we believe in the power of storytelling to shift the hearts of people. The purpose of Kukummi is to make educational material available, making it possible for people to learn more about the real Africa through stories of real people with real experiences. The final product includes first hand stories with suggested educational material to be used by teachers, students, and anyone else interested! We want it to be easy and rewarding to learn more about Africa. Let us celebrate the uniqueness of Africa!

    This very minute, in the western region of Sudan, Darfur people are dying, GENOCIDE is happening. You have the power to make your voice heard, to say "NOT ON MY WATCH". Find out more about our "Awareness & Action" Campaign by clicking on the links below. Whether it is to learn more and spread the word or even to organize a speaker or event at your College or High School, you can make the difference. Please contact us to join the National High School Campaign or to be put in touch with the leaders of the National College Campaign.

    100 Days of ActionBeginning on April 6,2005, the Genocide Intervention Fund (GIF) will launch 100 Days of Action to combat the genocide in Darfur. The goals of this grass-roots campaign are to raise $100,000 in support of the GIF and to facilitate the writing of 100,000 letters to elected officials urging them to take action to end the genocide in Darfur. GIF funds will be directed to the African Union Mission in Sudan - the only force willing and able to provide security to the victims of the genocide. www.genocideinterventionfund.org or e-mail [email protected] was created at Georgetown University in September 2004. Six months later, it became a national movement. There are currently 190 STAND chapters across the US and Canada. Students from nearly 200 schools have participated in STAND EVENTS events. STAND chapters are committed to raising awareness about, relief funds for, and taking political action on the genocide in Darfur, Sudan.

    Join STAND students from across the country at STANDs National Conference, taking place from September 29th through October 1st in Washington, D.C. The conference will begin on Saturday morning at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and will continue through Sunday evening at the Renaissance Washington, DC Hotel. On Monday, October 1st, well use the training and education gained at the conference to lobby on Capitol Hill for real legislative action for Darfur

    Three dollars can protect one woman for a year in Darfur. The Genocide Intervention Networks civilian protection program, the first of its kind in Darfur, works with Darfuri community leaders, displaced women and girls, and the African Union Mission in Sudan to protect women and girls from rape and attack as they venture to collect firewood outside of their camps. Students around the world will ask their peers, families, and communities to join them in DarfurFast an event that asks participants to fast from one item for the day and donate the money that we would have spent on those items to protecting civilians in Darfur. Just three dollars less than the cost of a latte at Starbucks - is enough to provide protection for one woman for one year.In the past three years, STANDs DarfurFast has raised more than $400,000 for civilian protection in Darfur. This year, we intend to raise even more. This holiday season, students will bring it home to their families and communities and ask them to join in solidarity for Darfur by pledging to participate in DarfurFast.