D3.3 - Standardisation Proposal

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  • EUROPEAN COMMISSION SEVENTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME

    GA No. 610990

    Cooperative dynamic formation of platoons for safe and energy-optimized goods transportation

    D3.3 - Standardisation Proposal

    Deliverable No. 3.3

    Deliverable Title Standardisation Proposal

    Dissemination level Public

    Written By Sergi Urpi, Applus+ IDIADA

    Jordi Pont, Applus+ IDIADA

    14/08/2016

    Checked by Marcos Pillado (Applus+ IDIADA) WP7 Leader

    Snke Eilers (OFFIS) WP3 Leader

    Christian Bruns (Volkswagen) WP4 and WP8 Leader

    Henrik Petterson (Scania)

    Marta Tobar (Applus+ IDIADA)

    17/08/2016

    Approved by Magnus Adolfson (Scania) Technical Coordinator 30/09/2016

    Issue date

    30/09/2016

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    History log

    Name Status Version Date Summary of actions made

    Applus+ IDIADA Jordi Pont Sergi Urp

    Editor 0.1 08/08/2016 First draft

    Applus+ IDIADA Marcos Pillado

    Reviewer 0.2 11/08/2016 Revision

    Volkswagen Christian Bruns

    Reviewer 0.3 22/08/2016 Revision

    Applus+ IDIADA Marta Tobar

    Reviewer 0.4 23/08/2016 Revision

    OFFIS Soenke Eilers

    Reviewer 0.5 23/08/2016 Revision

    Scania Henrik Pettersson

    Reviewer 0.6 24/08/2016 Revision

    Applus+ IDIADA Sergi Urp

    Editor 0.7 31/08/2016 Incorporated comments

    Applus+ IDIADA Marcos Pillado

    Reviewer 1.0 02/09/2016 Revision

    Applus+ IDIADA Sergi Urp

    Editor 1.1 23/09/2016 Some extra information added

    Applus+ IDIADA Marcos Pillado

    Reviewer 1.2 30/09/2016 Revision

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    Executive summary This document reports the work done in task 3.3 Standardisation Proposals of WP3 Architecture

    and Technical Specifications of the COMPANION project.

    This work package concentrates on the development of the overall system architecture. This includes

    concepts for the definition of necessary information and its granularity, modelling of information

    structure, quality of service and quality of data aspects as well as standardisation proposals.

    COMPANION architecture and technical specifications should be developed according to the published

    standards to the date regarding the different components to be developed. Communication protocols

    and interfaces should be compliant to open, standardised interfaces towards optimising deployment

    and scalability (e.g. ETSI ITS or GTFS standards).

    In order to implement the new technologies related to platooning in advanced and efficient new

    vehicles, it is necessary to set up the standardisation proposals related to the technical specifications

    and requirements these involved vehicles and operations should fulfil. According to this, it is necessary

    to obtain a validated understanding of the different aspects of the overall system architecture and

    information models.

    This deliverable will summarises the main standardisation proposals, based on the analysis of test

    results performed along the project. These proposals will be compiled and made available to the EC

    and the different standardisation bodies as recommendations for future regulatory and self-

    compliance initiatives from public and private parties (e.g. Car 2 Car Consortium).

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    Contents

    History log .................................................................................................................................................... 2

    Executive summary ...................................................................................................................................... 3

    Contents ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

    List of Figures ............................................................................................................................................... 5

    List of Tables ................................................................................................................................................ 6

    1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 7

    2. Current Status ........................................................................................................................................ 8

    2.1. ETSI ................................................................................................................................................. 8

    2.1.1. ETSI TR 103 299 ........................................................................................................................ 9

    2.1.2. ETSI TR 103 298 ........................................................................................................................ 9

    2.2. SAE ................................................................................................................................................. 9

    2.3. IEEE............................................................................................................................................... 10

    2.4. 3GPP ............................................................................................................................................. 10

    2.5. ISO ................................................................................................................................................ 11

    3. Standardisation Activates ..................................................................................................................... 12

    3.1. COMPANION VRA joint Workshop ............................................................................................... 12

    3.2. ETSI working item C-ACC and Platooning..................................................................................... 12

    4. COMPANION Proposals ........................................................................................................................ 13

    4.1. Frequency Channel ...................................................................................................................... 13

    4.2. Extended Message Set of CA and DE ........................................................................................... 13

    4.3. New Message Set ......................................................................................................................... 14

    4.4. Message Transmission Requirements and Future needs ............................................................ 14

    4.5. V2I Communications .................................................................................................................... 14

    5. Conclusions ........................................................................................................................................... 16

    References ................................................................................................................................................. 17

    Glossary ...................................................................................................................................................... 18

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    List of Figures Figure 1. Example of ITS reference architecture ..................................................................................... 8

    Figure 2. Frequency Band ...................................................................................................................... 13

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    List of Tables Table 1. Message Fields ......................................................................................................................... 14

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    1. Introduction Simple 'cruise control' was the automation of speed maintenance at a single automobile. The concept

    of C-ACC aims at the same level of automation but in a cooperative manner between several vehicles:

    while in CC mode, when a vehicle in front slowly decelerates, this vehicle will also do, such as to

    maintain distance, and relieve driver from taking over control.

    Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (C-ACC) and Platooning are two use-cases related to the

    COMPANION system that are addressed differently depending on the Standards Development

    Organizations (SDOs). C-ACC (Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control) automatically controls the

    longitudinal distance, enabling the creating of chain of vehicles following each other at constant speed.

    Mainly, C-ACC functionalities are directly related to driver comfort.

    Instead, Platooning has a similar concept but it is more related to energy efficiency. Specially, it is

    expected that with large vehicles following each other at short distances the air-drag is reduced,

    influencing directly on fuel consumption gains.

    Both C-ACC and Platooning require V2X information exchange. These needs could be directly supplied

    for the other vehicles, performing V2V (vehicle-to-vehicle) communications, or with the assistance of

    a fixed communication infrastructure (vehicle-to-infrastructure).

    The COMPANION system goes one step forward using coordinated platoons which allow merging

    different truck routes in order to maximize the fuel savings.

    This deliverable provides an overview of the current status of standardisation for C-ACC (Cooperative

    Adaptive Cruise Control) and Platooning on the different SDOs (Standards Developing Organizations).

    The document continues presenting the standardisation activities undertaking. The deliverable

    concludes proposing standardisation needs based on the current situation in Europe regarding

    platooning and taking into account the issues found and the analysis of test results performed during

    the project.

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    2. Current Status Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) are based on the exchange of information in order

    get a better understanding of the environment and cooperatively increase safety, traffic efficiency

    and improve mobility. Standards are needed to guarantee minimums of quality and safety but

    moreover, sue to the fact that vehicles in the C-ITS domain are no longer isolated, standards need to

    be agreed in order to facility the exchange of information and therefore, the interoperability of the

    systems. When referring to C-ITS, the relevant SDOs active in standardisation of platooning and C-

    ACC are

    - ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute.

    - SAE Society of Automotive Engineers

    - IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

    - 3GPP 3rd Generation Partnership Project

    - ISO International Organization for Standardisation.

    The following sections will provide details about the different perspective that the before mentioned

    SDOs have for the standardisation of C-ACC and platooning.

    2.1. ETSI Currently, ETSI is defining C-ACC as a driver assistance system that adjusts automatically the vehicle

    speed to keep a target time gap with preceding vehicle making use of data received from other either

    ITS Vehicle Stations (IVSs) or ITS Roadside Stations (IRSs).

    The C-ACC system includes at least one ITS-S application (denoted as C-ACC application) that

    implements the application logic with the services provided by the lower communication layers

    (Facilities, Networking & Transport layer, Access layer) as specified in [1] and represented in Figure 1,

    and a set of hardware components.

    Figure 1. Example of ITS reference architecture

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    For the facility layer, the facility modules used should at least be the CA (Cooperative Awareness) basic

    service, DEN (Decentralized Environmental Notification) basic service ( [2]) and depending on the

    specific scenario, some extra modules as well as some extra messages may be required.

    The CA module communicate with other entities of the facilities layer and with the ITS application layer

    in order to collect relevant information for CAM generation and to forward the received CAM content

    for further processing.

    The DEN basic service is a facilities layer entity that operates the DENM protocol. It provides services

    to entities at the ITS application layer. At the originating ITS-S, an ITS-S application may trigger, update

    and terminate the transmission of DENMs.

    An extension of the current CA and DEN messages is also considered and it is planned to be published

    soon but is not targeting C-ACC or platooning.

    The different manoeuvres that ETSI is addressing are:

    - Activation of the C-ACC

    - Join of a vehicle to the C-ACC string of vehicles

    - Maintain the C-ACC string

    - Leave the C-ACC string

    - Deactivation of the C-ACC

    - Cut-Ins, i.e. vehicle without C-ACC that cuts in a C-ACC string of vehicles

    - Lane change of the C-ACC string

    - Emergency stop of the C-ACC string

    Actually, ETSI ITS WG1 is the responsible for development of application requirements and services

    for C-ITS ad is treating in two differentiated working items C-ACC and platooning:

    2.1.1. ETSI TR 103 299

    ETSI TR 103 299 - Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (C-ACC); Pre-standardisation study is the

    working item that ETSI has defined to address C-ACC. ETSI considers C-ACC an Advanced Driving

    Assistance System (ADAS) that adjusts the vehicle speed to keep a desired time gap with preceding

    vehicle (target vehicle) to improve driving comfort. In addition, reduction of fuel consumption may

    be gained but it is not the primary objective of C-ACC. The document contains a definition of the use

    cases and technical requirements identified with some recommendations on technical specifications.

    2.1.2. ETSI TR 103 298

    ETSI TR 103 298 - Platooning; Pre-standardisation study is the working item that ETSI has defined to

    address platooning. The work has recently started, some discussions have been initiated but no

    documentation has been generated yet.

    2.2. SAE SAE is more focused on compiling performance requirements for the V2V Safety Communications

    profile, preparing them for a US-mandated implementation of V2V systems. The vehicle would send a

    Basic Safety Message, plus path history and path prediction extensions to a host vehicle. This message

    gives the information used in a driver warning or alert algorithm.

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    The SAE DSRC Technical Committee (DSRC: Dedicated Short-Range Communications) is working on C-

    ACC within the Cooperative Vehicle Task Force. The SAE DSRC TC activities are in agreement to ETSI

    ITS WG1. In addition, SAE On-Road Vehicle Automation Committee is developing a reference

    architecture for the most relevant scenarios of C-ACC but not plan to address platooning in at least the

    short term.

    2.3. IEEE The intent of IEEE is to harmonize the IEEE 1609 and ISO FAST protoc...

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