D. J. Chalcraft Sectarianism in Early Judaism (2007)
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<p>SectarianiSm inearly JudaiSmBibleWorldSeries Editor: Philip R. Davies, University of ShefeldBibleWorld shares the fruits of modern (and postmodern) biblical scholarship not only among practitioners and students, but also with anyone interested in what academic study of the Bible means in the twenty-rst century. It explores our ever-increasing knowledge and understanding of the social world that produced the biblical texts, but also analyses aspects of the Bibles role in the history of our civilization and the many perspectives not just religious and theological, but also cultural, political and aesthetic which drive modern biblical scholarship.Published:Sodomy: A History of a Christian Biblical MythMichael CardenYours Faithfully: Virtual Letters from the BibleEdited by: Philip R. DaviesIsraels History and the History of IsraelMario LiveraniThe Apostle Paul and His LettersEdwin D. 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Freeddavid J. chalcraFtSectarianiSm inearly JudaiSmSociological advanceSPublished byUK: Equinox Publishing LtdUnit 6, Te Village,101 Amies St.,London, SW11 2JWUS: DBBC,28 Main Street,Oakville, CT 06779www.equinoxpub.comFirst published 2007 David J. Chalcraft and contributors 2007All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publishers.British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataSectarianism in early Judaism : sociological advances / edited by David J. Chalcraft. p. cm. (Bibleworld) Papers from a symposium held at the 2004 International Meeting of the SBL at Groningen. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1845530837 (hb) ISBN 1845530845 (pb) 1.JudaismHistoryPostexilic period, 586 B.C.210 A.DCongresses. 2.Jewish sectsCongresses. 3. Weber, Max, 18641920Congresses. 4.Historical sociologyCongresses. I. Chalcraft, David J. II. Society ofBiblical Literature. Meeting (2004 : Groningen, Netherlands) BM176.S43 2007296.8'1dc22ISBN10 1 84553 083 7 (hardback)ISBN10 1 84553 084 5 (paperback)ISBN13 978 1 84553 083 9 (hardback)ISBN13 978 1 84553 084 6 (paperback)Typeset by CA Typesetting Ltd, www.shefeldtypesetting.comPrinted and bound in Great Britain by Lightning Source UK Ltd., Milton Keynes and Lightning Source Inc., La Vergne, TNTo the memory of Bryan R. Wilson, who died in 2004, in acknowledgement of his brilliant contributions to the sociology of religionContentsList of Contributors ixIntroductionSectarianism in Early Judaism: Sociological Advances?Some Critical Sociological Reflections David J. Chalcraft 2Part IMax Weber on Sects and Voluntary Associations with Specific Reference to Second Temple JudaismThe Development of Webers Sociology of Sects:Encouraging a New Fascination David J. Chalcraft 26Webers Treatment of Sects in Ancient Judaism:The Pharisees and the Essenes David J. Chalcraft 52Towards a Weberian Sociology of the Qumran Sects David J. Chalcraft 74A Weber Bibliography 106Part IISociological Approaches to Sectarianism in Second Temple JudaismWhen Is a Sect a Sect or Not?Groups and Movements in the Second Temple Period Lester L. Grabbe 114viii Sectarianism in Early JudaismSect Formation in Early Judaism Philip R. Davies 133Was There Sectarian Behaviour before the Flourishing of Jewish Sects? A LongTerm Approach to the Historyand Sociology of Second Temple Sectarianism Pierluigi Piovanelli 156Atonement and Sectarianism in Qumran: Defining aSectarian Worldview in Moral and Halakhic Systems Eyal Regev 180Groups in Tension: Sectarianism in the DamascusDocument and the Community Rule Cecilia Wassen and Jutta Jokiranta 205Information Processing in Ancient Jewish Groups Albert I. Baumgarten 246Index of References 256Index of Authors 263List of ContributorsDavid J. Chalcraft is Professor of Classical Sociology at the University of Derby, UK.Philip R. Davies is Professor Emeritus at the University of Shefeld, UK.Lester L. Grabbe is Professor at the Department of Teology, University of Hull, UK.Pierluigi Piovanelli is Associate Professor of Religious Studies, University of Ottawa, Montreal, Canada.Eyal Regev is Lecturer in the Martin (Szusz) Department for Land of Israel Studies and Archaeology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.Cecilia Wassen is Assistant Professor in the Department of Religion and Culture, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.Jutta Jokiranta is Lecturer in Biblical Exegesis, Department of Biblical Studies, University of Helsinki, Finland.Albert Baumgarten is Professor in the Department of Jewish History, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.IntroductionSectarianism in Early Judaism: Sociological Advances?Some Critical Sociological ReflectionsDavid J. ChalcraftTe papers collected here, which result from the invitation of Professor Philip Davies1 to the authors to take part in a symposium held at the 2004 International Meeting of the SBL at Groningen, have sociology as their main socialscientic subject, with occasional glimpses of anthropology. It is fashionable and now almost a convention to speak in terms of socialscientic approaches to biblical and postbiblical materials and societies, and the intention conveyed is the desire to include all relevant social sciences, including sociology, psychology, economics, political science and anthropology, that might illuminate specic cases (Chalcraft, 1997). When approaching ancient Judaism from the perspective of sociology however, it seems obvious that the enquiry forms a part of the sociology of religion, or more exactly is a branch of historical sociology. Tis book is best understood therefore as an exercise in historical sociology, with a close relation to the sociology of religion, given its concern with sects and sectarian movements. Te range of methods available to the historical sociologist is not wide, but it is still necessary to acknowledge the theoretical and methodological traditions this collection is rooted in, even if this rootage is at times semiconscious. Tis volume locates itself in a more or less Weberian frame of typological and comparative analysis of historical and social data. Even where Max Weber is not the preferred social theorist used as point of departure in the contributions which follow, his methodological legacy can be detected, not least because of the typological nature of the approaches adopted. Te names of Bryan Wilson and of Rodney Stark and William Sims Bainbridge gure very frequently in the pages which follow, and an important task that remains is an indepth study of the relations between Webers sociology of sects and the sociology of sects as developed since Weber in the, often partial, reception of classical sociological ideas in the history of the sociology of religion. However, typological analysis is not the only methodology that is utilized in the contributions which follow, and the Chalcraft Sectarianism in Early Judaism 3reader will encounter sociological observations that are not based in any one particular tradition or method (the author utilizing their sociological imagination as they see t or arguing for eclecticism in the use of the social sciences) as well as contributors using the measures of Stark and Bainbridge, or working in the tradition of the method of agreement and diference between preselected cases. But in all cases, the data that scholars are seeking to illuminate is located in Second Temple Judaism. And it is perhaps in this overriding interest that a community of purpose can be discovered between the contributors; at the same time, this community of interest means that contributing to historical sociology as such, to the body of concepts and theory that constitutes that subspecialism within sociology, is not a paramount concern. From the point of view of a sociologist this is regrettable, since for the historical sociologist the individual case and historical sociology as a whole demand allegiance. Historical sociology of ancient Judaism in particular, and historical sociology in general as a discipline, can surely not develop if one is only parasitic on the other. In the area of biblical and postbiblical studies, it is more common to use the language of models, than the language of ideal types. Clearly there is a very interesting investigation to be undertaken in relation to the similarities and diferences between historical sociological studies using models and those rooted in idealtypical constructions. Alas this cannot be undertaken here; sufce it for us to fag that is not a foregone conclusion that idealtypical approaches, as practised by Max Weber and Bryan Wilson, for example, are at the same time exercises in model building (nor to imagine that Wilsons method of ideal type construction is exactly what Weber had in mind). Ideal types do not propose to carry predictive and causal qualities. Tat is, for example, to be able to map in advance the trajectories of sectarian movements or the internal degrees of coherence between beliefs, practices and organizational forms. On the contrary such sociological dimensions of sects are the subject of empirical investigation. In most cases in this volume, however, contributors tend to use the word model interchangeably with type and ideal type without thereby subscribing to a diferent methodology. Needless to say, the process of concept formation in historical sociology is an involved and complex process, and one that is plagued by circular reasoning and inhibited by notions of essentialism. I am pleased to report that such pitfalls have been met headon by the contributors to this volume and all traces of such reasoning removed! I have taken the liberty of taking advantage of the fact that as editor I have read all of the papers in their nished state not only to introduce the 4 Sectarianism in Early Judaismpapers but also to ofer some (critical) sociological commentary largely relating to matters of concept formation, ideal types and other theoretical issues. Te authors themselves have not had the opportunity of reading these comments in their entirety. Where I see an opportunity of making some signicant sociological points I have done so, even though this may give the impression that I am more critical of some papers than of others (and I of course have not been critical enough of my own contribution!). Such conclusions should not, however, be drawn. Te rst part of the volume provides an extensive interrogation of Webers writings about sects across a fteenyear period of his output, beginning with his Te Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism and concluding with his work in the Economic Ethics of the World Religions (including Ancient Judaism) and the posthumous Economy and Society. Te rst part is not intended as an introduction to the following papers found in Part II in either an historical/chronological or sociologicaltheoretical sense. Its length derives from the fact that Webers contribution to the sociology of sects has yet to be examined in the depth required. Whilst I argue that there is further scope for applying Webers ideas to the sociology of sects in general and in Second Temple Judaism in particular, that application is, in the rst instance and within the connes of this book, the future task of the author himself. Te second part of the volume provides six independent studies of sects and sectarian movements in Second Temple Judaism, drawing on a range of sociological ideas, concepts, and theories and reaching a range of conclusions. I now turn to introduce both parts of the volume in more detail.Part IDavid Chalcrafts contribution, which constitutes Part I tout court, provides the rst indepth analysis of Webers writing on sects within the context of his writings as a whole. Te chapter is a reaction to the treatment normally given to Weber in relation to sects. Te reception history shows a lack of engagement with Webers own texts and how his thinking about sects developed over time and illustrates that in no way can his contribution be adequately summarized as providing a simplistic typological contrast of churchsect that can be ignored once noted. On examination of the texts it is found that whilst Weber consistently denes a sect by reference to the voluntary status of its membership that has been admitted to the movement after examination, he not only explores in subsequent texts the sociological ramications of this feature (in relation to democracy, leadership, economics, and the development of types of personality Chalcraft Sectarianism in Early Judaism 5for example) but also places the churchsect typology within a broader universal and comparative setting where concepts of charisma and virtuosity, and sociological contrasts between voluntary associations and compulsory organizations, take on more signicance than the consideration of sect per se, although churches and sects are seen as one, and often the most signicant, instance of a wider phenomenon or type. In other words, Weber seeks to escape the somewhat cultureboundedness of the concepts of sect and church in his developing sociology. Trough these means and on these grounds, it is argued that Webers sociology of sects is profound and ofers many insights for the development of a sociology of sects that have yet to be fully exploited. Within the section on Weber, Chalcraft provides an analysis of Webers treatment of the Essenes and the Pharisees as found in Ancient Judaism, where the emphasis is on showing how Weber made use of his previous conceptual and theoretical ndings when thinking abou...</p>
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