Curriculum Development and Concept Organization “The whole art of teaching is…the art of awakening the natural curiosity of…minds.” --Anatole France Chapter.

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  • Slide 1
  • Curriculum Development and Concept Organization The whole art of teaching isthe art of awakening the natural curiosity ofminds. --Anatole France Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003
  • Slide 2
  • Curriculum Development Process Gathering Data from Input Factors Learner Learner Subject Matter Trends Subject Matter Trends Available Resources Available Resources Societal Trends Societal Trends Community Characteristics Community Characteristics Educational Psychology Educational Psychology Relevant Philosophies Relevant Philosophies Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003
  • Slide 3
  • Drawing Implications Reflect, carefully analyze information gathered through various sources of data Based on analysis, make teaching decisions for specific situation Ifthen mode of thinking Examples: If I know that most of my learners are from economically disadvantaged homes, then I need to limit my expectations regarding money spent for projects If I know that most of my learners are from economically disadvantaged homes, then I need to limit my expectations regarding money spent for projects On-going process Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003
  • Slide 4
  • Planning Plans are like road maps Move learners forward toward important goals---improve quality of their lives Move learners forward toward important goals---improve quality of their lives Goals derived from input factorsGoals derived from input factors Curriculum selection Select portions of other available curricula Select portions of other available curricula Add new material Add new material Rework portions Rework portions Shape new, up-to-date curriculum Shape new, up-to-date curriculum Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003
  • Slide 5
  • Planning Involves multiple levels Block plans for entire year, long-term program, or conference Block plans for entire year, long-term program, or conference Unit plan for respective topics within block plan Unit plan for respective topics within block plan Daily lesson, session, or workshop plan Daily lesson, session, or workshop plan Plans Concepts Concepts Generalizations Generalizations Objectives Objectives Learning experiences Learning experiences Resources Resources Assessment techniques Assessment techniques Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003
  • Slide 6
  • Implementing Plan Begins when written plans are complete Ready to teach! Utilizing a variety of teaching strategies and learner involvementcritical for effective implementation Conducting learning experiences and teaching methods requires specific teaching skillsChapters 5 & 8 Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003
  • Slide 7
  • Assessment Gather of information to determine Teacher success Teacher success Learner success Learner success Curriculum material success Curriculum material success Process involves honest appraisal of both strengths and weaknesses of Program Program Progress as an educator Progress as an educator Productlearners knowledge Productlearners knowledge Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003
  • Slide 8
  • Assessment Sources Testing procedures Informal non-testing Conversations/input from Conversations/input from Advisory board membersAdvisory board members Parents/guardiansParents/guardians AdministratorsAdministrators SupervisorsSupervisors Former studentsFormer students Current learnersCurrent learners EmployersEmployers Business leadersBusiness leaders Other educatorsOther educators Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003
  • Slide 9
  • Using Feedback Once feedback is receiveddetermination of what went well and what needs improvement is next Information discovered goes back into the curriculum development process Educating is a process of continual change Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003
  • Slide 10
  • Selecting and Organizing Content Planning curriculum similar to guided tour Various options of how to reach destination (broad program goals) Planning itinerary in advance aids in avoidance of confusionsaves time Broadest level involves selecting, structuring subject matter to be taught to reach broad program goals Learning becomes development of a series of connections among concepts that hold real meaning and relevance for learner Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003
  • Slide 11
  • Concepts Defined and Characterized Concept is a key idea, topic, or main thought What a person thinks about a particular subject or topic What a person thinks about a particular subject or topic Core and abstract meanings that an individual attaches to something Core and abstract meanings that an individual attaches to something Core of Meaning Feelings/Emotions Words/Symbols Core of meanings is enmeshed in feelings and emotions that a person associates with itwords or symbols used to communicate ideas or concepts Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003
  • Slide 12
  • Determining Concepts to Teach Using Input Data Focus on learners to determine which ideas, concepts should be taught Focus on learners to determine which ideas, concepts should be taught Local and State Mandates and Competencies State of Idaho Curriculum Resources State of Idaho Curriculum Resources http://www.pte.state.id.us/fcserv/facscurr.htmhttp://www.pte.state.id.us/fcserv/facscurr.htmhttp://www.pte.state.id.us/fcserv/facscurr.htm National Program Standards National Standards of FCS National Standards of FCS http://ideanet.doe.state.in.us/octe/facs/natlstandards.htmhttp://ideanet.doe.state.in.us/octe/facs/natlstandards.htmhttp://ideanet.doe.state.in.us/octe/facs/natlstandards.htm Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003
  • Slide 13
  • Developing Conceptual Outlines Conceptual Outline product resulting from organization of selected concepts into logical system Developed for Developed for Entire curriculumEntire curriculum Specific courseSpecific course WorkshopWorkshop ConferenceConference Unit of studyUnit of study presentationpresentation First: main or key topics identified Second: Sub-concepts under main concepts Scope used to denote what subject matter topics are to be covered Concepts organized in a sequence Concepts often build upon each other Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003
  • Slide 14
  • Steps in Developing Conceptual Outline Brainstorm to generate list of all possible concepts Base list of input factors and accompanying implications drawn in relation to the learners present Base list of input factors and accompanying implications drawn in relation to the learners present Consider time frame Eliminate concepts seen as least importantadd others proposed by colleagues or learners Take concepts remaining; organize into logical sequence of concepts Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003
  • Slide 15
  • Principles of Curriculum Organization Use outline format State concepts clearly and concisely List sub-concepts below related concept Provide detail Work from what learners already know, introduce new material at appropriate pace and learning level Present simple concepts first Present concrete before abstract concepts Take advantage of opportunities to repeat concepts in various aspects of curriculum Reassess, adjust conceptual outline as needed Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003
  • Slide 16
  • Creating Block Plans Blocking out of conceptual outline by weeks, days, hours Indicates which concepts will be covered in specific periods of time Concepts from outline designated into time frames is a block plan Amount of time devoted to various concepts and sub-concepts Amount of time devoted to various concepts and sub-concepts Can begin with calendar, day planner format, blocking out number of hours, days or weeks Unit plan is a plan where additional components are added to block plan to give more detail Lesson plan more detailed and includes even more information: Enabling objectives, content notes needed by educator when presenting material, key questions to be discussed, specific activities, assignments Enabling objectives, content notes needed by educator when presenting material, key questions to be discussed, specific activities, assignments Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003
  • Slide 17
  • Generalizations Unify various aspects of a subject by showing relationships among concepts Statement expressing a complete thought and underlying truth Element of universality Applied to wide number of situations worldwide Basic principles and understanding that describe/explain phenomena Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003
  • Slide 18
  • Levels of Generalizations First Level Simple statement of fact, definition, description, analogy, identification, or classification Simple statement of fact, definition, description, analogy, identification, or classification Second Level Shows relationships among ideas or makes comparisons Shows relationships among ideas or makes comparisons Includes more ideas then first level, involves greater depth and scope of subject matterIncludes more ideas then first level, involves greater depth and scope of subject matter Third Level Explains, justifies, interprets, or predicts Explains, justifies, interprets, or predicts Remote in time and space Remote in time and space Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003
  • Slide 19
  • Examples Level 1: Milk is a food Level 2: Your health is affected by the food you eat Level 3: Your body size is partially determined by the kinds and quantity of food you consume 1 st expresses universal truth, 2 nd shows relationship between health and food intake, 3 rd makes subtle prediction Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003
  • Slide 20
  • Formulating Generalizations Expresses one ideainappropriate to use colon or semicolon Limited to twenty words Value judgments inappropriate The following phrases should not be used: It is vital that It is vital that It is important to remember It is important to remember One must One must A person should A person should This ought to be done so that This ought to be done so that Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003
  • Slide 21
  • Helpful Phrases Is affected by Is dependent on Is limited by Is promoted by Is related to Is the result of Is a product of Is an integral part of Is influenced by Results in requires Is subject to May be associated with May be developed by May be enhanced by May be identified by May be necessary for May be modified by Constitutes a pattern for Contributes to Leads to Establishes Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003
  • Slide 22
  • Questions to Ask Learners What have you learned from the lesson today? How can our discussion be summarized in a few sentences? What are the main ideas we have been talking about? How are the main ideas we discussed related? How does todays discussion relate to what we studied yesterday? How can these ideas be applied to new or different situations that you face or might face in the future? Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003
  • Slide 23
  • Continuing the Planning Process 1. Curriculum Concepts identified and developed into conceptual framework 2. Generalizations formulated which include major concepts 3. Development of behavioral objectives indicating expected achievement Learning experiences are planned to enable learners to meet established objectives Learning experiences are planned to enable learners to meet established objectives Evaluation of learner achievement ongoing Evaluation of learner achievement ongoing Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003
  • Slide 24
  • Steps in Curriculum Development Process Gathering Data from Input Factors Learners Resources Societal Trends Community Characteristics Educational Psychology Philosophies Subject-Matter Trends Drawing Implications PlanningImplementing the Plan Assessing Using Feedback Chapter 3: Chamberlain & Cummings, 2003