curiosity the robotic rover on mars
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DESCRIPTIONCuriosity The Robotic Rover on Mars . Aviel Atias Omri Ben Eliezer Yaniv Sabo. 29/04/13. Exploring Mars . Exploring Mars . The Curiosity Project. Structure of Curiosity . Structure of Curiosity . Curiosity’s Brain. Curiosity’s Brain. Curiosity’s Brain. Curiosity’s Brain. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Curiosity The Robotic Rover to Mars
CuriosityThe Robotic Rover on Mars Aviel AtiasOmri Ben EliezerYaniv Sabo
Exploring Mars 2Curiousity*comment*
23CuriousityExploring Mars *comment*
The Curiosity Project
Structure of Curiosity *comment*
Structure of Curiosity
12Robotic ArmThe rover has a 2.1 m long arm with holding five devices that can spin through a 350-degreeThe arm makes use of three joints to extend it forward and to stow it again while drivingIt has a mass of 30 kg and its diameter is about 60 cmTwo of the five devices are contact instruments known as the X-ray spectrometer (APXS), and the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI camera)The remaining three are associated with sample acquisition and sample preparation functions: a percussion drill, a brush, and mechanisms for scooping, sieving and portioning samples of powdered rock and soilThe diameter of the hole in a rock after drilling is 1.6 cm and up to 5 cm deep13CuriousityThree joints shoulder, elbow and wrist.
APXS - This tool helps identify the chemical elements in rocks and soil and tells us how much of each is present.
MAHLI - "Magnifying Eye, much like a geologist's hand lens, this camera provides close-up views of minerals, textures, and structures in Martian rocks at scales smaller than the diameter of a human hair. That information will help us understand if any rocks formed in water.It can even be used to look back to take a self-portrait of Curiosity.13Robotic Arm cont.5 degrees of freedom.Capable of surviving temperature range of [-1280C, +500C]. Operating in [-1100C, +500C].
14CuriousityThe 5 degrees of freedom are provided by a set of rotary actuators known as the shoulder azimuth joint, the shoulder elevation joint, the elbow joint, the wrist joint, and the turret joint
On average, the temperature on Mars is about minus -60 degrees C. In winter, near the poles temperatures can get down to -125 degrees C. A summer day on Mars may get up to 20 degrees C near the equator, but at night the temperature can plummet to about -73 C. 14MAHLI camera
15CuriousityNavigation Cameras (Navcams)The rover has two pairs of black and white navigation cameras mounted on the mast to support ground navigationThe cameras have a 45 degree angle of view and use visible light to capture stereoscopic 3-D imagery.These cameras support use of the ICER image compression format.
16CuriousityThe Curiosity rover is designed to roll over obstacles up to 65 centimeters high and to travel up to 200 meters per day as it explores Mars.
ICERis a wavelet-image compression file format used by the NASA Mars Rovers.16Hazard Avoidance CamerasThe rover has four pairs of black and white navigation cameras called Hazcamstwo pairs in the front and two pairs in the backThey are used for autonomous hazard avoidance during rover drives and for safe positioning of the robotic arm on rocks and soilsThe cameras use visible light to capture stereoscopic three-dimensional (3-D) imageryThe cameras have a 120 degree field of view and map the terrain at up to 3 m in front of the roverThis imagery safeguards against the rover crashing into unexpected obstacles, and works in tandem with software that allows the rover to make its own safety choices
17CuriousityThe cameras must have a wide viewing range on either side because the Hazcams cannot move independently since they are mounted directly to the rover body.
Each camera in a pair is hardlinked to one of two identical main computers for redundancy; only four out of the eight cameras are in use at any one time.
The Hazcams also are used by ground operators to drive the vehicle and to operate the robotic arm.17Hazard Avoidance Cameras - cont.
18CuriousityHow to land a robot on mars?The atmosphere is too thin for parachutes and aerobraking alone to be effective.Some previous missions have used airbags to cushion the shock of landing,but Curiosity rover is too heavy for this.
19CuriousityThe EDL (entry-descent-landing) systemDuring the entire landing phase, the vehicle acts autonomously.This system is more than 20 times accurate, compared to older landing systems.
EDL phase 1: Guided entryThe rover was folded up within an heat shield that protected it during the atmospheric entry.The heat shield diameter is 4.5 m, which is the largest heat shield ever flown in space.The heat shield experienced peak temperatures of up to 2,090 C.It reduced the velocity of the spacecraft from approximately 5.8 km/s down to approximately 470 m/s, where parachute is possible.21Curiousity
EDL phase 2: Parachute descentWhen the entry phase was complete and the capsule was at about 10 km altitude, the supersonic parachute deployed.The parachute has 80 suspension lines, is over50 m long, and is about16 m in diameter.The parachute is capableof being deployed at Mach2.2, and can generate up to289 kN of drag force in the atmosphere.After the parachute was deployed, the heat shield separated and fell away.22CuriousityParachute descent (contd.)The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter team were able to acquire this image:
EDL phase 3: Powered descentAt about 1.8 km altitude, stilltravelling at about 100 m/s,the rover and descent stagedropped out of the aeroshell.The descent stage is a platform above the rover with eight hydrazine rockets on arms extending around this platform to slow the descent. Each rocket produces 400 N to 3,100 N of thrust. 24CuriousityEDL phase 4: Sky crane landingThe sky crane system lowered the rover on three nylon tethers and an electrical cable carrying information and power between. At 7.5 m below the descent stage the sky crane system slowed to a halt and the rover touched down. After the rover touched down, it waited 2 seconds to confirm that it was on solid ground by detecting the weight on the wheels and fired several pyros activating cable cutters. The descent stage flew away to a crash landing 650 m. The sky crane powered descent landing system had never been used in missions before.25CuriousitySky crane landing (contd.)