cung - cau ve van chuyen
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DESCRIPTIONCung - Cau Ve Van Chuyen
CUNG CU V VN CHUYN
Offer of transportsCUNG V VN CHUYN Trong vn chuyn, Cung th hin di nhiu hnh thc:
Mt s nh khai thc thit lp mt dch v hon chnh, trong khi nhng ngi khc ch n thun cung cp cho cc nh khai thc mt phn ca dch v vn ti.
Offer of transportCUNG V VN CHUYN Cc hnh thc t chc sn xut, c trng bi 03 kha cnh:
*lin kt hoc phn vng,*c quyn hoc cnh tranh, *ch ngha t do [quy nh ca php lut, hoc quy nh gin tip] hoc c s can thip [quy nh trc tip].
Ni cch khc, Cung trong lnh vc ny cng nh trong tng lnh vc ph c th c phn tch nh s gip ca 03 hnh thc phn chia trn.
Offer of transportCUNG V VN CHUYN Cc ngnh giao thng rt khng ng nht. nm bt, ta cn phn tch 3 trc:
1.Between Integration and Fragmentation
2.Between Monopoly and Competition
3. Between Intervention and Liberalism
1. Degree of integration / fragmentation1.1Integration to reduce the transaction costs Lin kt lm gim chi ph thc hin 1.2Integration to guarantee the access to a resourceLin kt cho php tip cn ngun lc 1.3Integration to eliminate externalitsLin kt cho php loi b cc yu t bn ngoi 1.4Integration to avoid the public interventionsLin kt cho php trnh s can thip cng chng 1.5. Integration to increase the profit of monopoly or market powerLin kt lm tng li nhun ca c quyn hoc sc mnh ca th trng
2. Between monopoly and competition2.1The field of monopolyThe natural monopolyc quyn thng thng Monopoly and fare discriminationc quyn v c chnh sch phn bit gi
2.2The area and the modalities of competition Reminder theories of the perfect competition and the example in the transport of goods.Nhc li cc l thuyt v cnh tranh hon ho v v d trong vn ti hng ha ng b. Theory of the questionable markets.L thuyt v cc th trng cn nghin cu.
3. Between intervention and liberalism3.1Failures of the marketS sp ca th trng
3.2Missions of public service Nhim v ca dch v cng ch
3.3. Deregulations of natural monopolies in network industriesCc bi b quy nh ca c quyn t nhin trong ngnh cng nghip mng
3.4. Limits of the public interventionCc gii hn ca can thip cng chng
Demand of transportCU V VN CHUYN The analysis of the demand plays a big role in the economy of transport.Phn tch Cu l mt vai tr quan trng trong kinh t vn ti. It aims at knowing and explaining the behavior of the travelers and freights faced with the choice of a route or a mode in particular at describing their reactions (elasticities) in comparison with features (price, speed, quality of service) of various modes.Mc ch ca n l nhm bit v gii thch hnh vi ca cc hnh khch v vn ti hng ha phi i mt vi s la chn hnh trnh hoc mt phng thc v nht l m t phn ng ca h ( co gin) vi cc tnh nng (gi c, tc , cht lng dch v) ca cc phng thc khc nhau.
Demand of transportCU V VN CHUYN But: The micro-economic theory of the demand is not applicable such which in transport.L thuyt kinh t vi m ca CU khng p dng c trong vn chuyn
Reason: The transport of a passenger or the goods is not completely a comsumption activity as the others.Vn chuyn hnh khch v hng ho khng hon ton l mt hot ng tiu dng nh cc hot ng tiu dng khc.
Demand of transportCU V VN CHUYN
The traffic and the demand: Lu thng v Cu v vn chuyn: Two different conceptsHai khi nim khc nhau
Demand of transportCU V VN CHUYN Exemple: Transportation of goods between two cities A and B of which the activities are complementary:Vd: vn chuyn hng ho gia 2 tp A v B m cc hot ng ca chng l b sung cho nhau.
* A: an agricultural center (trung tm nng nghip)*B: an industrial area (khu cng nghip)
The city B is thus a priori an excellent market for the farm products of the city A, provided that these can be transported from A to B. Nh vy tp B s l 1 thi trng tt cho cc sp nng nghip ca tp A vi gi thit rng cc sp ny c th c vn chuyn t A n B.
Demand of transportCU V VN CHUYN y ta ch xem xt ch 01 sp :
Pa: gi trn s lng ca sp ti tp A Pb: gi trn s lng ca sp ti tp B
V: Pb > Pa
S chnh lch v gi c chnh l do chi ph vn chuyn gia A v B
Demand of transportCU V VN CHUYN This price Pb is a function of the production cost (in A) and the transport cost (between A and B). If this second cost is raised, for example because there is no transport infrastructure and because the product must be transported on the back of mule through the jungle, Pb will be raised and the sold quantity in B will be weak.
Nh vy, Pb l 1 hm bin theo chi ph sn xut (ti tp A) v chi ph vn chuyn (gia A v B).Nu chi ph th hai tng v d nh l do khng c c s h tng cho vic vn chuyn v rng vic vn chuyn c thc hin phi nh vo sc ca con vt nh la, la i xuyn qua rng , th Pb s tng v s lng bn ca sp ti B v th m s b gim.
Demand of transportCU V VN CHUYN If the conditions of transport improve, allowing to reduce the duration of the travel and to limit the deterioration of the transported product, it becomes possible to reduce the price B and to increase the sold quantity there.Nu iu kin vn chuyn c ci thin, cho php lm gim thi gian v hn ch s h hng ca sp vn chuyn th c th gim gi ti B v t tng s lng tiu th.
Gradually reduction of the cost and the time of transport thanks to, for example, the maintenance of a track, then to the construction of a road, even the installation of a railroad, sales will increase it B as well as the traffic of goods between A and B.Dn dn vic gim chi ph v thi gian vn chuyn nh vo vic bo tr v xy dng ng b hoc thm ch ng st s lm tng doanh s bn ti B cng nh vic lu thng hng ho gia A v B.
Thus, there is a relation, with the quality of available means of transportation, that is between the traffic and the offer of transport.Do tn ti mt mi lin h gia lu thng v cu v vn chuyn vi gi nh cht lng ca phng tin vn chuyn v tt c cc yu t khc l nh nhau.
Demand of transportCU V VN CHUYN Nh vy : The traffic and the demand are two different things. Indeed, without effective means of transportation between A and B, we tried to deduct from the quasi-non-existence of the traffic that there is not, or almost not, a demand of transport between these cities. Now, after putting a freeway into service, we shall have a contrary tend to think that the demand is very strong. In this reasoning, we confuse traffic and demand
Lu thng v cu l hai khi nim khc nhau. Qu thc, nu khng c phng tin vn chuyn hiu qu gia A v B, ta th lm gim s lu thng xung gn nh khng tn ti th s khng c cu v vn chuyn gia hai thnh ph ny. Nhng, nu ta a h thng ng cao tc vo s dng th ta s c khuynh hng ngh rng cu s tng mnh. Theo cch lp lun nh vy, chng ta nhm ln gia lu thng v cu v vn chuyn.
Demand of transportCU V VN CHUYN Nu xem xt c s h tng sn c th cu hin nhin s ph thuc vo gi c. Trn thc t, nu ta mun hiu r cc vn v vn chuyn th cn phi phn bit 2 khi nim: lu thng v cu v vn chuyn.
Vi mt s iu kin Cung nht nh, lu thng ch l vic thc hin Cu tim nng c lp vi cc iu kin Cung c th ny.
Demand of transportCU V VN CHUYN The demand of transport is in a sense a potential of traffic. This demand will come true (by a particular traffic) only if the possibilities of transport are sufficient. Cu v vn chuyn theo mt ngha no chnh l tim nng ca lu thng. Cu ch s c thc hin khi v ch khi c cc kh nng v vn chuyn.
Logically, traffic is the realization of a demand of transport, considering the quantitative and qualitative offer of available transport.Theo logic, lu thng l vic thc hin cu v vn chuyn c tnh n s lng v cht lng Cung v vn chuyn sn c.
Demand of transportDemand of transport is a derivative one The transport is never consumed for itself. Vn chuyn khng bao gi phc v cho bn thn n.
The reason for the movement plays a decisive role and the consumption of transport is not the studied purpose, it is only an intermediate consumption for a final consumption (or production): stay or activity envisaged at the place of destination.Mc ch ca chuyn i ng mt vai tr quyt nh v vic s dng (tiu dng) vn chuyn khng phi l mc ch ta cn nghin cu, n ch l vic s dng (tiu dng) trung gian cho vic tiu dng (hoc sn xut) cui cng: vic li hay hot ng c xut ti im n.
Demand of transportDemand of transport is a derivative one It is in the sense that the demand of transport is a derivative one, that means it follows from a demand of another nature, connected to the other economic activities.Theo ngha ny th cu v vn chuyn c tnh cht pht sinh, ngha l n bt ngun t mt nhu cu khc, lin quan n cc hot ng kinh t khc.
If there is no requiry in the city B for the good which is produced in the city A, there is no reason for transporting and there will be, in that case, no traffic between both cities for these goods, whatever are the possibilities of transport, even if they are excellent.Nu khng c nhu cu tp B cho sn phm c sn xut tp A th khng c l do g vn chuyn sn phm ny v trong trng hp cng s khng c lu thng gia hai tp cho mt hng ny ngay c khi c cc kh nng v vn chuyn tt nht.
Demand of transportDemand of transport is a derivative one By the way, we also understand that if the demand of transport is a derived one, the offer of transport also; transport company will be established (or will be built up) near a stream resource, near a demand.Hn na, ta cng c th hiu nu Cu v vn chuyn c tnh pht sinh th Cung v vn chuyn cng vy. Cc cng ty vn chuyn s c thnh lp gn ni c ngun nhu cu.
First of all the demand of transport is a function of the demand in B for the produced goods in A. Nh vy, cu v vn chuyn trc ht phi l hm bin theo nhu cu ti tp B i vi sn phm c sn xut ti tp A.
Demand of transportDemand of transport is a derivative one Vi (D) l ng cong biu th cu ca sp nng nghip ti tp B. ng cong ny th hin s lin h gia s lng Qb ca sp c bn ti tp B v gi Pb ca n c bn ti tp ny. Do : Qb = f(Pb) (1)
Nhng, i vi vic bn cc sp ti tp B m n t t