Cultural Heritage - Degradation

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Foreign Mirrors Comenius - Portugal Cultural Heritage - Degradation in Portugal

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<ul><li><p>Degradation Factors </p></li><li><p> Materials used in cultural products construction are comprised mostly by organic and inorganic materials. These materials are affected by environmental conditions in which are preserved and handled: </p><p>1. organic materials, from animals and plants (wood, paper, textiles, rubber extracts - resins and oils, plastics and animal parts - ivory and bones); </p><p>2. inorganic materials (rocks and minerals - stone, metal, ceramics and glass). </p></li><li><p> Physical - temperature, relative humidity, natural and artificial light. </p><p> Chemicals dust and pollution , among other factors. </p><p> Biological - microorganisms, insects, rodents and other animals. </p><p> Human - improper handling, packaging or unnecessary exposure; unqualified restorations. </p><p> Natural - natural disasters, fires, effects of time. </p></li><li><p> Sudden temperature changes causes severe damage to most materials and, in particular, those with organic origin. These phenomena, over time, leads to the reduction of the natural elasticity and premature aging of the materials. </p><p>Campolide Church </p></li><li><p>Seia Monastery Figueira da Foz Aliados Avenue - Porto </p><p>Dukes from Cadaval Palace - Tentgal </p></li><li><p> In the atmosphere are suspended particles which can be very harmful when deposited onto any material. The dust and soot on objects external surface causes abrasion and creates favorable conditions for the development of fungi and bacteria. </p></li><li><p>Jernimos Monastery - Lisboa </p><p>Vouga River - Aveiro </p></li><li><p> The high rates of humidity and heat are often associated with attacks of fungi and bacteria. The insects also cause major damage to organic materials, just like animals, that can totally or partially destroy heritage. </p><p>Lello Bookstore - Porto </p></li><li><p>Convent of Christ - Tomar </p><p>Pombalinos Buildings - Lisboa </p></li><li><p> Restorative treatments, performed by unskilled people, often results on irreversible damages in the works of art or in the damaged objects. </p><p> Lack of awareness of aesthetic and/or historical values of an object often leads to vandalism. </p><p>Lisboa </p></li><li><p>Castro of S. Loureno - Esposende </p><p>Lisboa </p><p>The Tea House - Porto </p></li><li><p> Earthquakes, land landslides, lack of intervention and other factors lead to degradation processes. </p><p>Earthquake 1755 - Lisboa </p></li><li><p>Convent - Viana do Castelo </p><p>Madeira Island </p></li></ul>