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CS206 Evolutionary Robotics “Cogito ergo sum.”

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  • CS206Evolutionary RoboticsCogito ergo sum.

  • CS206Evolutionary RoboticsCogito ergo sum.I think, therefore I am.Do I exist?There is something that is asking the question,Because there is an I in the sentence.Whatever that I thing is, it exists.The soul(/mind) surely exists;the body, Im not so sure about.

    So the soul(/mind) and body are different.

    Cartesian Dualism; The Mind/Body ProblemInformation in red boxesis not on the uploaded slides.

  • We tend to think input first, then information processing, then output.The very definition of a computer relies on this notion of input first, then processing,then output.Turing Machine (1936)Q: Give a brief definition of a Turing machine.CS206Evolutionary RoboticsA:

  • CS206Evolutionary RoboticsThe Dartmouth Summer Research Conference on Artificial Intelligence (1956)[Origin of the word artificial intelligence](reproduce?)

  • CS206Evolutionary RoboticsThe Dartmouth Summer Research Conference on Artificial Intelligence (1956)[Origin of the word artificial intelligence]Attendees:John McCarthyMarvin MinskyNathaniel RochesterClaude ShannonRay SolomonoffOliver SelfridgeTrenchard MoreArthur SamuelHerbert Simon, andAllen Newell

  • CS206Evolutionary RoboticsGoals of Artificial Intelligence:(p. 17, How The Body)Understand biological systems.E.g., how do simple animals translate the detection of lightinto phototaxis (moving toward light sources)?

    (2) Abstraction of the general principles of intelligent behavior.

    (3) Apply these principles to create intelligent artifacts.

  • An example of classical Artificial Intelligence: ELIZACreated by Joseph Weizenbaum between 1964 to 1966Internet chatbotsCS206Evolutionary RoboticsSample ELIZA Rule: User: I [verb] [proper noun] ELIZA: Why do you [verb] [proper noun]?

    Q: Other candidate rules?

  • Turing Machine: Abstract description of a minimal computer.

    Turing Test: If a computer can make a human think it is intelligent,it is intelligent.CS206Evolutionary Robotics

  • CS206Evolutionary Robotics

  • Valentino Braitenberg, VehiclesSource Material: http://www.bcp.psych.ualberta.ca/~mike/Pearl_Street/Margin/Vehicles/index.html

    Introduces a series of (hypothetical) simple robots that seem,to the outside observer, to exhibit complex behavior.

    The complex behavior does not come from a complex brain, but from a simple agent interacting with a rich environment.

    Vehicle 1: Getting aroundA single sensor is attached to a single motor.Propulsion of the motor is proportional to the signaldetected by the sensor.The vehicle will always move in a straight line,slowing down in the cold, speeding up in the warm.

    Braitenberg: Imagine, now, what you would think if you saw such a vehicle swimming around in a pond. It is restless, you would say, and does not like warm water. But it is quite stupid, since it is not able to turn back to the nice cold sport it overshot in its restless ness. Anyway, you would say, it is ALIVE, since you have never seen a particle of dead matter move around quite like that.CS206Evolutionary Robotics

  • Valentino Braitenberg, Vehicles

    Vehicle series 2: Fear and aggressionEach vehicle has two sensors and two motors.Still a directly proportionate relationship betweenthe signal strength and force of the motor.

    The AggressorLeft sensor is attached to the right motor;right sensor is attached to the left motor;Will charge the light if its dead-ahead;Will charge the light if its off to the side;Will eventually hit it, as long as the light stays in the vicinity.CS206Evolutionary Robotics

  • Valentino Braitenberg, Vehicles

    Vehicle series 2: Fear and aggressionEach vehicle has two sensors and two motors.Still a directly proportionate relationship betweenthe signal strength and force of the motor.

    The ?Left sensor is attached to the left motor;right sensor is attached to the right motor

    Q: How will this vehicle behave?CS206Evolutionary Robotics

  • Connectionism (1980s): Networks, rather than IF/ELSE statementsCS206Evolutionary RoboticsSample ELIZA Rule: IF User: I [verb] [proper noun], THEN: ELIZA: Why do you [verb] [proper noun]?Sensor 1Sensor 2Motor 1Motor 2Artificial Neural Networksfor robotsArtificial Neural Networksfor problem solvingNeural networksin animals

  • CS206Evolutionary RoboticsArtificialIntelligenceComputationalNeuroscienceMachineLearningDataMiningRoboticsEvolutionary RoboticsConnectionismArtificialLifeDevelopmentalRoboticsBioroboticsSwarmRoboticsEvolutionaryComputationIndustrialRobotics