# cs 1031 linked lists definition of linked lists examples of linked lists operations on linked lists...

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CS 1031 Linked Lists Definition of Linked Lists Examples of Linked Lists Operations on Linked Lists Linked List as a Class Linked Lists as Implementations of Stacks, Sets, etc. Slide 2 CS 1032 Definition of Linked Lists A linked list is a sequence of items (objects) where every item is linked to the next. Graphically: data head_ptr tail_ptr Slide 3 CS 1033 Definition Details Each item has a data part (one or more data members), and a link that points to the next item One natural way to implement the link is as a pointer; that is, the link is the address of the next item in the list It makes good sense to view each item as an object, that is, as an instance of a class. We call that class: Node The last item does not point to anything. We set its link member to NULL. This is denoted graphically by a self-loop Slide 4 CS 1034 Examples of Linked Lists (A Waiting Line) A waiting line of customers: John, Mary, Dan, Sue (from the head to the tail of the line) A linked list of strings can represent this line: JohnMaryDanSue head_ptr tail_ptr Slide 5 CS 1035 Examples of Linked Lists (A Stack of Numbers) A stack of numbers (from top to bottom): 10, 8, 6, 8, 2 A linked list of ints can represent this stack: 10862 head_ptr tail_ptr 8 Slide 6 CS 1036 Examples of Linked Lists ( A Set of Non-redundant Elements ) A set of characters: a, b, d, f, c A linked list of chars can represent this set: abdc head_ptr tail_ptr f Slide 7 CS 1037 Examples of Linked Lists ( A Sorted Set of Non-redundant Elements ) A set of characters: a, b, d, f, c The elements must be arranged in sorted order: a, b, c, d, f A linked list of chars can represent this set: abcf head_ptr tail_ptr d Slide 8 CS 1038 Examples of Linked Lists ( A Polynomial ) A polynomial of degree n is the function P n (x)=a 0 +a 1 x+a 2 x 2 ++a n x n. The a i s are called the coefficients of the polynomial The polynomial can be represented by a linked list ( 2 data members and a link per item ): a 0,0a 1,1a 2,2a n,n head_ptr tail_ptr Slide 9 CS 1039 Operations on Linked Lists Insert a new item At the head of the list, or At the tail of the list, or Inside the list, in some designated position Search for an item in the list The item can be specified by position, or by some value Delete an item from the list Search for and locate the item, then remove the item, and finally adjust the surrounding pointers size( ); isEmpty( ) Slide 10 CS 10310 Insert At the Head Insert a new data A. Call new: newPtr List before insertion: After insertion to head: data head_ptrtail_ptr Adata head_ptr tail_ptr A The link value in the new item = old head_ptr The new value of head_ptr = newPtr Slide 11 CS 10311 Insert at the Tail Insert a new data A. Call new: newPtr List before insertion After insertion to tail: data head_ptrtail_ptr Adata head_ptr tail_ptr A The link value in the new item = NULL The link value of the old last item = newPtr Slide 12 CS 10312 Insert inside the List Insert a new data A. Call new: newPtr List before insertion: After insertion in 3 rd position: data head_ptrtail_ptr data A head_ptr tail_ptr data The link-value in the new item = link-value of 2 nd item The new link-value of 2 nd item = newPtr Slide 13 CS 10313 Delete the Head Item List before deletion: List after deletion of the head item: data head_ptr tail_ptr data head_ptr tail_ptr data The new value of head_ptr = link-value of the old head item The old head item is deleted and its memory returned data Slide 14 CS 10314 Delete the Tail Item List before deletion: List after deletion of the tail item: data head_ptr tail_ptr data head_ptr tail_ptr New value of tail_ptr = link-value of the 3 rd from last item New link-value of new last item = NULL. data Slide 15 CS 10315 Delete an inside Item List before deletion: List after deletion of the 2 nd item: data head_ptr tail_ptr data head_ptr tail_ptr New link-value of the item located before the deleted one = the link-value of the deleted item data Slide 16 CS 10316 size() and isEmpty() We need to scan the items in the list from the head_ptr to the last item marked by its link-value being NULL Count the number of items in the scan, and return the count. This is the size(). Alternatively, keep a counter of the number of item, which gets updated after each insert/delete. The function size( ) returns that counter If head_ptr is NULL, isEmpty() returns true; else, it returns false. Slide 17 CS 10317 Searching for an Item Suppose you want to find the item whose data value is A You have to search sequentially starting from the head item rightward until the first item whose data member is equal to A is found. At each item searched, a comparison between the data member and A is performed. Slide 18 CS 10318 Time of the Operations Time to search() is O(L) where L is the relative location of the desired item in the List. In the worst case. The time is O(n). In the average case it is O(N/2)=O(n). Time for remove() is dominated by the time for search, and is thus O(n). Time for insert at head or at tail is O(1). Time for insert at other positions is dominated by search time, and thus O(n). Time for size() is O(1), and time for isEmpty() is O(1) Slide 19 CS 10319 Implementation of an Item Each item is a collection of data and pointer fields, and should be able to support some basic operations such as changing its link value and returning its member data Therefore, a good implementation of an item is a class The class will be called Node Slide 20 CS 10320 Class Node Design for Item The member variables of Node are: The data field(s) The link pointer, which will be called next The functions are: FunctionActionWhy Needed getNext( )returns the link.for navigation getData( )returns the datafor search setNext( Node *ptr) sets link to ptrfor insert/delete setData (type x) sets data to x.to modify data contents Slide 21 CS 10321 Class Node Type class Node { private: int data; // different data type for other apps Node *next; // the link pointer to next item public: Node(int x=0;Node * ptr=NULL); // constructor int getData( ); Node *getNext( ); void setData(int x); void setNext(Node *ptr); }; Slide 22 CS 10322 Class Node Implementation Node::Node(int x, Node *p){ data=x; next=p;}; int Node::getData( ){return data;}; Node * Node::getNext( ){return next;}; void Node::setData(int x) {data=x;}; void Node::setNext(Node *ptr){next=ptr;}; Slide 23 getData( )"> CS 10327 Implementation of search( ) Node *List::search(int x){ Node * currentPtr = getHead( ); while (currentPtr != NULL){ if (currentPtr->getData( ) == x) return currentPtr; else currentPtr = currentPtr->getNext(); } return NULL;// Now x is not, so return NULL }; Slide 28 CS 10328 Implementation of itemAt( ) Node *List::itemAt(int position){ if (position =numOfItems) return NULL; Node * currentPtr = getHead( ); for(int k=0;k != position; k++) currentPtr = currentPtr -> getNext( ); return currentPtr; }; Slide 29 CS 10329 Implementation of removeHead( ) void List::removeHead( ){ if (numOfItems == 0) return; Node * currentPtr = getHead( ); head_ptr=head_ptr->getNext( ); delete currentPtr; numOfItems--; }; Slide 30 CS 10330 Implementation of removeTail( ) void List::removeTail( ){ if (numOfItems == 0) return; if (head_ptr == tail_ptr){ head_ptr=NULL; tail_ptr= NULL; numOfItems=0; return; } Node * beforeLast = itemAt(numOfItems-2); beforeLast->setNext(NULL); // beforeLast becomes last delete tail_ptr; // deletes the last object tail_ptr=beforeLast; numOfItems--; }; Slide 31 CS 10331 Implementation of remove( ) void List::remove(int x){ if (numOfItems == 0) return; if (head_ptr==tail_ptr && head_ptr->getData()==x){ head_ptr=NULL; tail_ptr= NULL; numOfItems=0; return; } Node * beforePtr=head_ptr; // beforePtr trails currentPtr Node * currentPtr=head_ptr->getNext(); Node * tail = getTail(); while (currentPtr != tail) if (currentPtr->getData( ) == x){ // x is found. Do the bypass beforePtr->setNext(currentPtr->getNext()); delete currentPtr; numOfItems--; } else { // x is not found yet. Forward beforePtr & currentPtr. beforePtr = currentPtr; currentPtr = currentPtr->getNext(); } }; Slide 32 CS 10332 Implementation of insertHead( ) void List::insertHead(int x){ Node * newHead = new Node(x,head_ptr); head_ptr= newHead; if (tail_ptr == NULL) // only one item in list tail_ptr = head_ptr; numOfItems++; }; Slide 33 CS 10333 Implementation of insertTail( ) void List::insertTail(int x){ if (isEmpty()) insertHead(x); else{ Node * newTail = new Node(x); tail_ptr->setNext(newTail); tail_ptr = newTail; numOfItems++; } }; Slide 34 CS 10334 Implementation of insert( ) // inserts item x after the item pointed to by p void List::insert(Node *p, int x){ Node *currentPtr = head_ptr; while(currentPtr !=NULL && currentPtr != p) currentPtr = currentPtr->getNext(); if (currentPtr != NULL ) { // p is found Node *newNd=new Node(x,p->getNext()); p->setNext(newNd); numOfItems++; } }; Slide 35 CS 10335 For your Work in the Lab Make the necessary modifications to the List class implementations so that no two Nodes have the same data value. This is useful when using linked lists to implement sets. Make the necessary changes to the List class so that the Nodes are in increasing order of data values. In particular, replace all the insert methods, and replace them with insert(int x), which inserts x in the right position so that the List remains sorted.