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<ul><li><p>Review of Aegean Prehistory VII: Neopalatial, Final Palatial, and Postpalatial CreteAuthor(s): Paul Rehak and John G. YoungerSource: American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 102, No. 1 (Jan., 1998), pp. 91-173Published by: Archaeological Institute of AmericaStable URL: 07/04/2009 10:02</p><p>Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unlessyou have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and youmay use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.</p><p>Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at</p><p>Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printedpage of such transmission.</p><p>JSTOR is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1995 to build trusted digital archives for scholarship. We work with thescholarly community to preserve their work and the materials they rely upon, and to build a common research platform thatpromotes the discovery and use of these resources. For more information about JSTOR, please contact</p><p>Archaeological Institute of America is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access toAmerican Journal of Archaeology.</p><p></p></li><li><p>Review of Aegean Prehistory VII: Neopalatial, Final Palatial, and Postpalatial Crete </p><p>PAUL REHAK AND JOHN G. YOUNGER </p><p>Dedicated to our teachers, MachteldJ. Mellink and John L. Caskey* INTRODUCTION </p><p>In an earlier article in this series, Watrous reviewed the archaeology of Crete from earliest times to the end of the Protopalatial period (MM II).1 We con- tinue from where he left off, focusing on Crete from MM III to the end of the Bronze Age (ca. 1700-1100 B.C.). Our main goals are twofold: to summarize crit- ically the present state of the field, concentrating especially on developments of the last 25 years, and to indicate issues, problems, and areas of investiga- tion that need to be addressed in the future. </p><p>* We are grateful to Fred Kleiner and Tracey Cullen for the invitation to write this article and for their editorial assistance. We are also indebted to many individuals who gave freely of their knowledge, especiallyJ. Bennet, H. Blit- zer, G. Cadogan, E.H. Cline, L.H. Cole, W. Coulson, C. Davaras, L.P. Day, J. Driessen, T Eliopoulos, G. Gesell, B.P. Hallager, E. Hallager, B. Hayden, L. Hitchcock, S. Hood, A. Kanta, P. Kienzle, O.H. Krzyszkowska, R. Laffineur, M. Lee, A. Lembesi, C. Lilyquist, L. Little, C.F. Macdonald,J.A. MacGillivray, S.W. Manning, J. Moody, P. Muhly, M. Ni- kolaidou, B. Olsen, C. Palyvou, I. Pini, G. Rethemiotakis, J. Rutter, L.H. Sackett, I.A. Sakellarakis, E. Sapouna- Sakellaraki, M. Schmid, C. Shelmerdine, J. Soles, M. Tsi- popoulou, A.M.P.A. Van de Moortel, L.V. Watrous,J. Wein- garten, and J. Zielinski. </p><p>The following abbreviations have been used: Aegean and Orient E.H. Cline and D. Harris-Cline eds., The </p><p>Aegean and the Orient in the Second Mil- lennium. Proceedings of the 50th Anni- versary Symposium, Cincinnati, 18-20 April 1997 (Aegaeum 18, forthcoming). </p><p>Archanes I.A. Sakellarakis and E. Sapouna- Sakellaraki, Archanes (Athens 1991). </p><p>Atlas J.W. Myers, E.E. Myers, and G. Cadogan eds., The Aerial Atlas of Ancient Crete (Berkeley 1992). </p><p>Begg I. Begg, Minoan Storerooms in the Late Bronze Age (Diss. Univ. of Toronto 1975). </p><p>Cline E.H. Cline, Sailing the Wine-Dark Sea. International Trade and the Late Bronze Age Aegean (BAR-IS 591, Oxford 1994). </p><p>CM S. Marinatos and M. Hirmer, Crete and Mycenae (New York 1960). </p><p>CretCong Ta HenrpaypE9va too AIeOvoVq KpiTro- XOoYIKO6 Evve6piov. </p><p>Doumas C. Doumas, The Wall-Paintings of Thera (Athens 1992). </p><p>Some changes have occurred since the earlier re- view and new sources of information have become available: Nestor, a listing of bibliography, has moved from Indiana University to the University of Cincin- nati and is published in hard copy and on diskette, and will be responsible for future updates of the Inter- national Directory of Aegean Prehistorians (IDAP). The electronic mail discussion network AegeaNet has pro- vided a public forum for a wide range of Aegean topics since 1993. Increasing use is being made of the Internet by archaeologists, and the scholarly ac- ceptance of electronic publication is steadily gain- </p><p>Eikon R. Laffineur and J.L. Crowley eds., EIKC5V: Aegean Bronze Age Iconography. Shaping a Methodology (Aegaeum 8, Liege 1992). </p><p>Ergon To Epyov rrTl Ap%alo),oylK7i; EraipEia;. Gesell G. Gesell, Tonm, Palace and House Cult </p><p>in Minoan Crete (SIMA 67, Goteborg 1985). </p><p>Hallager E. Hallager, The Minoan Roundel and Other Sealed Documents in the Neopala- tial Linear A Administration I-II (Aegae- um 14, Liege 1996). </p><p>Immerwahr S. Immerwahr, Aegean Painting in the Bronze Age (London 1991). </p><p>Jones R.E.Jones, Greek and Cypriot Pottery (BSA Fitch Laboratory Occasional Paper 1, Lon- don 1986). </p><p>Kanta A. Kanta, The Late Minoan III Period on Crete: A Survey of Sites, Pottery, and Their Distribution (SIMA 58, Goteborg 1980). </p><p>Kommos I J. Shaw and M. Shaw eds., Kommos I: The Kommos Region and the Houses of the Mi- noan Town, pt. 1 (Princeton 1995); pt. 2 (Princeton 1996). </p><p>Kommos III L.V. Watrous, Kommos III: The Late Bronze Age Pottery (Princeton 1992). </p><p>Palaces R. Hagg and N. Marinatos eds., The Func- tion of the Minoan Palaces (Stockholm 1987). </p><p>PGC H.-G. Buchholz and V. Karageorghis, Pre- historic Greece and Cyprus (New York 1973). </p><p>Politeia R. Laffineur and W-D. Niemeier eds., Politeia: Society and State in the Aegean Bronze Age (Aegaeum 12, Liege 1995). </p><p>Sanctuaries R. Hagg and N. Marinatos eds., Sanctu- aries and Cults in the Aegean Bronze Age (Stockholm 1981). </p><p>91 American Journal of Archaeology 102 (1998) 91-173 </p></li><li><p>PAUL REHAK AND JOHN G. YOUNGER </p><p>ing ground.2 Other important tools include the con- tinuing publication of seals and sealings in the CMS and its Beihefte, and the compilation of Linear A texts in GORILA. </p><p>Since 1987, the Aegaeum series has provided a timely venue for the publication of conferences and mono- graphs on Aegean subjects, and the latest Cretolog- ical Congress took place in Herakleion on 10-13 September 1996. Authoritative publication volumes for a number of important sites are appearing or imminent, including Mallia, Mochlos, Chania, Ka- vousi, Kommos, Kato Syme, and Pseira. The palace at Knossos, which never received a final report in the modern sense, is now being published by areas.3 Much important information can be gleaned on in- dividual sites from the photographs and bibliogra- phies in The Aerial Atlas of Ancient Crete (Atlas). An important archaeological resource, the East Cretan Center, endowed by the Institute for Aegean Prehis- tory, was inaugurated on 19 July 1997, and will be used by excavations all over the east end of the is- land primarily for study and the storage of finds. </p><p>On Crete, the Late Bronze Age is a long and com- </p><p>Society O.H. Krzyszkowska and L. Nixon eds., Minoan Society. Proceedings of the Cam- bridge Colloquium, 1981 (Bristol 1983). </p><p>TAW I-III C. Doumas ed., Thera and the Aegean World I (London 1978); Doumas ed., Thera and the Aegean World II (London 1980); D.A. Hardy et al. eds., Thera and the Aegean World III.1: Archaeology; 2: Earth Sciences; 3: Chronology (London 1990). </p><p>Techne R. Laffineur and P.P. Betancourt eds., TgX%vI: Craftsmen, Craftswomen and Craftsmanship in the Aegean Bronze Age (Aegaeum 16, Liege 1997). </p><p>Thalassocracy R. Hagg and N. Marinatos eds., The Minoan Thalassocracy, Myth and Reality (Stockholm 1984). </p><p>Zakros N. Platon, Zakros: The Discovery of a Lost Palace of Ancient Crete (New York 1971). </p><p>l L.V. Watrous, "Review of Aegean Prehistory III: Crete from Earliest Prehistory through the Protopalatial Period," AJA 98 (1994) 695-753; and relevant papers byJ.D. Evans, D. Wilson, J.A. MacGillivray, and G. Cadogan in D. Evely et al. eds., Knossos: A Labyrinth of History (Oxford 1994). </p><p>2J.E Cherry and J.L. Davis eds., IDAP2 (1995): http: /11129.137.36.38/nestorlIDAP/isearch.html. URL for "Argos," a search engine for limited areas in the ancient and me- dieval worlds:; "Kapatija," a web site for web sites in Aegean and classical archaeology:; and "Abzu," a web site for web sites in Near Eastern archaeology: http: // HTML. </p><p>plex period and presents a variety of problems, be- ginning with terminology and chronology. There is general agreement that the Neopalatial period be- gan after widespread destruction of the Protopala- tial centers at the end of MM II and endured through the pottery phases MM III, LM IA, and LM IB. The beginning of this period and the distinction between MM IIIA and B remain hazy, however.4 In particu- lar, little agreement exists about the causes of the MM II destructions. </p><p>The era following another destruction horizon at the end of the Neopalatial period in LM IB has been called "Postpalatial," based largely on developments observed at Knossos. In recent years, however, it has become clear that palatial administrative activity con- tinued at Knossos until LM IIIA2-B early (discussed below), and certainly into LM IIIB at Chania. It there- fore seems misleading to use the term "Postpalatial" for the pottery phases LM II-LM IIIB early, which represent a period of Mycenaean Linear B admin- istration on the island at Knossos and Chania, and perhaps elsewhere; we have abandoned it in favor of the designation "Final Palatial."5 </p><p>:J. Raison, Le palais du second millenaire a Knossos 1.1-2: Le quartier nord (Paris 1988); 1I.1-2: Lefront ouest et ses mag- azins (Paris 1993); R. Laffineur, "Habitat egeen et reconstruc- tions: Quelques r6flexions m6thodologiques a propos du quartier nord-est du palais de Cnossos," in P. Darcque and R. Treuil eds., L'habitat egeen prehistorique (Paris 1990) 3-19; S. Hood and W. Taylour, The Bronze Age Palace of Knossos. Plan and Sections (London 1981); S. Hood and D. Smyth, Archaeological Survey of the Knossos Area (London 1981). </p><p>4 P.P. Betancourt, The History of Minoan Pottery (Prince- ton 1985) 103; P.M. Warren and V. Hankey, The Absolute Chronology of the Aegean Bronze Age (Bristol 1988) 54-60, 135-37; Warren, "A New Minoan Deposit from Knossos c. 1600 B.C., and Its Wider Relations," BSA 86 (1991) 319-40. </p><p>5 "Postpalatial" is used by N. Platon, Crete (Cleveland </p><p>1966) 206-207. See E. Hallager and B.P. Hallager eds., Late Minoan III Pottery. Chronology and Terminology (Athens 1997); E. Hallager, "The History of the Palace at Knossos in the Late Minoan Period," SMEA 19 (1978) 17-33; E. Hallager, "Final Palatial Crete. An Essay in Minoan Chronology," in Studies in Ancient History and Numismatics Presented to Rudi Thomsen (Aarhus 1988) 11-21; W.-D. Niemeier, "Mycenaean Knossos and the Age of Linear B," SMEA 23 (1982) 275-76; Niemeier, "Das mykenische Knossos und das Alter von Linear B," Beitrdge zur agaischen Bronzezeit 11 (Marburg 1982) 29-126. The distinction between LM II and IIIA1 rests pri- marily on the deposits from the Unexplored Mansion (M.R. Popham et al., The Minoan Unexplored Mansion at Knossos [London 1984] section 4) and Chamalevri (M. Andreadaki- Vlasaki and E. Papadopoulou, "LM IIIA:1 Pottery from Khamalevri, Rethymnon," in Hallager and Hallager [supra] 111-51); and between LM IIIA1 and A2 on deposits from the Unexplored Mansion and Phaistos-Chalara (Kanta 244). </p><p>92 [AJA 102 </p></li><li><p>NEOPALATIAL, FINAL PALATIAL, AND POSTPALATIAL CRETE </p><p>Here too there is a problem, since it has become increasingly apparent to archaeologists working on Crete that Furumark's phases for Mycenaean pottery, worked out in detail for the Argolid half a century ago, require substantial revision when applied to Crete.6 While on the mainland there are accepted diagnostic criteria for distinguishing among the ma- jor and minor divisions of LH IIIA-C, there is con- siderable disagreement among scholars about when these phases begin and end on Crete. Thus, few pot- tery experts on Crete currently employ the terms IIIB1 and 2, or IIIC1 and 2, preferring instead to refer to IIIB early or late, and IIIC early or late. At the same time, there is no evidence for palatial ad- ministration after LM IIIB early, and we therefore restrict the term "Postpalatial" to the late phase of IIIB and all of IIIC. Recently, some scholars have fo- cused their attention on the still problematic tran- sition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age. </p><p>Even the nature of archaeological investigation on Crete is changing. Now that Minoan archaeology is nearing its centenary, its historiography has be- come a subject in its own right with numerous articles and books. Increasingly within the last two decades, the old arrangement of unilateral, single-nationality excavations is being augmented by surveys and joint projects involving Greeks and the foreign archaeo- logical schools (synergasiai). In addition, much ma- terial from earlier excavations is being restudied or reevaluated using new methodologies. </p><p>The move toward surveys has become particularly vital, as Crete is subjected to the pressures of its own population and, more importantly, the exigencies of tourism and a tourist-based economy. It is difficult to emphasize sufficiently the seriousness of this prob- lem. It is therefore of crucial importance that inten- sive recent efforts have been made to survey the exist- ing environment and to safeguard areas of potential </p><p>LM IIIB can only be distinguished in early and late phases (Kanta 3), and early IIIB pottery seems almost always to be accompanied by IIIA2 creating a transitional phase. LM IIIB seems more or less contemporary with LH IIIB, and LM IIIC with LH IIIC. The character of Subminoan is still sketchy, but Cretan Protogeometric is roughly contempo- rary with Attic Protogeometric. </p><p>Xi A. Furumark, The Mycenaean Pottery: Analysis and Clas- sification (Lund 1941). </p><p>70. Rackham and J. Moody, The Making of the Cretan Landscape (Manchester 1997);J. Bennet and M. Galaty, "An- cient Greece: Recent Developments in Aegean Archaeol- ogy and Regional Studies,"Journal of Archaeological Research 5 (1997) 75-120; D.C. Haggis, "Archaeological Survey at Ka- vousi, East Crete," Hesperia 65 (1996) 373-432; Haggis,JMA </p><p>archaeological interest. Surveys have been conducted all over the island (figs. 1-3), including the regions of Sphakia, the Amari valley, the western Mesara plain, the Ayios Vasileios valley, Vrokastro, Gournia, and Kavousi-Thriphti.7 The north end of the Isth- mus oflerapetra now represents the most intensively surveyed area of the island. </p><p>The expansion of tourist resorts...</p></li></ul>