CREATE Atmosphere - Atmosphere Prof. S. Gerard Jennings ... (PMOD/WRC) at Davos, ... requirements need bridging a thrust of GMES

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  • CREATE Atmosphere

    Prof. S. Gerard Jennings(with input from several CREATE partners)

    Atmospheric Research GroupEnvironmental Change Institute

    Department of Experimental PhysicsNational University of Ireland, Galway

    Galway, Ireland

  • Construction, Use and Delivery of an European Aerosol Data Base : CREATE

    Coordinator: National University of Ireland, Galway

    NILU, Norway

    LSCE, France

    Ift, Germany

    TNO, Netherlands

    University of Helsinki

    ECN, Netherlands

    Finnish Meteorological Institute

    University of Crete

    MPI, Germany

    PSI, Switzerland

  • What are aerosols?

    Aerosols are tiny particles suspended in air.

    Some occur naturally, originating from volcanoes, dust storms, forest and grassland

    fires, living vegetation, and sea spray.

    Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels and traffic, also generate aerosols.

  • EU Aerosol Projects under the theme Global Atmosphere Monitoring in support of GMES

    DAEDALUSDelivery of Aerosol Products for

    Assimilation and environmental Use

    CREATEConstruction, use and Delivery of a

    European Aerosol database

  • Present Status of Aerosols

    Aerosol discipline - in contrast to the situation some 10 15 years ago is receiving increasing attention from the EU, and national bodies, because of increased awareness of its climate, air quality and health effects

    Progress is being made in our knowledge of aerosol properties and processes of their formation, transformation and fate

    Unlike gases, aerosols have relatively short lifetimes, are highly variable both spatially and temporally

    Need for : more measuring stations and models to predict levels in regions not covered

  • Present Status of Aerosols (continued)

    Nevertheless, we are still at an early stage in our knowledge ofcomposition of aerosols for example: organic component, size fractionated chemical composition

    Disparate non-compatible collections of aerosol parameters are held by a range of dispersed sources:Field sites, Networks, Institutes, by individual Groups and in different formats

    Procedures and techniques for measurement of aerosols also vary no standardized procedures in place

  • GMES Atmosphere : CREATE & DAEDALUS Projects

    Needs and Gaps:

    a) Need for spatial and temporal monitoring of aerosols

    b) Need for common protocol of data submission

    c) Need for long term sustained support for monitoring

    d) Lidar Network needs further technical support

    g) Need for quality assurance of data

    h) Need for database for user needs

  • CREATEConstruction, use and delivery of a European Database

    Report on aerosol measurement techniques and harmonization of calibration procedures

    Recommend list of European monitoring sites

    Delivery of aerosol knowledge/training to data providers and data users Examples: Tutorials & Measurement/Analyses Workshops; Field visits

    Catalogue of maps of aerosol levels over Europe from measured data and model outputs

    Provision of an European Aerosol Database

  • Main Outputs and Products:

    Aerosol Database to EMEP/ WMO GAW Standard

    Retrieval of Aerosol parameters from Satellite systems

    Mapping of Aerosol Data with Modelled Aerosol fields

    Representativeness of surface and vertical profile data

    Harmonised Aerosol Measured Procedures

    Training and Skill development of Atmospheric Scientists and Field Station Operators.

  • Present Observational Situation1. Existing Networks:

    EMEP: The Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP) is a regional policy driven monitoring programme under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP).

    In 2002:i) 14 countries in Europe were measuring PM10 (particulate matter) below 10 micrometresii) 6 countries are measuring PM2.5iii) No PM1 measurements in Europe

  • Present Observational Situation (continued)World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) Global Atmosphere

    Watch (GAW):

    Supported by some 80 WMO countries with 22 Global stations and some 300 Regional stations.

    http://www.empa.ch/gaw/gawsis/ (GAW station information)

    European Air Quality Monitoring Network (EuroAirnet)developed by the European Environmental Agency (EEA) and the European countries. Data from EuroAirnet is reported to AIRBASE , managed by the European Topic Centre on Air Quality and Climate Change.

    In 2000: PM10 data from 425 stations in 17 countries were in thedatabase.

    In 2001: PM10 data from 928 stations from 24 countries.

  • Objective of the Global Atmosphere Watch Aerosol

    Programme :

    To determine the spatio-temporal distribution of aerosol properties related to climate forcing and air quality at up to multi-decadal time scales

  • Global Atmosphere Watch (Aerosol) consists of :

    1) 22 Global Stations representing main aerosol types:

    Background Polluted Continental

    Marine Arctic

    Mineral Dust Biomass burning

    Free Troposphere

    2) Some 300 Regional Stations

  • Recommended Aerosol parameters for Regional Stations:

    Aerosol mass concentration - 2 size fractions

    Aerosol chemical composition 2 size fractions

    Aerosol Light scattering coefficient

    Aerosol Absorption coefficient

  • Regional site measurements:Aerosol mass concentration - 2 size fractionsAerosol chemical composition 2 size fractions Light scattering coefficient at a single wavelengthAbsorption coefficient at a single wavelength

    Together with:Total aerosol number concentrationAerosol light scattering and hemispheric backscatter coefficient at a number of wavelengthsAbsorption coefficient at a number of wavelengthsCloud condensation nucleus (CCN) concentrationDiffuse, global and direct solar radiationAdditional parameters

    Recommended Aerosol parameters for GAW Global Stations:

  • Additional Aerosol parameters for Global Stations:

    Aerosol size distribution

    Detailed size fractionated chemical composition

    Dependence of aerosol properties on Relative Humidity

    CCN concentration at a range of supersaturation

    Vertical distribution of aerosol properties

  • WMO World Calibration Centre for Aerosols

    1. World Calibration Centre for Aerosol Physical Instrumentation is at the Institute for TroposphericResearch (IfT), Leipzig

    Calibration Workshops for specific aerosol physical instrumentation

    Lecture courses in aerosol physics, aerosol instrumentation and atmospheric aerosols

    Users: Field station operatorsNew aerosol researchers

    Contact: Ali Wiedensohler (ali@tropos.de)

  • WMO World Calibration Centre for Aerosols2. World Optical Depth Research and Calibration

    Centre (WORCC) is operated by the Physikalisch Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos , World Radiation Centre (PMOD/WRC) at Davos, Switzerland ( funded by Swiss GAW)

    Provides Precision Filter Radiometers operating at 4 wavelengths (368, 412, 500 and 862 nm), permitting measurement of aerosol optical depth

    Installed initially at Izania, Mace Head, Mauna Loa

    Regular calibration with travelling standard

    Contact: Christoph Wehrli (chwehrli@pmodwrc.ch)

  • WMO World Data Centre for Aerosols (WDCA)

    The World Data Centre for Aerosols (http://ies.jrc.cec.eu.int/wdca/) is operated by the Institute for Environment and Sustainability of the EU Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy.

    It provides public access to the aerosol observations made within GAW

    Contact: Julian Wilson (julian.wilson@jrc.it)

  • Challenges in measurement of Atmospheric Aerosol

    Gravimetric measurement of volatile aerosol: losses

    Organic aerosol fraction is uncertain

    Black carbon fraction: uncertainty remains

    Water can have considerable effect on aerosol mass due to evaporation or condensation on the sample

    Mass closure remains challenging

    Complete characterisation over entire spectrum is rare

    Relatively little vertical information is available

  • Contribution of nitrate to "PM

    10" at given sites for situations with

    high aerosol levels

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    Melpitz 96-99 (G)

    Ispra (I)

    Zuerich (CH)

    Basel (CH)

    Gent (B)

    Bologna (I)

    Barcelona (E)

    Bern (CH)

    NO3 contributribution to PM10

  • Mass concentration (g m-3) of (ammonium) nitrate as a function of size, measured on top of a meteorological tower in central Netherlands. The complete histogram bar

    represents the total mass concentration of nitrate.

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    23-0

    4-20

    01 0

    6:46

    :45

    23-0

    4-20

    01 1

    5:46

    :21

    23-0

    4-20

    01 2

    3:46

    :21

    24-0

    4-20

    01 0

    7:46

    :21

    24-0

    4-20

    01 1

    5:46

    :21

    24-0

    4-20

    01 2

    3:46

    :21

    u g/m

    3

    >3.2

    13.2

    0.321

    00.32

  • Indoor vs. ambient conditions

    500

    1000

    1500

    dN/d

    log(

    D)

    [cm

    -3]

    1 hour averages (28/3/2000 from 3.30 until 4.30)

    20

    40

    60

    80

    dS/d

    log(

    D)

    [ m

    2 cm

    -3]

    ambient measurements (RH=69%) dry measurements (RH

  • Lidar

    Only tool to provide vertically resolved aerosol

    EARLINET (EU Project) and German Aerosol Lidar Network

    Provide the 1st Lidar Data set at some 20 sites in Europe

    Raman Lidar provides real quantitative data

    Development of sophisticated systems at supersites

    Joint use of Lidar, sunphotometers and satellite systems

    Recommend continuation of vertical profiling of the atmosphere

    Support required to continue with Lidar network

  • Clean cloud

    Polluted cloud

    More CCNSmaller CCN

    Drizzle

    INDIRECT AEROSOL EFFECT

  • European Mediterranean Pollution:

    Reduces air quality in the Summer

    Increasing aerosol levels causes increased surface cooling due to enhanced backscattered radiation

    This reduces evaporation from the ocean surface,

    which in turn reduces precipitation

    Climate model indeed predicts 10-50% reduction in

    precipitation in Mediterranean region (Lelieveld et al, 2002).

  • Lelieveld et al., Science, 2002

  • 4D assessment of aerosol data by means of aerosol transport models

    Status

    Michael Schulz / Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l'EnvironnementCEA/CNRS, Gif -sur-Yvette, France

    Several complex aerosol models are recently developed=> in Europe: EURAD, ECHAM, LMDZ, EMEP, LOTOS +

    Forecasting of PM10 is available (e.g. EURAD)

    Aerosol model intercomparisons are startednon funded projects: AEROCOM, GLOREAM

    Validation by comparison to EMEP type data, satellite observations of optical depth

    Assimilation procedures under development

    Aerosol Optical DepthLMDZ INCA model

  • 4D assessment of aerosol data by means of aerosol transport models

    Reduction of uncertainty on aerosol radiative forcing

    Regional emission inventory verification

    Future aerosol load scenarios

    Impact of aerosols on weather forecast

    Short-term prediction of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1(regional smog abatement and traffic perturbation)

    Eutrophification and Pollution assessments

    Current Needsaddressed by global/regional aerosol models

  • 4D assessment of aerosol data by means of aerosol transport models

    Gaps

    Partially fundamental understanding of aerosol formation, transformation, removal, hygroscopicity, optical properties

    => Model development still needed!!!

    Refined emission inventories (present/future)

    Model quality control standards and tools

    CPU-power to run interactive chemistry and aerosol models on high spatial resolutions

    Access to Qualified Observational Data formultiple regions from longterm observing facilities

  • Some concluding thoughts and conclusions

    Gaps between available aerosol data products and users requirements need bridging a thrust of GMES

    Need for improved linkages between more research oriented programmes and Regulatory Monitoring Networks CREATE and DAEDALUS Projects will help enable this, through involvement of EMEP and WMO GAW for example

    Need for improved coordination between observational stations

    Improvement of existing stations and networks and development of new ones (Presently: decreasing observational capacity)

    Standardization of data

    Improve access to data and data products

    Validation of satellite derived products through ground truth and vertical data

  • Some further thoughts and conclusions

    Relatively few advances have been made with new aerosol instrumentation

    Need for: Fast response aerosol chemical composition techniques

    In situ aerosol microphysical measurements most instruments measure dryand not ambient aerosol

    Need for multi- disciplinary approaches in tackling aerosols coupled with meteorological and model inputs

    need to understand better: effects of aerosols on health and climate (research driven projects)

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