CREATE – Atmosphere - – Atmosphere Prof. S. Gerard Jennings ... (PMOD/WRC) at Davos, ... requirements need bridging – a thrust of GMES

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<ul><li><p>CREATE Atmosphere </p><p>Prof. S. Gerard Jennings(with input from several CREATE partners)</p><p>Atmospheric Research GroupEnvironmental Change Institute</p><p>Department of Experimental PhysicsNational University of Ireland, Galway</p><p>Galway, Ireland</p></li><li><p>Construction, Use and Delivery of an European Aerosol Data Base : CREATE</p><p>Coordinator: National University of Ireland, Galway</p><p>NILU, Norway</p><p>LSCE, France</p><p>Ift, Germany</p><p>TNO, Netherlands</p><p>University of Helsinki</p><p>ECN, Netherlands</p><p>Finnish Meteorological Institute</p><p>University of Crete</p><p>MPI, Germany</p><p>PSI, Switzerland</p></li><li><p> What are aerosols?</p><p> Aerosols are tiny particles suspended in air. </p><p> Some occur naturally, originating from volcanoes, dust storms, forest and grassland </p><p>fires, living vegetation, and sea spray. </p><p> Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels and traffic, also generate aerosols.</p></li><li><p>EU Aerosol Projects under the theme Global Atmosphere Monitoring in support of GMES</p><p>DAEDALUSDelivery of Aerosol Products for </p><p>Assimilation and environmental Use</p><p>CREATEConstruction, use and Delivery of a </p><p>European Aerosol database</p></li><li><p>Present Status of Aerosols</p><p>Aerosol discipline - in contrast to the situation some 10 15 years ago is receiving increasing attention from the EU, and national bodies, because of increased awareness of its climate, air quality and health effects</p><p>Progress is being made in our knowledge of aerosol properties and processes of their formation, transformation and fate</p><p>Unlike gases, aerosols have relatively short lifetimes, are highly variable both spatially and temporally</p><p>Need for : more measuring stations and models to predict levels in regions not covered</p></li><li><p>Present Status of Aerosols (continued)</p><p>Nevertheless, we are still at an early stage in our knowledge ofcomposition of aerosols for example: organic component, size fractionated chemical composition</p><p>Disparate non-compatible collections of aerosol parameters are held by a range of dispersed sources:Field sites, Networks, Institutes, by individual Groups and in different formats</p><p>Procedures and techniques for measurement of aerosols also vary no standardized procedures in place</p></li><li><p>GMES Atmosphere : CREATE &amp; DAEDALUS Projects</p><p>Needs and Gaps:</p><p>a) Need for spatial and temporal monitoring of aerosols</p><p>b) Need for common protocol of data submission</p><p>c) Need for long term sustained support for monitoring </p><p>d) Lidar Network needs further technical support</p><p>g) Need for quality assurance of data</p><p>h) Need for database for user needs</p></li><li><p>CREATEConstruction, use and delivery of a European Database</p><p>Report on aerosol measurement techniques and harmonization of calibration procedures</p><p>Recommend list of European monitoring sites</p><p>Delivery of aerosol knowledge/training to data providers and data users Examples: Tutorials &amp; Measurement/Analyses Workshops; Field visits </p><p>Catalogue of maps of aerosol levels over Europe from measured data and model outputs</p><p>Provision of an European Aerosol Database</p></li><li><p>Main Outputs and Products:</p><p> Aerosol Database to EMEP/ WMO GAW Standard</p><p> Retrieval of Aerosol parameters from Satellite systems</p><p> Mapping of Aerosol Data with Modelled Aerosol fields</p><p> Representativeness of surface and vertical profile data</p><p> Harmonised Aerosol Measured Procedures</p><p> Training and Skill development of Atmospheric Scientists and Field Station Operators. </p></li><li><p>Present Observational Situation1. Existing Networks:</p><p>EMEP: The Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP) is a regional policy driven monitoring programme under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP).</p><p>In 2002:i) 14 countries in Europe were measuring PM10 (particulate matter) below 10 micrometresii) 6 countries are measuring PM2.5iii) No PM1 measurements in Europe</p></li><li><p>Present Observational Situation (continued)World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) Global Atmosphere </p><p>Watch (GAW):</p><p>Supported by some 80 WMO countries with 22 Global stations and some 300 Regional stations.</p><p>http://www.empa.ch/gaw/gawsis/ (GAW station information)</p><p>European Air Quality Monitoring Network (EuroAirnet)developed by the European Environmental Agency (EEA) and the European countries. Data from EuroAirnet is reported to AIRBASE , managed by the European Topic Centre on Air Quality and Climate Change.</p><p>In 2000: PM10 data from 425 stations in 17 countries were in thedatabase.</p><p>In 2001: PM10 data from 928 stations from 24 countries.</p></li><li><p>Objective of the Global Atmosphere Watch Aerosol </p><p>Programme :</p><p>To determine the spatio-temporal distribution of aerosol properties related to climate forcing and air quality at up to multi-decadal time scales</p></li><li><p>Global Atmosphere Watch (Aerosol) consists of :</p><p>1) 22 Global Stations representing main aerosol types:</p><p>Background Polluted Continental</p><p>Marine Arctic</p><p>Mineral Dust Biomass burning</p><p>Free Troposphere</p><p>2) Some 300 Regional Stations</p></li><li><p>Recommended Aerosol parameters for Regional Stations:</p><p>Aerosol mass concentration - 2 size fractions</p><p>Aerosol chemical composition 2 size fractions </p><p>Aerosol Light scattering coefficient</p><p>Aerosol Absorption coefficient</p></li><li><p>Regional site measurements:Aerosol mass concentration - 2 size fractionsAerosol chemical composition 2 size fractions Light scattering coefficient at a single wavelengthAbsorption coefficient at a single wavelength</p><p>Together with:Total aerosol number concentrationAerosol light scattering and hemispheric backscatter coefficient at a number of wavelengthsAbsorption coefficient at a number of wavelengthsCloud condensation nucleus (CCN) concentrationDiffuse, global and direct solar radiationAdditional parameters</p><p>Recommended Aerosol parameters for GAW Global Stations:</p></li><li><p>Additional Aerosol parameters for Global Stations:</p><p>Aerosol size distribution</p><p>Detailed size fractionated chemical composition</p><p>Dependence of aerosol properties on Relative Humidity</p><p>CCN concentration at a range of supersaturation</p><p>Vertical distribution of aerosol properties</p></li><li><p>WMO World Calibration Centre for Aerosols</p><p>1. World Calibration Centre for Aerosol Physical Instrumentation is at the Institute for TroposphericResearch (IfT), Leipzig</p><p> Calibration Workshops for specific aerosol physical instrumentation</p><p> Lecture courses in aerosol physics, aerosol instrumentation and atmospheric aerosols</p><p>Users: Field station operatorsNew aerosol researchers</p><p>Contact: Ali Wiedensohler (ali@tropos.de)</p></li><li><p>WMO World Calibration Centre for Aerosols2. World Optical Depth Research and Calibration </p><p>Centre (WORCC) is operated by the Physikalisch Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos , World Radiation Centre (PMOD/WRC) at Davos, Switzerland ( funded by Swiss GAW)</p><p> Provides Precision Filter Radiometers operating at 4 wavelengths (368, 412, 500 and 862 nm), permitting measurement of aerosol optical depth</p><p> Installed initially at Izania, Mace Head, Mauna Loa</p><p> Regular calibration with travelling standard</p><p>Contact: Christoph Wehrli (chwehrli@pmodwrc.ch)</p></li><li><p>WMO World Data Centre for Aerosols (WDCA)</p><p>The World Data Centre for Aerosols (http://ies.jrc.cec.eu.int/wdca/) is operated by the Institute for Environment and Sustainability of the EU Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy.</p><p> It provides public access to the aerosol observations made within GAW</p><p>Contact: Julian Wilson (julian.wilson@jrc.it)</p></li><li><p>Challenges in measurement of Atmospheric Aerosol</p><p> Gravimetric measurement of volatile aerosol: losses</p><p> Organic aerosol fraction is uncertain</p><p> Black carbon fraction: uncertainty remains</p><p> Water can have considerable effect on aerosol mass due to evaporation or condensation on the sample</p><p> Mass closure remains challenging</p><p> Complete characterisation over entire spectrum is rare</p><p> Relatively little vertical information is available</p></li><li><p>Contribution of nitrate to "PM</p><p>10" at given sites for situations with </p><p>high aerosol levels</p><p>0%</p><p>10%</p><p>20%</p><p>30%</p><p>Melpitz 96-99 (G)</p><p>Ispra (I)</p><p>Zuerich (CH)</p><p>Basel (CH)</p><p>Gent (B)</p><p>Bologna (I)</p><p>Barcelona (E)</p><p>Bern (CH)</p><p>NO3 contributribution to PM10</p></li><li><p>Mass concentration (g m-3) of (ammonium) nitrate as a function of size, measured on top of a meteorological tower in central Netherlands. The complete histogram bar </p><p>represents the total mass concentration of nitrate.</p><p>0</p><p>5</p><p>10</p><p>15</p><p>20</p><p>25</p><p>23-0</p><p>4-20</p><p>01 0</p><p>6:46</p><p>:45</p><p>23-0</p><p>4-20</p><p>01 1</p><p>5:46</p><p>:21</p><p>23-0</p><p>4-20</p><p>01 2</p><p>3:46</p><p>:21</p><p>24-0</p><p>4-20</p><p>01 0</p><p>7:46</p><p>:21</p><p>24-0</p><p>4-20</p><p>01 1</p><p>5:46</p><p>:21</p><p>24-0</p><p>4-20</p><p>01 2</p><p>3:46</p><p>:21</p><p>u g/m</p><p>3</p><p>&gt;3.2</p><p>13.2</p><p>0.321</p><p>00.32</p></li><li><p>Indoor vs. ambient conditions</p><p>500 </p><p>1000</p><p>1500</p><p>dN/d</p><p>log(</p><p>D)</p><p>[cm</p><p>-3]</p><p>1 hour averages (28/3/2000 from 3.30 until 4.30)</p><p>20</p><p>40</p><p>60</p><p>80</p><p>dS/d</p><p>log(</p><p>D)</p><p>[ m</p><p>2 cm</p><p>-3]</p><p>ambient measurements (RH=69%) dry measurements (RH</p></li><li><p>Lidar</p><p> Only tool to provide vertically resolved aerosol</p><p> EARLINET (EU Project) and German Aerosol Lidar Network </p><p>Provide the 1st Lidar Data set at some 20 sites in Europe</p><p> Raman Lidar provides real quantitative data</p><p> Development of sophisticated systems at supersites</p><p> Joint use of Lidar, sunphotometers and satellite systems</p><p> Recommend continuation of vertical profiling of the atmosphere</p><p> Support required to continue with Lidar network</p></li><li><p>Clean cloud</p><p>Polluted cloud</p><p>More CCNSmaller CCN</p><p>Drizzle</p><p>INDIRECT AEROSOL EFFECT</p></li><li><p>European Mediterranean Pollution: </p><p> Reduces air quality in the Summer</p><p> Increasing aerosol levels causes increased surface cooling due to enhanced backscattered radiation</p><p> This reduces evaporation from the ocean surface,</p><p>which in turn reduces precipitation</p><p> Climate model indeed predicts 10-50% reduction in </p><p>precipitation in Mediterranean region (Lelieveld et al, 2002).</p></li><li><p>Lelieveld et al., Science, 2002</p></li><li><p>4D assessment of aerosol data by means of aerosol transport models</p><p>Status</p><p>Michael Schulz / Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l'EnvironnementCEA/CNRS, Gif -sur-Yvette, France</p><p> Several complex aerosol models are recently developed=&gt; in Europe: EURAD, ECHAM, LMDZ, EMEP, LOTOS +</p><p> Forecasting of PM10 is available (e.g. EURAD)</p><p> Aerosol model intercomparisons are startednon funded projects: AEROCOM, GLOREAM</p><p> Validation by comparison to EMEP type data, satellite observations of optical depth</p><p> Assimilation procedures under development</p><p>Aerosol Optical DepthLMDZ INCA model</p></li><li><p>4D assessment of aerosol data by means of aerosol transport models</p><p> Reduction of uncertainty on aerosol radiative forcing</p><p> Regional emission inventory verification</p><p> Future aerosol load scenarios</p><p> Impact of aerosols on weather forecast</p><p> Short-term prediction of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1(regional smog abatement and traffic perturbation)</p><p> Eutrophification and Pollution assessments </p><p>Current Needsaddressed by global/regional aerosol models</p></li><li><p>4D assessment of aerosol data by means of aerosol transport models</p><p>Gaps</p><p> Partially fundamental understanding of aerosol formation, transformation, removal, hygroscopicity, optical properties</p><p>=&gt; Model development still needed!!!</p><p> Refined emission inventories (present/future)</p><p> Model quality control standards and tools</p><p> CPU-power to run interactive chemistry and aerosol models on high spatial resolutions</p><p> Access to Qualified Observational Data formultiple regions from longterm observing facilities</p></li><li><p>Some concluding thoughts and conclusions</p><p> Gaps between available aerosol data products and users requirements need bridging a thrust of GMES </p><p> Need for improved linkages between more research oriented programmes and Regulatory Monitoring Networks CREATE and DAEDALUS Projects will help enable this, through involvement of EMEP and WMO GAW for example</p><p> Need for improved coordination between observational stations</p><p> Improvement of existing stations and networks and development of new ones (Presently: decreasing observational capacity)</p><p> Standardization of data</p><p> Improve access to data and data products</p><p> Validation of satellite derived products through ground truth and vertical data</p></li><li><p>Some further thoughts and conclusions</p><p> Relatively few advances have been made with new aerosol instrumentation</p><p> Need for: Fast response aerosol chemical composition techniques</p><p> In situ aerosol microphysical measurements most instruments measure dryand not ambient aerosol</p><p> Need for multi- disciplinary approaches in tackling aerosols coupled with meteorological and model inputs </p><p> need to understand better: effects of aerosols on health and climate (research driven projects)</p></li></ul>

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