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DESCRIPTIONSlides from my presentation at the 2010 National Communication Association convention.
- 1. Crafting Articulations: The Mode of Production of Online Crafts Chris McConnell Department of Radio-TV-Film, UT Austin NCA, November 16, 2010
2. Crafting Articulations Crafts sales on the Internet Crafts, a working definition online retail Articulation Informationalization Cultural Capital 3. Microcosm - Zines 4. Crafts: a working definition Not necessarily handmade, contemporary crafts are produced on a limited basis by a small number of self-employed producers. Hand-knit and sewn items Printed items such as t-shirts and zines Bricolage such as belts and handbags made from found items. The limited scale of production and aura of personality defines craft for the purpose of this paper. 5. The Dark Ages Crafts are certainly not a new form of cultural production Sources of crafts Made for self/friends/family Craft fair or flea market Specialty retail such as record store, boutique, or bookstore Mail Order Purchasing crafts often depended on time spent searching face-to-face and luck 6. DIY While crafts have been associated with the traditional or conventional, an oppositional stream of crafting emerged in the 1980s and 90s. Reaction to industrialization and mass production Reaction to mass media and corporate culture (Duncombe, 2000; Spencer, 2005) 7. Examples of Craft Online Microcosm Publishing a not-for-profit*, collectively-run publisher and distributor of zines and related work Established in 1996 BuyOlympia.com a way to help our friends sell their awesome handmade items online Established in 1999 in Olympia, now in Portland Etsy.com Your place to buy and sell all things handmade, vintage and supplies est. 2005 8. BuyOlympia.com 9. Microcosm - Stickers 10. Microcosm - Buttons 11. BuyOlympia Bicycle Related 12. Etsy 13. Articulation Hall (1978) uses the concept of articulation to explain how local cultures and modes of production can exist within global capital A punk/indie/DIY mode of production can resist global capital at the micro level, yet feed into the broader global capitalist economy. 14. Online Craft Sales and Articulation These sites such as Microcosm and BuyOlympia nurture small-scale production Yet their sales and distribution are firmly situated within global systems of information and commerce Internet Credit card transactions Shipping (US Mail, FedEx, UPS) 15. Informationalization Castells (2000) describes the global trend of documenting and measuring commerce and labor as informationalization. Informationalization rationalizes transactions for capital Makes transactions more convenient or efficent Improves discovery of suppliers 16. Etsy and Informationalization Does not sell items itself Provides a marketplace for buyers and sellers Offers a variety of discovery tools Processes credit-card transactions Charges sellers 20 listing fee Takes 3.5% cut of each sale 17. Etsy-Discovery 18. Etsy Discovery by Locality 19. Etsy Color Discovery 20. Etsy Specialty Goods 21. Etsy Specialty Goods Customers can find good they might not be able to find in their local markets Offensive to local sensibilities? Possibly illegal? 22. Cultural Captial For customers, Etsy takes a lot of the work out of finding handmade goods Allows these persons have the artifacts of a DIY lifestyle without the effort of visiting craft fairs, boutiques, etc. Presents the image of a hip, countercultural lifestyle without necessarily living it - hipsterism 23. A Return to Cottage Industry? 95% of Etsy sellers are women (average age, 33), mostly stay-at-home moms and college students looking to supplement their income rather than make a full-time living. (Miller, 2007) $10 million in sales in first two years. Most items sell for $15-$20 Sellers work by the piece, for dubious margins 24. Conclusion Online craft retailers articulate between craft/DIY modes of production and the norms of contemporary global capital Provide customers the opportunity to participate in subcultures unavailable in their local communities Yet Entry into a DIY lifestyle becomes all to easy for poseurs Potentially exploits women, particularly stay-at- home moms and others alienated by labor market.