Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 Matter and Energy Chapter 3.

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<ul><li><p>Matter and Energy</p><p>Chapter 3</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Common ElementsIodineManganeseChromiumGoldCalciumStrontiumPhosphorousSilverNitrogenPlatinumMagnesiumTitanium</p><p>TungstenArsenicAluminumCopperBariumTinUraniumPotassiumHydrogenCobaltBismuthZincChlorineLeadNickelMercurySodiumOxygenSulfurFluorineIronBromineAntimonyCarbon</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Matter:Anything that has mass and takes up space.Sec 3.1 Properties of Matter</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>States of Mattersolid, liquid, gas</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p><p>State</p><p>Shape</p><p>Volume</p><p>Compress</p><p>Flow</p><p>Solid</p><p>Definite</p><p>Definite</p><p>No</p><p>No</p><p>Liquid</p><p>Indefinite</p><p>Definite</p><p>No</p><p>Yes</p><p>Gas</p><p>Indefinite</p><p>Indefinite</p><p>Yes</p><p>Yes</p></li><li><p>Physical Properties are the characteristics of matter that can be observed without changing its compositionCharacteristics that are directly observableExamples: color, melting point, density, volumeChemical Properties are the characteristics that determine how the composition of matter changes as a result of contact with other matter or the influence of energyExamples: burning, color change, decomposing</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Intensive Properties:Independent of the amount of the substance that is present.Density, boiling point, color, etc.</p><p>Extensive Properties:Dependent upon the amount of the substance present.Mass, volume, energy, etc.</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Classify Each of the following as Physical or Chemical Properties The boiling point of ethyl alcohol is 78C.Diamond is very hard.Sugar ferments to form ethyl alcohol.</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Classify Each of the following as Physical or Chemical Properties The boiling point of ethyl alcohol is 78C.Physical property describes inherent characteristic of alcohol boiling pointDiamond is very hard.Physical property describes inherent characteristic of diamond hardnessSugar ferments to form ethyl alcohol.Chemical property describes behavior of sugar forming a new substance (ethyl alcohol)</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Changes in MatterPhysical Changes are changes to matter that do not result in a change the fundamental components that make that substanceExample: state changes boiling, melting, condensingGrinding, crushing, bending, filtering</p><p>Chemical Changes involve a change in the fundamental components of the substanceProduce a new substanceChemical reactionReactants Products</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>4 Indicators of a Chemical ReactionProduces a gas (bubbles)Precipitate forms (solid)Color change (not due to blending)Changes in temperature (hot or cold)</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Classify Each of the following as Physical or Chemical Changes Iron metal is melted.Iron combines with oxygen to form rust.Sugar ferments to form ethyl alcohol.</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Classify Each of the following as Physical or Chemical Changes Iron is melted.Physical change describes a state change, but the material is still ironIron combines with oxygen to form rust..Chemical change describes how iron and oxygen react to make a new substance, rustSugar ferments to form ethyl alcohol.Chemical change describes how sugar forms a new substance (ethyl alcohol)</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Sec 3.3 Elements and CompoundsSubstances which can not be broken down into simpler substances by chemical reactions are called elementsMost substances are chemical combinations of elements. These are called compounds.Compounds are made of elementsCompounds can be broken down into elementsProperties of the compound not related to the properties of the elements that compose itSame chemical composition at all times</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Sec 3.4 Pure Substances vs. MixturesPure SubstancesAll samples have the same physical and chemical propertiesConstant Composition all samples have the same compositionHomogeneousSeparate into components based on chemical propertiesMixturesDifferent samples may show different propertiesVariable compositionHomogeneous or HeterogeneousSeparate into components based on physical propertiesAll mixtures are made of pure substances</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Classification of MatterHomogeneous = uniform throughout, appears to be one thingpure substancessolutions (homogeneous mixtures)Heterogeneous = non-uniform, contains regions with different properties than other regions</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Identity Each of the following as a Pure Substance, Homogeneous Mixture or Heterogeneous MixtureGasolineRocky Road ice creamCopper metal</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Identity Each of the following as a Pure Substance, Homogeneous Mixture or Heterogeneous MixtureGasoline a homogenous mixtureRock Road ice creama heterogeneous mixtureCopper metalA pure substance (all elements are pure substances)</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Sec 3.5 Separation of MixturesSeparate mixtures based on different physical properties of the componentsPhysical change</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Separates homogeneous mixture on the basis of differences in boiling point.</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Filtration:Separates solid substances from liquids and solutions.</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Chromatography:Separates substances on the basis of differences in solubility in a solvent.</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Sec 3.6 Energy and Energy ChangesCapacity to do workchemical, mechanical, thermal, electrical, radiant, sound, nuclearEnergy may affect mattere.g. raise its temperature, eventually causing a state changeAll physical changes and chemical changes involve energy changes</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>HeatHeat: a flow of energy due to a temperature difference</p><p>Exothermic = A process that results in the evolution of heat.Example: when a match is struck, it is an exothermic process because energy is produced as heat.Endothermic = A process that absorbs energy.Example: melting ice to form liquid water is an endothermic process.</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Units of EnergyOne calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by 1Ckcal = energy needed to raise the temperature of 1000 g of water 1Cjoule 4.184 J = 1 calIn nutrition, calories are capitalized1 Cal = 1 kcal</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Example - Converting Calories to JoulesConvert 60.1 cal to joules</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Energy and the Temperature of MatterThe amount the temperature of an object increases depends on the amount of heat added (q).If you double the added heat energy the temperature will increase twice as much.The amount the temperature of an object increases depends on its massIf you double the mass it will take twice as much heat energy to raise the temperature the same amount.</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Specific Heat CapacitySpecific Heat (s) is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one Celsius degree</p><p>Amount of Heat = Specific Heat x Mass x Temperature ChangeQ = s x m x T</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Example Calculate the amount of heat energy (in joules) needed to raise the temperature of 7.40 g of water from 29.0C to 46.0CMass = 7.40 gTemperature Change = 46.0C 29.0C = 17.0CQ = s x m x T</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Example A 1.6 g sample of metal that appears to be gold requires 5.8 J to raise the temperature from 23C to 41C. Is the metal pure gold?</p><p>Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p><p>1745689101113121415161717181920212223</p></li></ul>

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