Copyright©2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 Elements, Atoms & Ions Chapter 4.

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  • Slide 1
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 Elements, Atoms & Ions Chapter 4
  • Slide 2
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2 Section 4.1 Elements Over 112 known, of which 88 are found in nature others are man-made Abundance is the percentage found in nature oxygen most abundant element (by mass) on earth and in the human body the abundance and form of an element varies in different parts of the environment Each element has a unique symbol The symbol of an element may be one letter or two if two letters, the second is lower case
  • Slide 3
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3
  • Slide 4
  • 4 Sec 4.3 Daltons Atomic Theory 1.Elements are composed of atoms tiny, hard, unbreakable, spheres 2.All atoms of a given element are identical all carbon atoms have the same chemical and physical properties 3.Atoms of a given element are different from those of any other element carbon atoms have different chemical and physical properties than sulfur atoms
  • Slide 5
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 Daltons Atomic Theory 4.Atoms of one element combine with atoms of other elements to form compounds. Law of Constant Composition all samples of a compound contain the same proportions (by mass) of the elements Chemical Formulas
  • Slide 6
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 6 Daltons Atomic Theory 5.Atoms are indivisible in a chemical process. all atoms present at beginning are present at the end atoms are not created or destroyed, just rearranged atoms of one element cannot change into atoms of another element cannot turn Lead into Gold by a chemical reaction
  • Slide 7
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 7 Sec 4.4 Formulas Describe Compounds a compound is a distinct substance that is composed of atoms of two or more elements number and type of each atom in the simplest unit of the compound molecules or ions each element represented by its letter symbol the number of atoms of each element is written to the right of the element as a subscript if there is only one atom, the 1 subscript is not written polyatomic groups are placed in parentheses if more than one
  • Slide 8
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 8 Writing Formulas Na 2 CO 3 2 Na (Sodium) 1 C (Carbon) 3 O (Oxygen)
  • Slide 9
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 9 4.5 Structure of the Atom Are atoms Divisible? Dalton stated atoms are not divisible but experiments during the late 1890s and early 1900s proved otherwise
  • Slide 10
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 10 J.J. Thomson investigated (1890s) using a device called a cathode ray tube
  • Slide 11
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11 J.J. Thomson determined that the ray was made of tiny negatively charged particles we call electrons he conclude that electrons were smaller than an atom if electrons are smaller than atoms, they must be pieces of atoms if atoms have pieces, they must be breakable Thomson also found that atoms of different elements all produced these same electrons
  • Slide 12
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 12 WilliamThomsons (Lord Kelvin) Plum Pudding Model Atom has structure Electrons (distinct particles) suspended in a positively charged electric field atom mostly empty space
  • Slide 13
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13 Rutherfords Gold Foil Expt How can you prove something is empty? put something through it use large target atoms use very thin sheets of target so do not absorb bullet use very small particle as bullet with very high energy but not so small that electrons will affect it bullet = alpha particles, target atoms = gold foil
  • Slide 14
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 14 Rutherfords Gold Foil Experiment
  • Slide 15
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 15 Rutherfords Nuclear Model The atom contains a tiny dense center called the nucleus The nucleus is essentially the entire mass of the atom The nucleus is positively charged the amount of positive charge of the nucleus balances the negative charge of the electrons The electrons move around in the empty space of the atom surrounding the nucleus
  • Slide 16
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16 Structure of the Nucleus The nucleus was found to be composed of two kinds of particles Some of these particles are called protons charge = +1 mass is about the same as a hydrogen atom Since protons and electrons have the same amount of charge, for the atom to be neutral there must be equal numbers of protons and electrons The other particle is called a neutron has no charge has a mass slightly more than a proton
  • Slide 17
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 17 Sec 4.6 The Modern Atom We know atoms are composed of three main pieces - protons, neutrons and electrons The nucleus contains protons and neutrons The nucleus is only about 10 -13 cm in diameter The electrons move outside the nucleus with an average distance of about 10 -8 cm therefore the radius of the atom is about 10 5 times larger than the radius of the nucleus
  • Slide 18
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 18 Sec 4.7 Isotopes All atoms of an element have the same number of protons The number of protons in an atom of a given element is the same as the atomic number found on the Periodic Table Atoms of an element with different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes All isotopes of an element are chemically identical undergo the exact same chemical reactions Isotopes of an element have different masses Isotopes are identified by their mass numbers mass number = protons + neutrons
  • Slide 19
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 19 11 6 C 12 6 C 13 6 C 14 6 C 11 6 C Symbol of Element Mass Number (protons + neutrons) Atomic Number (protons) Symbolic Notation
  • Slide 20
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 20 Average mass (reported on the periodic table) is calculated from the isotopes of an element weighted by their relative abundances. Amu (mass of isotope) X abundance (decimal form) The element copper has naturally occuring isotopes with mass numbers of 63 and 65. Cu-63 (mass 62.93 amu) is naturally found 69.2% and Cu- 65 (mass 64.93 amu) is found 30.8%. Calculate the average atomic mass of copper. Cu-6362.93 amu X.692 = 43.54756 Cu-6564.93 amu X.308 = 19.99844 63.546
  • Slide 21
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 21 Elements Arranged in a pattern called the Periodic Table Position on the table allows us to predict properties of the element Metals about 75% of all the elements lustrous, malleable, ductile, conduct heat and electricity Nonmetals dull, brittle, insulators Metalloids also know as semi-metals some properties of both metals & nonmetals
  • Slide 22
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 22 4.8 The Modern Periodic Table Elements with similar chemical and physical properties are in the same column Columns are called Groups or Families Rows are called Periods Each period shows the pattern of properties repeated in the next period
  • Slide 23
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 23 The Modern Periodic Table Main Group = Representative Elements A columns Transition Elements all metals Bottom rows = Inner Transition Elements = Rare Earth Elements metals really belong in Period 6 & 7
  • Slide 24
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 24
  • Slide 25
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 25 4.9 Natural States of the Elements States of elements are usually color- coded on tables. Metals exist as solids at room temperature except Mercury. Nonmetals can exist as solids, liquids or gases at room temperatures. Diatomic elements- molecules made up of two atoms there are 7 diatomic elements (molecules) that can never be found in nature uncombined. 7 diatomic elements Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine You need to learn these!!! (HON & the Halogens)
  • Slide 26
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 26 4.10 Ions ions that have a positive charge are called cations form when an atom loses electrons ions that have a negative charge are called anions form when an atom gains electrons ions with opposite charges attract therefore cations and anions attract each other moving ions conduct electricity compound must have no total charge, therefore we must balance the numbers of cations and anions in a compound to get 0 total charge
  • Slide 27
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 27 Atomic Structures of Ions Metals form cations For each positive charge the ion has 1 less electron than the neutral atom Na = 11 e -, Na + = 10 e - Ca = 20 e -, Ca +2 = 18 e - Cations are named the same as the metal sodiumNa Na + + 1e - sodium ion calciumCa Ca +2 + 2e - calcium ion The charge on a cation can be determined from the Group number on the Periodic Table for Groups IA, IIA, IIIA Group 1A +1, Group 2A +2, (Al, Ga, In) +3
  • Slide 28
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 28 Nonmetals form anions For each negative charge the ion has 1 more electron than the neutral atom F = 9 e -, F - = 10 e - P = 15 e -, P 3- = 18 e - Anions are named by changing the ending of the name to -ide fluorineF + 1e - F - fluoride ion oxygenO + 2e - O 2- oxide ion The charge on an anion can be determined from the Group number on the Periodic Table Group 7A -1, Group 6A -2
  • Slide 29
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 29 4.11 Electrical Nature of Matter Most common pure substances are very poor conductors of electricity with the exception of metals and graphite Water is a very poor electrical conductor Some substances dissolve in water to form a solution that conducts well - these are called electrolytes When dissolved in water, electrolyte compounds break up into component ions ions are atoms or groups of atoms that have an electrical charge
  • Slide 30
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 30 4.11 Electrolytes & Ions Substances that dissociate into ions when dissolved in water.
  • Slide 31
  • Copyright2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 31 Electrolytes Strong (100% ions) WeakNon (0% ions) Aqueous IonicTap WaterCovalent, Solid Ionic Strong AcidsWeak AcidsPure Water Strong BasesWeak Bases

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