Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 Section 10.5 CARBON & SILICON: NETWORK ATOMIC SOLIDS NETWORK SOLIDS: SOLIDS CONTAINING.

Download Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 Section 10.5 CARBON & SILICON: NETWORK ATOMIC SOLIDS NETWORK SOLIDS: SOLIDS CONTAINING.

Post on 29-Dec-2015

213 views

Category:

Documents

1 download

TRANSCRIPT

<ul><li><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. *Section 10.5 CARBON &amp; SILICON:NETWORK ATOMIC SOLIDSNETWORK SOLIDS:SOLIDS CONTAINING STRONG DIRECTIONAL COVALENT BONDS TO FORM A SOLID THAT MIGHT BE BEST VIEWED AS A GIANT MOLECULE</p><p>EXAMPLE:DIAMOND AND GRAPHITE</p><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. *Figure 10.22The Structures of Diamond and Graphite </p><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. *DIAMONDHARDEST NATURALLY OCCURING SUBSTANCE</p><p>ELECTRICAL INSULATOR</p><p>C ATOM COVALENTLY BONDED BY OVERLAP OF sp3 HYBRID ORBITALS</p><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. *Figure 10.22The Structures of Diamond and Graphite </p><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. *GRAPHITESLIPPERYBLACKELECTRICAL CONDUCTORLAYERS OF C ATOMS STRONGLY BONDED TO 3 OTHERS THROUGH sp2 HYBRID ORBITALWEAK BONDING BETWEEN LAYERS BY UNHYBRIDIZED 2p ORBITALS TO FORM DELOCALIZED BOND ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY</p><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. *Figure 10.24The p OrbitalsSee also Figure 10.25.</p><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. *SILICONIMPORTANT CONSTITUENT OF COMPOUNDS THAT MAKE UP EARTHS CRUST</p><p>SILICAFUNDAMENTAL COMPOUNDA SILICON OXYGEN COMPOUNDEMPIRICAL FORMULA: SiO2 BUT ACTUALLY NETWORK OF SiO4 TETRAHEDRA</p><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. *Figure 10.26The Structure of Quartz</p><p>Si at the center of tetrahedral arrangement with 4 oxygen atoms. </p><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. *SILICATESSIMILAR SiO4 TETRAHEDRA AS SILICA HOWEVER O/Si RATIO &gt; 2:1</p><p>CONTAINS SILICON-OXYGEN ANIONS</p><p>ALSO CONTAIN CATIONS TO BALANCE NEGATIVE CHARGE</p><p>SILICATES ARE SALTS</p><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. *Figure 10.27Silicate Anions </p><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. *Figure 10.28Two Dimensional Representations of (a) a Quartz Crystal and (b) a Quartz Glass Glass is an amorphousSolid - melt silica then cool rapidly.</p><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. *GlassSubstances are added to common glass to alter its properties.</p><p>See Table 10.5.</p><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. *CERAMICSMADE FROM CLAYS (CONTAIN SILICATES)</p><p>HARDENED BY FIRING AT HIGH TEMP.</p><p>EXCELLENT STABILITY AT HIGH TEMP.</p><p>RESISTANT TO CORRISION</p><p>HOWEVER BRITTLE</p><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. *SemiconductorsElemental Silicon has same structure as diamond. (Both in Group 4A)</p><p>Diamond is insulator due to large energy gap between filled &amp; unfilled Molecular Orbitals.</p><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. *Figure 10.23Partial Representation of the Molecular Orbital Energies in A) Diamond and B) a Typical Metal </p><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. *SEMICONDUCTORSELEMENTAL SILICON HAS SMALLERGAP BETWEEN FILLED AND UNFILLEDMOLECULAR ORBITALSAT ROOM TEMP, A FEW e1- CANCROSS THE GAP PROVIDINGSEMICONDUCTIVITYAS TEMP , MORE e1- AREEXCITED AND CONDUCTIVITY </p><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. *DOPINGCONDUCTIVITY OF SILICON ENHANCEBY DOPING Si CRYSTALS WITHOTHER ELEMENTSTWO TYPES:1) n-TYPE SEMICONDUCTORS2) p-TYPE SEMICONDUCTORS</p><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. *n- TYPE SEMICONDUCTORREPLACE SMALL FRACTION OF SiWITH ATOMS LIKE ARSENIC (As)EACH HAVING ONE MORE Ve1- THAN SiEXTRA e1- s AVAILABLE FORCONDUCTION</p><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. *p- TYPE SEMICONDUCTORSi DOPED WITH ATOMS HAVING FEWER Ve1- s</p><p>CREATES HOLESELECTRON MOVES TO FILL THE HOLE,CREATING NEW HOLE</p><p>PROCESS IS REPEATED</p><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. *Figure 10.29Silicon Crystal Doped with (a) Arsenic and (b) Boron N-typeP-type</p><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. *Figure 10.30Energy Level Diagrams for (a) an n-Type Semiconductor and (b) a p-Type Semiconductor </p><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. *p-n JUNCTIONCONNECTION OF p-TYPE AND n-TYPEMOST IMPORTANT APPLICATIONOF SEMICONDUCTORS</p><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. *Figure 10.31The p-n Junction </p><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. *RECTIFIERDEVICE THAT PRODUCES A PULSATING DIRECT CURRENT (i.e., FLOWS IN ONLY ONE DIRECTION)</p><p>FROM ALTERNATING CURRENT (i.e.,FLOWS IN BOTH DIRECTIONS ALTERNATELY.</p><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li><li><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. *REVOLUTIONIZED ELECTRONICS!!p-n JUNCTION TRANSMITS CURRENT ONLY UNDER FORWARD BIAS</p><p>CONVERTS ALTERNATING CURRENT TO DIRECT CURRENT</p><p>Copyright2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. </p></li></ul>

Recommended

View more >