Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-1 Chapter 13 Motivating Job Performance.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-1 Chapter 13 Motivating Job Performance </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-2 Chapter Outline Motivation Theories u Maslows Needs Hierarchy Theory u Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory u Expectancy Theory u Goal-Setting Theory </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-3 Chapter Outline (continued) Motivation Through Job Design u Strategy One: Fitting People to Jobs u Strategy Two: Fitting Jobs to People </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-4 Chapter Outline (continued) Motivation Through Rewards u Extrinsic Versus Intrinsic Rewards u Employee Compensation u Improving Performance with Extrinsic Rewards </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-5 Chapter Outline (continued) Motivation Through Employee Participation u Quality Control Circles u Self-Managed Teams u Keys to Successful Employee Participation Programs </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-6 Chapter Outline (continued) Other Motivation Techniques for a Diverse Workforce u Flexible Work Schedules u Family Support Services u Wellness Programs u Sabbaticals </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-7 EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION Motivation: the psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction. </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-8 EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION (continued) Factors to Consider In the Motivation- Job Performance Linkage u Individual motivational factors (Needs, satisfaction, expectations, goals) u Individual ability to get the job done </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-9 EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION (continued) u Situational factors u Challenging and interesting work u Opportunity for participation and self- management u Desired rewards </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-10 EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION (continued) For Discussion: Which of these factors has overriding importance in your worklife? Why? </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-11 MASLOWS NEEDS HIERARCHY THEORY Maslows message was simply this: people always have needs, and when one need is relatively fulfilled, others emerge in a predictable sequence to take its place. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-12 MASLOWS NEEDS HIERARCHY THEORY (continued) Highest level u Self-actualization needs (being everything one is capable of becoming) u Esteem needs (Self-respect; self-confidence) u Love needs (Social acceptance and affection) u Safety needs (Protection from the elements) u Physiological needs (Life-sustaining needs) Lowest level </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-13 MASLOWS NEEDS HIERARCHY THEORY (continued) For Discussion: Which level of needs primarily drives you at this point in your life? Explain. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-14 HERZBERGS TWO-FACTOR THEORY OF MOTIVATION (Satisfaction = Motivation) The elimination of dissatisfaction is not the same as truly motivating an employee. To satisfy and motivate employees, an additional element is required: meaningful, interesting, and challenging work. </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-15 HERZBERGS TWO-FACTOR THEORY OF MOTIVATION (Satisfaction = Motivation) (continued) Dissatisfiers come from the job context or situation Satisfiers come from job content or the work itself u Achievement u Recognition u Work itself u Responsibility u Advancement u Growth </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-16 For Discussion: 1.Describe the worst job you ever had. What roles did Herzbergs dissatisfiers and satisfiers play? 2.Describe the best job you ever had. What roles did Herzbergs dissatisfiers and satisfiers play? HERZBERGS TWO-FACTOR THEORY OF MOTIVATION (Satisfaction = Motivation) (continued) </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-17 EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION Expectancy theory: assumes motivational strength is determined by perceived probabilities of success. Expectancy: ones belief or expectation that one thing will lead to another. </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-18 EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION (continued) Three Key Perceptions in Expectancy Theory 1. Perceived effort-performance probability 2. Perceived value of rewards. 3. Perceived performance-reward probability </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-19 EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION (continued) Effort performance reward expectations determine whether motivation will be high or low. Employees tend to work harder when they believe they have a good chance of getting personally meaningful rewards. </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-20 EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION (continued) For Discussion: How well does expectancy theory explain how hard you work at school and/or your job? </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-21 GOAL-SETTING THEORY Goal setting: process of improving individual or group job performance with formally stated objectives, deadlines, or quality standards. </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-22 GOAL-SETTING THEORY (continued) How Goals Improve Performance 1. Goals need to be: u Specific u Difficult u Participatively set 2. Goals motivate by: u Directing attention u Encouraging effort u Encouraging persistence u Fostering goal-attainment strategies and action plans </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-23 GOAL-SETTING THEORY (continued) For Discussion: 1.Goal-setting researchers say it is a mistake to tell someone to just do your best. How do you interpret this advise in light of the model in Figure 13.4? 2.How do you use goals to improve your performance at school, at work, in sports, or elsewhere? </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-24 JOB DESIGN Job design: creating task responsibilities based upon strategy, technology, and structure. </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-25 JOB DESIGN (continued) Strategy One: Fitting People to Jobs u Realistic job previews u Job rotation u Limited exposure Contingent time off: rewarding people with early time off when they get the job done. </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-26 JOB DESIGN (continued) Strategy Two: Fitting Jobs to People u Job enlargement: combining two or more specialized tasks to increase motivation. (Also called horizontal job loading.) u Job enrichment: redesigning jobs to increase their motivating potential. (Also called vertical job loading.) </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-27 JOB DESIGN (continued) For Discussion: Describe your present (or past) job and explain how it could be horizontally or vertically loaded. </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-28 JOB ENRICHMENT Figure 13.5 Core Job Characteristics u Skill variety u Task identity u Task significance u Autonomy u Feedback from job </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-29 JOB ENRICHMENT Figure 13.5 (continued) Critical Psychological States u Feeling that work is meaningful u Feeling of responsibility for outcomes of the work u Knowledge of the actual results of the work </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-30 JOB ENRICHMENT (continued) Team Exercise: Brainstorm the perfect job a person could have and describe it in terms of the core job characteristics and critical psychological states. (Note: You can build upon a job you have heard about or create an entirely new job.) </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-31 MOTIVATION THROUGH REWARDS Rewards: the material and psychological payoffs for working. Extrinsic rewards: payoffs granted to the individual by other people (e.g., money, benefits, recognition, praise). Intrinsic rewards: self-granted and internally experienced payoffs (e.g., a sense of accomplishment). </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-32 MOTIVATION THROUGH REWARDS (continued) Team Competition: Brainstorm a list of as many workplace extrinsic rewards as possible in ten minutes. </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-33 MOTIVATION THROUGH REWARDS (continued) For Discussion: Describe a situation in which you got an intrinsic reward from working. What can managers do to foster situations like that? </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-34 EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION PLANS Table 13.2 Nonincentive u Hourly Wage u Annual salary Incentive u Piece rate u Sales commission u Merit pay u Profit sharing u Gain sharing u Pay-for-knowledge u Stock options </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-35 EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION PLANS Table 13.2 (continued) Other u Cafeteria compensation (Life-cycle benefits) </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-36 EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION PLANS (continued) For Discussion: 1.From a managerial standpoint, which type of pay plan is best? Why? 2.Which pay plan would you prefer? Why? </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-37 IMPROVING PERFORMANCE WITH EXTRINSIC REWARDS 1.Rewards must satisfy individual needs 2.Employees must believe effort will lead to reward 3.Rewards must be equitable 4.Rewards must be linked to performance </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-38 IMPROVING PERFORMANCE WITH EXTRINSIC REWARDS (continued) For Discussion: 1.How do these guidelines help address the commonly-heard complaint that money doesnt motivate? 2.What kinds of reward inequity have you experienced on the job? How did it affect your motivation? </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-39 PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT Participative management: the process of empowering employees to assume greater control of the workplace. Quality control circles: voluntary problem- solving groups committed to improving quality and reducing costs. Self-managed teams: high-performance teams that assume traditional managerial duties such as staffing and planning. </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-40 PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT (continued) Keys to Successful Employee Participation Programs 1.A profit-sharing or gain-sharing plan. 2.A long-term employment relationship withgood job security. 3.A concerted effort to build and maintain group cohesiveness. 4.Protection of the individual employees rights. </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13-41 PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT (continued) For Discussion: Are these four factors a package deal, meaning could one or two missing factors ruin a participative management program? </li> </ul>

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