Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11–1 Chapter Eleven Gender and Sexuality.

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul> <p>Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 111 Chapter Eleven Gender and Sexuality Slide 2 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 112 Did You Know That Some people feel trapped in the body of the opposite gender by a mistake of nature? The gender gap in math skills that traditionally favored boys has narrowed considerably in recent years? Women leaders tend to be more democratic in their leadership style than their male counterparts? Slide 3 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 113 Did You Know That (cont.) Only women have a sex organ whose sole known function is to produce sexual pleasure? The male sex hormone testosterone energizes sexual drives in women as well as men? College women are much more likely to be raped by someone they know than by a stranger? Slide 4 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 114 Module 11.1 Gender Identity and Gender Roles Slide 5 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 115 Module 11.1 Preview Questions What accounts for gender identity? What are the major theories of gender-role behavior? What gender differences exist in cognitive abilities, personality, and leadership style? Slide 6 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 116 Sex and Gender Sex: Biological division between males and females. Determined by chromosomal pattern. Gender: Psychosocial concept that distinguishes masculinity from femininity. Gender Roles: Culturally expected behaviors for men and women. Gender Identity: The psychological experience of being a male or female. Slide 7 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 117 Gender Identity Usually established by age three Unclear what determines gender identity. Biological influences Rearing influences Transexualism: Mismatch between ones gender identity and ones chromosomal and anatomic sex. Slide 8 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 118 Slide 9 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 119 Transsexuals May undergo gender reassignment surgery. Cause is debated. Sex hormones? Genes? Environmental factors? Slide 10 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1110 How Are Gender Roles Acquired? Social-Cognitive Theory: Roles are learned through observation and reinforcement. Gender-Schema Theory: Children form mental representations of masculinity and femininity. Evolutionary Theory: Genetic predispositions may shape gender-typed behavior. Sociocultural Theory: Roles are cultural adaptations. Slide 11 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1111 Figure 11.1: Gender-Role Identification Slide 12 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1112 Gender Differences in Cognitive Abilities Overall, no differences in general intelligence, ability to learn, or problem solving ability. Boys more likely to have problems in reading. E.g., dyslexia Differences on average: Girls better in verbal, language skills Boys better in math, visual-spatial skills Slide 13 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1113 Figure 11.2: Gender Differences in Abilities Slide 14 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1114 Other Gender Differences Personality differences Variations in leadership styles Slide 15 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1115 Slide 16 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1116 Module 11.2 Sexual Response and Behavior Slide 17 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1117 Module 11.2 Preview Questions What are the phases of the sexual response cycle? What are the origins of sexual orientation? How do attitudes toward homosexuality vary across cultures? What are paraphilias? How can we protect ourselves from sexually transmitted diseases? Slide 18 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1118 Figure 11.3: Frequency of Marital Sexual Relations During the Past Year Slide 19 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1119 Figure 11.4: The Sexual Response Cycle Slide 20 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1120 Sexual Orientation The direction of ones erotic attraction and romantic interests. Heterosexual Homosexual Bisexual Kinsey argued that orientation is best represented as a continuum. Slide 21 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1121 Origins of Sexual Orientation Freud: Heterosexuality develops from normal identification with the same-sex parent. Homosexuality develops from overidentification with the opposite-sex parent. Genetic contributions Hormonal influence? Slide 22 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1122 Slide 23 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1123 Culture and Attitudes Toward Homosexuality Attitudes vary widely across cultures Ranges from condemnation to acceptance Homophobia: Persistent, irrational fear of gay males or lesbians. Slide 24 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1124 Paraphilias Psychological disorder involving atypical or deviant patterns of sexual attraction. Examples Fetishism Transvestism Voyeurism Exhibitionism Pedophilia Sexual masochism Slide 25 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1125 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Examples HIV/AIDS Genital herpes (HSV-2) HPVs Chlamydia Syphilis Gonorrhea 15 million new cases of STDs per year in the U.S. Slide 26 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1126 Avoiding STDs Be careful in choice of sex partners. Avoid multiple partners, especially partners who themselves have multiple partners. Communicate your concerns. Avoid engaging in sexual contact with anyone with a sore or blister around the genitals. Avoid unprotected sexual contact. Slide 27 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1127 Avoiding STDs Obtain a medical evaluation if you suspect you may have been exposed to a STD. Get regular medical checkups to detect and treat disorders you may not be aware you have. When in doubt, abstain. Slide 28 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1128 Module 11.3 Sexual Dysfunctions Slide 29 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1129 Module 11.3 Preview Questions What are sexual dysfunctions? What are the causes of sexual dysfunctions? What are the general aims of sex therapy? Slide 30 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1130 Slide 31 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1131 Types of Sexual Dysfunctions Sexual Desire Disorders Hypoactive sexual disorder Sexual aversion disorder Sexual Arousal Disorders Male erectile disorder Female sexual arousal disorder Orgasmic Disorders Female/Male orgasmic disorder Premature ejaculation Slide 32 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1132 Causes of Sexual Dysfunctions Biological causes Neurological and circulatory conditions Medications, hormones Psychosocial causes Influences from childhood Relationship problems Performance anxiety Slide 33 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1133 Sex Therapy Relatively brief, problem-focused therapeutic techniques for treating sexual dysfunctions Various techniques Removal of pressures to perform Sensate-focus exercises Directed masturbation Stop-start method for PE Biological therapies Slide 34 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1134 Module 11.4 Application: Combating Rape and Sexual Harassment Slide 35 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1135 Module 11.4 Preview Questions What steps can we take individually and as a society to combat rape and sexual harassment? Slide 36 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1136 Rape and Sexual Harassment Rape: The use or threat of force to compel a person into having sexual intercourse. Statutory Rape: Sexual intercourse with a person under the legal age of consent, even if person is a willing partner. Sexual Harassment: Any act involving unwelcome sexual comments, jokes, overtures, demands for sexual favors, or outright sexual contact. Slide 37 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1137 Slide 38 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1138 How Common is Rape? Estimates that 150,000 women raped each year in U.S. 67,000 suffer attempted rapes. 15-20% of college women surveyed reported had been raped. 10-20% of H.S. girls reported had been physically or sexually assaulted by dating partner. 1 in 10 rape survivors are males. Slide 39 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1139 How Common Is Sexual Harassment? Fewer than 1 in 20 women how experience sexual harassment file formal complaints. About 50% of women believe have been sexually harassed in school or on the job. 80% of surveyed teenage boys and girls reported being sexually harassed by peers. Slide 40 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1140 Figure 11.5: Relationships Between Rapists and Their Victims Slide 41 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1141 Acquaintance Rape Most rapes not committed by strangers. 10-20% of women report acquaintance rape. Myths about rape: No means yes Woman has a secret desire to be raped or overpowered. Those accompanying men home or who frequent singles bars or attend parties are just asking for it. Slide 42 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1142 Motives Rape Power Anger Revenge Intentional cruelty Sexual harassment Domination and control Social control Lack of awareness Slide 43 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1143 Socialization and Rapists About 1 in 13 college men reported committing or attempted rape. Stereotypical messages promoting rape. Domination and power in play, sports Masculinity = sexual assertiveness Dating seen as a chance to score, not an opportunity to get to know partner. Role of alcohol. Slide 44 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1144 Preventing Rape: Societal Level Educational programs for young men Rape-prevention workshops Public policy Clear messages Awareness of link between alcohol and rape Slide 45 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1145 Preventing Rape: What Can You Do? At home and away Secure locks No first name in phone book, in mail box Good lighting Avoid walking alone at night Check credentials of service people Lock car doors, windows up Carry a loud alarm Have keys handy Slide 46 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1146 Preventing Rape: What Can You Do? Dating Meet dates in public place Remain sober on dates Establish clear limits in dating Be firm when refusing sex Trust your feelings Slide 47 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1147 Resisting Sexual Harassment: What Can You Do? Adopt a professional attitude. Avoid meeting with the harasser behind close doors. Keep a journal. Put the harasser on notice. Speak to supervisor or person response for handling sexual harassment complaints. Consider legal actions. </p>

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