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  • Slide 1
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 CHAPTER NINE Methods and Tools of Research This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
  • Slide 2
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Scales Nominal (gender, race) Ordinal (rank) Interval (Exams, scores, Likert type) Ratio (Age, height, number of)
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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Important Elements Validity Reliability Economy Interest (motivating, interesting)
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  • Reliability Refers to the extent to which assessments are consistent. If you weigh five pounds of potatoes in the morning, and the scale is reliable, the same scale should register five pounds for the potatoes an hour later
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  • Types of reliability Test-retest Parallel or equivalent forms Internal consistency Split halves Kuder Richardson ( is a measure of internal consistency reliability for measures with dichotomous choices) Cronbachs alpha ( Cronbach's alpha is used for non-dichotomous or continuous measures) Inter-scorer or inter-rater reliability Standard error of measurement
  • Slide 6
  • Difference between Validity & Reliability If a test is reliable it is accurate but we dont know it measures what we want to measure. If a test is valid we know it measures what we want it to measure. Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 7
  • So Even if a test is reliable, it may not be valid If a test is not reliable it cannot be valid If a test is valid, it is almost always reliable.
  • Slide 8
  • Types of Validity
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  • Types of tests and inventories Achievement tests Aptitude tests Interest inventories Personality inventories Projectile Devices Association Completion Role-playing Creative or constructive Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 10
  • Achievement tests Most tests used in schools Used in placing, advancing, and retaining students Diagnostics Standardized tests (compare schools & districts) IGAP, CAT Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 11
  • Aptitude tests To predict future achievement in a particular field We cannot measure capacity or aptitude but we can measure performance in unplanned learning Example, music aptitude test, reading readiness, Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 12
  • IQ tests Aptitude tests are limited to a particular field like music, math,...etc IQ is general ability to learn fast and to learn mentally difficult tasks Stanford-Binet, WAIS, WPPSI, WISC_R Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 13
  • Interest inventories Kuder Preference Record Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory (type of jobs interested) Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
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  • Personality inventories Self-report Problem ? Individuals inability or unwillingness to report their own reactions or their own attitudes = Low validity Implicit Measures Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
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  • Projective Devices Association Tests The respondent is asked to indicate what he/she thinks when presented with a picture, cartoon, ink blot, word, or phrase. Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
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  • Thematic Apperception Test Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
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  • Rorschach Ink Bolt Test Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 18
  • Projective Devices Association Tests The respondent is asked to indicate what he/she thinks when presented with a picture, cartoon, ink blot, word, or phrase. Thematic Apperception Test Rorschach Ink Bolt Test Rorschach Ink Bolt Test Completion (I get very angry when.) Role-Playing (act like your mom) Creative or Constructive (draw or paint, play with toys, write something) Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 19
  • Observation Checklist (the presence or absence of a behavior) Rating Scale (5-7 categories Excellent, good, average) Scorecard (overall score for a school, a textbook, a department) Scaled specimen (handwriting scale, Goodenough-Harris drawing test) Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 20
  • Attitude assessment (opinionnaire) Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 21
  • Attitude assessment (opinionnaire) Thurstone technique of scaled values (judges rate items in their strength of opinion) Likert Method Osgood semantic differential (two adjectives) Guttman Scaling Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 22
  • Thurstone technique people get AIDS by engaging in immoral behavior you can get AIDS from toilet seats AIDS is the wrath of God anybody with AIDS is either gay or a junkie AIDS is an epidemic that affects us all people with AIDS are bad people with AIDS are real people AIDS is a cure, not a disease you can get AIDS from heterosexual sex people with AIDS are like my parents you can get AIDS from public toilets women dont get AIDS I treat everyone the same, regardless of whether or not they have AIDS AIDS costs the public too much AIDS is something the other guy gets living with AIDS is impossible Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 23
  • Thurstone technique Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 You should select statements that are at equal intervals across the range of medians. attitudes).
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  • Likert Method
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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Osgood semantic differential
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  • Guttman Scaling Cumulative scaling or scalogram analysis Gives us a set of items or statements so that a respondent who agrees with any specific question in the list will also agree with all previous questions (1) "I am willing to be near ice cream"; (2) "I am willing to smell ice cream"; (3) "I am willing to eat ice cream"; and (4) "I love to eat ice cream". Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 27
  • Guttman Scaling Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 28
  • Q methodology Q- sort A large number of items (opinions) are sorted into different (9-11) categories (piles) Most important least important Most approveleast approve Most liberalleast liberal Most favorableleast favorable Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 29
  • Social Scaling (stereotypes) Sociometry Sociogram Guess-Who technique Social distance scale Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 30
  • Sociometry subjects are asked to name in order of preference the persons that they would invite to A party Eat lunch with Sit next to Work on a class project Have as BFF Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 31
  • Sociogram
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  • Guess-Who technique Hartshorne & May Descriptions of various roles played by children in a group This one is always happy This one is always picking on others This one is always worried This one never likes to do anything This one will always help you
  • Slide 33
  • Bogardus Social distance scale The scale asks people the extent to which they would be accepting of each group (a score of 1.00 for a group is taken to indicate no social distance): As close relatives by marriage (score 1.00) As my close personal friends (2.00) As neighbors on the same street (3.00) As co-workers in the same occupation (4.00) As citizens in my country (5.00) As only visitors in my country (6.00) Would exclude from my country (7.00) Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 34
  • Similar to Guttmans scale Measure to what degree an individual or group of individuals is accepted or rejected by another individual or group. Complete acceptanceId like to have this student as my BF Partial acceptanceI wouldnt mind sitting near this student Rejection I wish this student werent in our class Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 35
  • The Questionnaire Inquiry Forms: Open Form Closed Form
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  • Open form Calls for free response in the persons own words In-depth but return rate is low Mostly used in qualitative research Why did you choose to do your graduate work at this university? Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
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  • Closed Form Teacher Morale Questionnaire
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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Closed Form
  • Slide 39
  • Improving Questionnaire Items Clarify your items ( no raising hands ) The same words mean different things to different people. Were you there last night? Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 40
  • Improving Questionnaire Items Define or qualify terms (what is the value of your house?) Age (age at the last birthday, or date of birth) What work are you doing now? (filling out your foolish questionnaire) One respondents occasionally maybe anothers rarely Double negative- Are you opposed to not requiring students to take showers after gym class? = Are you in favor of requiring students to take showers after gym class? Inadequate alternatives (Married? Yes No) Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 41
  • What is wrong with this question? How late at night do you permit your children to watch television? Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 42
  • What is wrong with this question? "do you think that students should have more classes about history and culture?" Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 43
  • Underline Keyword Should all schools offer a modern foreign language? Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 44
  • What is wrong with this question? How would you rate this student teachers classroom demeanor? Superior Average Below average Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 45
  • What is wrong with this question? Are you satisfied with the salary raise that you received last year? Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 46
  • Design questions that will give a complete response. Do you read the Indianapolis Star? Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 47
  • What is wrong with this question? What are your favorite television programs? Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008 Academic senate 1 st choice 5 points 2 nd choice 4 points
  • Slide 48
  • Classify the responses yourself rather than having the respondent creating their own categories. Unskilled labor Skilled labor Clerical work Professional Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008
  • Slide 49
  • Characteristics of a good Questionnaire Significant topic to warrant responding Seeks info not available elsewhere As short as possible Attractive in appearance Directions clear Objective- No leading suggestions Psychological order More general to specifics and personal Tabulate an interpret possible answers with code sheet Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2008

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