Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Chapter 3 Students, the Law and Public Schools This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 Chapter 3 Students, the Law and Public Schools This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 School officials are granted broad powers to establish rules and regulations governing student conduct in the school setting. School officials are granted broad powers to establish rules and regulations governing student conduct in the school setting. These powers, however, are not absolute. These powers, however, are not absolute. </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 They are subject to the standard of reasonableness. They are subject to the standard of reasonableness. Generally, rules are deemed to be reasonable if they are necessary to maintain an orderly and peaceful school environment and advance the educational process. Generally, rules are deemed to be reasonable if they are necessary to maintain an orderly and peaceful school environment and advance the educational process. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 Since students enjoy many of the same constitutional rights as adults, courts have been very diligent in ensuring that their constitutional rights be protected. Since students enjoy many of the same constitutional rights as adults, courts have been very diligent in ensuring that their constitutional rights be protected. </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 In the landmark Tinker case, the U.S. Supreme Court for the first time held that students possess the same constitutional rights as adults and that these rights do not end at the school house door. In the landmark Tinker case, the U.S. Supreme Court for the first time held that students possess the same constitutional rights as adults and that these rights do not end at the school house door. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 Protests and Demonstrations Protests and demonstrations are considered forms of free expression. Protests and demonstrations are considered forms of free expression. Thus, students are afforded the right to participate in these activities. Thus, students are afforded the right to participate in these activities. As long as these activities are peaceful, and do not violate school rules or result in destruction of school property, they cannot be disallowed. As long as these activities are peaceful, and do not violate school rules or result in destruction of school property, they cannot be disallowed. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 School-Sponsored Newspapers Courts generally hold that a school publication has the responsibility for providing a forum for students to express their ideas and views on a variety of topics of interest to the school community. Courts generally hold that a school publication has the responsibility for providing a forum for students to express their ideas and views on a variety of topics of interest to the school community. </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 While the newspaper is intended to represent a forum for student expression, those responsible for its production should be mindful of their obligation to embrace responsible rules of journalism. While the newspaper is intended to represent a forum for student expression, those responsible for its production should be mindful of their obligation to embrace responsible rules of journalism. </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 Broad censorship by school officials is not permitted and is in violation of the free speech rights of students. Broad censorship by school officials is not permitted and is in violation of the free speech rights of students. </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 Censorship Limited review of school sponsored publications may be permitted, but broad censorship is not. Limited review of school sponsored publications may be permitted, but broad censorship is not. </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 Non-school Sponsored Newspapers Non school sponsored newspapers are those not endorsed by the school but printed at students expense away from school premises. Non school sponsored newspapers are those not endorsed by the school but printed at students expense away from school premises. These publications may not be totally prohibited by school officials. These publications may not be totally prohibited by school officials. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 Restrictions, however, may be imposed regarding the time and place of distribution. Restrictions, however, may be imposed regarding the time and place of distribution. Such restrictions are recognized as conditions affecting freedom of press not prohibitions. Such restrictions are recognized as conditions affecting freedom of press not prohibitions. </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 Students who are responsible for producing the newspapers are held accountable for any libelous material printed in the newspaper. Students who are responsible for producing the newspapers are held accountable for any libelous material printed in the newspaper. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 Dress and Appearance Student dress as a form of free expression is not viewed as significantly as most other forms of free expression. Student dress as a form of free expression is not viewed as significantly as most other forms of free expression. There is, however, a first amendment freedom associated with it. There is, however, a first amendment freedom associated with it. </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 Dress may be regulated if there is a defensible basis for doing so. Dress may be regulated if there is a defensible basis for doing so. However, school regulations that violate students right by being vague, ambiguous and failing to demonstrate a connection to disruption will not meet court scrutiny. However, school regulations that violate students right by being vague, ambiguous and failing to demonstrate a connection to disruption will not meet court scrutiny. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 Controversial Slogans Slogans worn on T-shirts, caps and other media that are in direct conflict with the schools stated mission may be regulated. Slogans worn on T-shirts, caps and other media that are in direct conflict with the schools stated mission may be regulated. Those expressions which violate standards of common decency, contain vulgar, lewd and otherwise obscene gestures also may be regulated. Those expressions which violate standards of common decency, contain vulgar, lewd and otherwise obscene gestures also may be regulated. </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 School Suspension School suspension still is considered a legal form of discipline for students who violate school or district policy. School suspension still is considered a legal form of discipline for students who violate school or district policy. In-school suspensions used by 91% of the school districts in the United States, whereas out-of-school suspensions are used by 95% of the districts. In-school suspensions used by 91% of the school districts in the United States, whereas out-of-school suspensions are used by 95% of the districts. </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 Procedural and Substantive Due Process There are two types of due process, both of which apply in the school setting: procedural and substantive. There are two types of due process, both of which apply in the school setting: procedural and substantive. Procedural due process means that if a person is to be deprived of life, liberty or property, a prescribed constitutional procedure must be followed. Procedural due process means that if a person is to be deprived of life, liberty or property, a prescribed constitutional procedure must be followed. </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 Substantive due process ensures that a valid reason exists if a person is deprived of life, liberty or property and that the means used to deprive the person are reasonable. Substantive due process ensures that a valid reason exists if a person is deprived of life, liberty or property and that the means used to deprive the person are reasonable. </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 Expulsion Unlike suspension, expulsion is considered one of the more severe forms of discipline because it involves long-term separation from the school district and in some instances permanent separation. Unlike suspension, expulsion is considered one of the more severe forms of discipline because it involves long-term separation from the school district and in some instances permanent separation. </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 Search Searches may be conducted by school personnel if reasonable suspicion is established. Searches may be conducted by school personnel if reasonable suspicion is established. Reasonable suspicion is based on information received from students or teachers that is considered reliable by school officials. Reasonable suspicion is based on information received from students or teachers that is considered reliable by school officials. </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 Personal Searches There should be a sense of urgency based on a belief that the student has in his or her possession some dangerous item that could pose a serious threat to health and safety of the student or others in the school. There should be a sense of urgency based on a belief that the student has in his or her possession some dangerous item that could pose a serious threat to health and safety of the student or others in the school. </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 Involvement of Law Enforcement Officials When law enforcement officials enter the school to conduct a search, the search must be preceded by a warrant. When law enforcement officials enter the school to conduct a search, the search must be preceded by a warrant. If a warrant is issued, strong evidence involving probable cause should be established. If a warrant is issued, strong evidence involving probable cause should be established. </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 Metal Detectors The use of metal detectors, like other intrusive methods, must be justified as reasonable and necessary to meet a legitimate school objective. The use of metal detectors, like other intrusive methods, must be justified as reasonable and necessary to meet a legitimate school objective. In this case, maintaining a safe and orderly school environment was considered a legitimate school objective. In this case, maintaining a safe and orderly school environment was considered a legitimate school objective. </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 Corporal Punishment Corporal punishment usually involves the use of physical contact for disciplinary purposes. Corporal punishment usually involves the use of physical contact for disciplinary purposes. Corporal punishment as a disciplinary tool is not uncommon within school systems in the United States. Corporal punishment as a disciplinary tool is not uncommon within school systems in the United States. </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 Classroom Harassment Classroom harassment is a form of sexual discrimination based on the U.S. Supreme Courts ruling in Davis v. Monroe Co. Board of Education. Classroom harassment is a form of sexual discrimination based on the U.S. Supreme Courts ruling in Davis v. Monroe Co. Board of Education. School officials are liable if they are clearly unreasonable and deliberately indifferent toward the alleged harassing conduct. School officials are liable if they are clearly unreasonable and deliberately indifferent toward the alleged harassing conduct. </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 Pregnant and Married Students The courts have generally held that pregnant and married students may not be denied the opportunity to attend school. The courts have generally held that pregnant and married students may not be denied the opportunity to attend school. The basis for the courts position is that these students must be afforded equal protection under the law, as well as due process of law. The basis for the courts position is that these students must be afforded equal protection under the law, as well as due process of law. </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2008 Married Students Married students have the right to attend public schools. Married students have the right to attend public schools. Any rules designed to exclude married students from attending school are invalid and in violation of their Fourteenth Amendment rightsnamely equal protection under the law. Any rules designed to exclude married students from attending school are invalid and in violation of their Fourteenth Amendment rightsnamely equal protection under the law. </li> </ul>

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