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  • Slide 1
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 9 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
  • Slide 2
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Body Growth in Middle Childhood Slow, regular pattern Girls shorter and lighter until about age 9 Lower portion of body growing fastest Bones lengthen Muscles very flexible All permanent teeth arrive
  • Slide 3
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Common Health Problems in Middle Childhood Vision - Myopia Hearing - Otitis media (middle ear infection) Malnutrition Obesity Illnesses Injuries Vision - Myopia Hearing - Otitis media (middle ear infection) Malnutrition Obesity Illnesses Injuries
  • Slide 4
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Health Risks for Obese Children More likely to be overweight adults Lifelong Health risks High blood pressure, cholesterol Respiratory problems Diabetes Liver, gall bladder disease Sleep, digestive disorders Cancer Early death More likely to be overweight adults Lifelong Health risks High blood pressure, cholesterol Respiratory problems Diabetes Liver, gall bladder disease Sleep, digestive disorders Cancer Early death
  • Slide 5
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Causes of Obesity in Middle Childhood Overweight parents Low SES Parents feeding practices Bad eating habits Low physical activity Television Cultural food environment Overweight parents Low SES Parents feeding practices Bad eating habits Low physical activity Television Cultural food environment
  • Slide 6
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 TV Viewing and Body Fat Gains
  • Slide 7
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Psychological and Social Consequences of Obesity Feeling unattractive Stereotyping Teasing, social isolation Depression, emotional problems School problems Problem behaviors Reduced life chances Feeling unattractive Stereotyping Teasing, social isolation Depression, emotional problems School problems Problem behaviors Reduced life chances
  • Slide 8
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Illness in Middle Childhood High rates first two years of school Chronic conditions Asthma Severe chronic illnesses High rates first two years of school Chronic conditions Asthma Severe chronic illnesses
  • Slide 9
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Asthma Bronchial tubes very sensitive to stimuli Cold, infection, pollution, stress Wheezing, coughing, breathing problems Increasingly common Heredity, environment increase risk Bronchial tubes very sensitive to stimuli Cold, infection, pollution, stress Wheezing, coughing, breathing problems Increasingly common Heredity, environment increase risk
  • Slide 10
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Fatal Injuries in Middle Childhood and Adolescence
  • Slide 11
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Motor Development in Early Childhood Gross Motor Skills Improvements Flexibility Balance Agility Force Fine Motor Skills Gains Writing Drawing
  • Slide 12
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Sex Differences in Motor Development Girls better at fine motor skills Boys better at gross motor skills, sports Social environment Parental expectations Self-perceptions Coaching, media messages
  • Slide 13
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Physical Play Development in Middle Childhood Games with rules Sports Invented games Rough-and-tumble play Video games Adult-organized sports Physical education Games with rules Sports Invented games Rough-and-tumble play Video games Adult-organized sports Physical education
  • Slide 14
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Piagets Theory: Achievements of the Concrete Operational Stage Conservation Decentration, Reversibility Classification Seriation Transitive inference Spatial Reasoning Directions Maps Conservation Decentration, Reversibility Classification Seriation Transitive inference Spatial Reasoning Directions Maps
  • Slide 15
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Piagetian Class Inclusion Problem
  • Slide 16
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Development of Mapping Skills Preschool, early school age Landmarks Ages 8 - 10 Landmarks along organized route of travel End of middle childhood Overall view of large-scale space
  • Slide 17
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Limitations of Concrete Operational Thought Operations work best with concrete information Problems with abstract ideas Continuum of acquisition Master concrete operational tasks gradually, step by step Operations work best with concrete information Problems with abstract ideas Continuum of acquisition Master concrete operational tasks gradually, step by step
  • Slide 18
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Follow-up Research on Concrete Operational Thought Culture and schooling affect performance on tasks Going to school gives experience on Piagetian tasks Relevant non-school experiences of some cultures can help too Going to school gives experience on Piagetian tasks Relevant non-school experiences of some cultures can help too
  • Slide 19
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Information-Processing View of Concrete Operational Thought Neo-Piagetians: Gains in information processing speed, rather than shift to a new stage Automatic schemas free working memory Central conceptual structures Automatic schemas free working memory Central conceptual structures
  • Slide 20
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Key Information Processing Improvements Increase in information- processing speed and capacity Gains in inhibition Both may be related to brain development Increase in information- processing speed and capacity Gains in inhibition Both may be related to brain development
  • Slide 21
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Attention in Middle Childhood Attention becomes more: Selective Adaptable Planful
  • Slide 22
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Inattention Impulsivity Excessive motor activity Results in Social problems Academic problems Inattention Impulsivity Excessive motor activity Results in Social problems Academic problems
  • Slide 23
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Development of Memory Strategies Rehearsal (early grade school) Repeating information to oneself Organization (early grade school) Grouping related items together Elaboration (end of middle childhood) Creating a relationship between pieces of information not in same category Rehearsal (early grade school) Repeating information to oneself Organization (early grade school) Grouping related items together Elaboration (end of middle childhood) Creating a relationship between pieces of information not in same category
  • Slide 24
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Culture, Schooling and Memory Strategies Memory strategies useful for remembering isolated bits of information Western schooling gives little practice in using everyday cues: Spatial location Arrangements of objects Western schooling gives little practice in using everyday cues: Spatial location Arrangements of objects
  • Slide 25
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Second-Order False-Belief Task
  • Slide 26
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Promoting Cognitive Self-Regulation Point out important features of tasks Stress importance of planful learning Suggest effective learning strategies Provide for evaluation of effectiveness Emphasize monitoring of progress
  • Slide 27
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Information Processing and Academic Learning Reading Phonological awareness, info-processing speed, practice contribute to reading skills Mix whole-language & phonics Mathematics Learn facts & skills through practice, reasoning, strategies Blend drill and number sense approaches Mathematics Learn facts & skills through practice, reasoning, strategies Blend drill and number sense approaches
  • Slide 28
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Intelligence Tests Group Tests Allow testing of large groups Require little training to administer Useful for instructional planning Identify students who need individual testing Group Tests Allow testing of large groups Require little training to administer Useful for instructional planning Identify students who need individual testing Individual Tests Examiners need training & experience Provide insights about accuracy of score Identify highly intelligent children and children with learning problems
  • Slide 29
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Sternbergs Triarchic Theory of Successful Intelligence
  • Slide 30
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Gardners Multiple Intelligences Linguistic Logico-mathematical Musical Spatial Bodily-kinesthetic Naturalist Interpersonal Intrapersonal Linguistic Logico-mathematical Musical Spatial Bodily-kinesthetic Naturalist Interpersonal Intrapersonal
  • Slide 31
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Social and Emotional Intelligence Perceiving Understanding Regulating Emotions Perceiving Understanding Regulating Emotions
  • Slide 32
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Genetics and IQ Adoption studies show influence of both Ethnic differences may be more cultural than genetic Adoption studies show influence of both Ethnic differences may be more cultural than genetic May account for about half of differences Disagreement about interaction with environment May account for about half of differences Disagreement about interaction with environment
  • Slide 33
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Cultural Bias in Testing Two views: 1.Tests not biased; represent success in the common culture Two views: 1.Tests not biased; represent success in the common culture 2.Cultural factors can hurt test performance Communication styles Test content Stereotypes 2.Cultural factors can hurt test performance Communication styles Test content Stereotypes
  • Slide 34
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Communication Styles Higher SES, whites Knowledge-training questions Hierarchical task style Higher SES, whites Knowledge-training questions Hierarchical task style Lower SES, minorities Real questions No right answer Develop complex verbal skills Collaborative task style
  • Slide 35
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Effects of Stereotype Threat on Performance
  • Slide 36
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Reducing Cultural Bias in Testing Reduce high-stakes testing Combine tests with assessment of adaptive behavior Dynamic Assessment Combine tests with assessment of adaptive behavior Dynamic Assessment
  • Slide 37
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Language Development in Middle Childhood Vocabulary Increases fourfold during school years 20 new words a day Grammar Mastery of complex constructions Advanced understanding of infinitive phrases Pragmatics Adjust to people and situations Phrase requests to get what they want
  • Slide 38
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Learning Two Languages Bilingual Development Learn both languages at the same time OR learn first language, then second Sensitive period - childhood Bilingual Education Language immersion English-only programs Risk of semilingualism Bilingual Development Learn both languages at the same time OR learn first language, then second Sensitive period - childhood Bilingual Education Language immersion English-only programs Risk of semilingualism
  • Slide 39
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Characteristics of High-Quality Elementary Education Class size Physical setting Curriculum Daily activities Teacher-student interactions Evaluation of progress Relationships with families Class size Physical setting Curriculum Daily activities Teacher-student interactions Evaluation of progress Relationships with families
  • Slide 40
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Academic Achievement and Class Size
  • Slide 41
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Educational Philosophies Traditional v. Constructivist New Philosophical Directions Social-constructivist Teachers and children as partners Many types of symbolic communication Meaningful activities Zone of proximal development Reciprocal teaching Traditional v. Constructivist New Philosophical Directions Social-constructivist Teachers and children as partners Many types of symbolic communication Meaningful activities Zone of proximal development Reciprocal teaching
  • Slide 42
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Teacher-Student Interaction Good teachers: caring, helpful, stimulating Too many use repetitive drill Better achievement in stimulating classrooms Individual differences Well-behaved, high achievers get more attention More impact of attention on low SES Self-fulfilling prophecy Good teachers: caring, helpful, stimulating Too many use repetitive drill Better achievement in stimulating classrooms Individual differences Well-behaved, high achievers get more attention More impact of attention on low SES Self-fulfilling prophecy
  • Slide 43
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Grouping Practices in Elementary Schools Homogeneous ability groups Multigrade classrooms Cooperative learning Homogeneous ability groups Multigrade classrooms Cooperative learning
  • Slide 44
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Children with Learning Difficulties Difficulties include: Mild mental retardation Learning disabilities 510% of children Law requires least restrictive environment Mainstreaming Full inclusion Difficulties include: Mild mental retardation Learning disabilities 510% of children Law requires least restrictive environment Mainstreaming Full inclusion
  • Slide 45
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Creativity The ability to produce original, appropriate work
  • Slide 46
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Convergent and Divergent Thinking Convergent Single correct answer Emphasized on intelligence tests Convergent Single correct answer Emphasized on intelligence tests Divergent Generating multiple, unusual possibilities
  • Slide 47
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Educating Gifted and Talented Children Enrichment in regular classroom Pull out for special instruction Move to higher grade Multiple intelligences models Enrichment in regular classroom Pull out for special instruction Move to higher grade Multiple intelligences models Gifted - high IQ Talented - outstanding in a specific field Several education methods: Gifted - high IQ Talented - outstanding in a specific field Several education methods:
  • Slide 48
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Academic Achievement Around the World
  • Slide 49
  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007 Asian Schools versus North American Schools Asian schools show more: Cultural valuing of academic achievement Emphasis on effort High-quality education for all Time devoted to instruction Asian schools show more: Cultural valuing of academic achievement Emphasis on effort High-quality education for all Time devoted to instruction

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