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<ul><li><p>Chapter 7CognitionThis multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network;Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any imagesAny rental, lease or lending of the program. ISBN: 0-131-73180-7</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>What is Memory?</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>What is Memory?Memory Any system human, animal, or machine that encodes, stores, and retrieves information</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>-Metaphors for MemoryCognitive psychologists see human memory more as an interpretive system, such as an artist, rather than a system that takes an accurate recording, such as a video recorder</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>-Human Memory is Good at:Information on which attention is focusedInformation in which we are interestedInformation that arouses us emotionallyInformation that fits with our previous experiencesInformation that we rehearse</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Memorys Three Basic TasksEncodingStorageRetrieval</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Memorys Three Basic FunctionsEncodingStorageRetrievalInvolves modification of information to fit the preferred format of the memory systemElaboration Deliberate encoding in which you connect a new concept with existing information</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Memorys Three Basic FunctionsEncodingStorageRetrievalInvolves retention of encoded material over time</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Memorys Three Basic FunctionsEncodingStorageRetrievalInvolves the location and recovery of information from memory</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>How Do WeForm Memories?</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>The Three Stages of MemorySensory MemoryWorking MemoryLong-term Memory</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>The Three Stages of MemorySensory MemoryWorking MemoryLong-term MemoryPreserves brief sensory impressions of stimuli</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>The First Stage: Sensory MemoryOn the next slide, you will see a series of letters for one second </p><p>Try to remember as many letters as you can</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>D J BX H GC L Y</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>The First Stage: Sensory MemoryHow many can you recall?</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>D J BX H GC L Y</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>The First Stage: Sensory MemoryThe actual capacity of sensory memory can be twelve or more itemsAll but three or four items disappear before they can enter consciousnessThere is a separate sensory register for each sense </p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>The First Stage: Sensory MemoryPsychologists believe that, in this stage, memory images take the form of nerve impulses </p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>The Three Stages of MemorySensory MemoryWorking MemoryLong-term MemoryPreserves recently perceived events or experiences for less than a minute without rehearsal, also called short-term memory or STM</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>The Second Stage: Working MemoryWorking memory consists ofA central executiveA phonological loopThe sketchpad</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Encoding and Storage in Working MemoryChunking Organizing pieces of information into a smaller number of meaningful unitsMaintenance rehearsal Process in which information is repeated or reviewed to keep it from fading while in working memory</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Encoding and Storage in Working MemoryElaborative rehearsal Process in which information is actively reviewed and related to information already in LTM Acoustic encoding Conversion of information to sound patterns in working memory</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Encoding and Storage in Working MemoryLevels-of-processing theory Explanation for the fact that information that is more thoroughly connected to meaningful terms in LTM will be better remembered</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>The Three Stages of MemorySensory MemoryWorking MemoryLong-term MemoryStores material organized according to meaning, also called LTM</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>The Third Stage:Long-Term MemoryProcedural memory Division of LTM that stores memories for how things are doneDeclarative memory Division of LTM that stores explicit information (also known as fact memory)</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>The Third Stage:Long-Term MemoryEpisodic memory Subdivision of declarative memory that stores memories for personal events, or episodes Semantic memory Subdivision of declarative memory that stores general knowledge, including meanings of words and concepts</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Semantic memory</p><p>Includes memory for:language, factsgeneral knowledgeEpisodic memory</p><p>Includes memory for:events, personal experiencesIncludes memory for:motor skills, operant and classicalconditioning Long-term memoryDeclarative memoryProcedural memory</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>The Biological Basisof Long-Term MemoryEngram The physical trace of memoryAnterograde amnesia Inability to form memories for new informationRetrograde amnesia Inability to remember information previously stored in memory</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>The Biological Basisof Long-Term MemoryConsolidation The process by which short-term memories are changed to long-term memories</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>How Do WeRetrieve Memories?</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>How Do WeRetrieve Memories?Implicit memory Memory that was not deliberately learned or of which you have no conscious awarenessExplicit memory Memory that has been processed with attention and can be consciously recalled</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Retrieval CuesRetrieval cues Stimuli that are used to bring a memory to consciousness or into behavior</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Retrieval CuesPriming Technique for retrieving implicit memories by providing cues that stimulate a memory without awareness of the connection between the cue and the retrieved memory</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>PrimingIf you are presented with the following words:</p><p>assassin, octopus, avocado, mystery, sheriff, climate</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>PrimingAn hour later, you would easily be able to identify which of the following words you had previously seen:</p><p>twilight, assassin, dinosaur, mystery</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>PrimingHowever, an hour later, you would also have a much easier time filling in the blanks of some of these words than others:ch_ _ _ _ nk o _ t _ _ _ us _ og _ y _ _ __ l _ m _ te</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>PrimingWhile you did not actively try to remember octopus and climate from the first list, they were primed in the reading, which made them easier to identify in this taskchipmunkoctopus bogeymanclimate</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Retrieving Explicit MemoriesAnything stored in LTM must be filed according to its pattern or meaning</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Recall and RecognitionRecall Technique for retrieving explicit memories in which one must reproduce previously presented informationRecognition Technique for retrieving explicit memories in which one must identify present stimuli as having been previously presented</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Other Factors Affecting RetrievalEncoding specificity principle The more closely the retrieval clues match the form in which the information was encoded, the better the information will be remembered</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Other Factors Affecting RetrievalMood congruent memory A memory process that selectively retrieves memories that match ones moodTOT (tip of the tongue) phenomenon The inability to recall a word, while knowing that it is in memory</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Why Does Memory Sometimes Fail Us?</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Memorys Seven SinsTransienceAbsent-MindednessBlockingMisattributionSuggestibilityBiasPersistence</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>TransienceThe impermanence of a long-term memory; based on the idea that long-term memories gradually fade in strength over timeForgetting curve A graph plotting the amount of retention and forgetting over time for a certain batch of material </p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Ebbinghauss Forgetting CurveRecall decreases rapidly, then reaches a plateau, after which little more is forgotten</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Absent-Mindedness Forgetting caused by lapses in attention</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>BlockingForgetting that occurs when an item in memory cannot be accessed or retrievedProactive interferenceRetroactive interferenceSerial position effect</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>MisattributionMemory fault that occurs when memories are retrieved, but they are associated with the wrong time, place, or person</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>SuggestibilityProcess of memory distortion as a result of deliberate or inadvertent suggestionMisinformation effect The distortion of memory by suggestion or misinformation </p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Factors Affecting the Accuracy of Eyewitnesses:Recollections are less influenced by leading questions if possibility of memory bias is forewarnedPassage of time leads to increase in misremembering informationAge of the witness mattersConfidence in memory is not a sign of accuracy</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>BiasAn attitude, belief, emotion, or experience that distorts memoriesExpectancy bias A tendency to distort recalled events to make them fit ones expectationsSelf-consistency bias Idea that we are more consistent than we actually are </p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Persistence Memory problem in which unwanted memories cannot be put out of mind</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>The Advantages of the Seven Sins of MemoryDespite the grief they cause us, the seven sins may actually be by-products of adaptive features of memoryFor example, absent-mindedness is the by-product of the useful ability to shift our attentionMisattributions, biases, and suggestibility result from a memory system built to deal with meaning</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Improving Memory with MnemonicsMnemonics Techniques for improving memory, especially by making connections between new material and information already in long-term memoryMnemonic strategies includeMethod of lociNatural language mediators</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>How Do ChildrenAcquire Language?</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>How Children Acquire LanguageInnateness theory of language Children learn language mainly by following an inborn program for acquiring vocabulary and grammarLanguage acquisition device (LAD) Structure in the brain innately programmed with some of the fundamental rules of grammar</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>How Children Acquire LanguageEarly stages of language acquisition include the following:The babbling stageThe one-word stageThe two-word stageTelegraphic speech (short, simple sentences)The naming explosion</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>The Rules of GrammarGrammar The rules of a languageMorphemes Meaningful units of language that make up wordsOverregularization Applying a grammatical rule too widely and thereby creating incorrect forms (e.g. using hitted and feets)</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>How Children Acquire LanguageOther language skillsSocial rules of conversationAbstract words (e.g. hope, truth)</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>What Are theComponents of Thought?</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>ConceptsConcepts Mental representations of categories of items or ideas, based on experienceNatural concepts represent objects and eventsArtificial concepts are defined by rulesWe organize much of our declarative memories into concept hierarchies</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Has skinEatsBreathesHas finsCan swimHas gillsHas wingsCan flyHas feathersCan singIs yellowCant flyIs tallCan biteIs dangerousIs pinkIs edible</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Thought and the BrainEvent-related potentials Brain waves shown on an EEG in response to stimulation</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Schemas and Scripts Help you Know What to ExpectSchema A knowledge cluster or general framework that provides expectations about topics, events, objects, people, and situations in ones lifeScript A cluster of knowledge about sequences of events and actions expected to occur in particular settings</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>What Abilities Do GoodThinkers Possess?</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Problem SolvingGood problem solvers are skilled atIdentifying the problemSelecting a strategy</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Selecting a StrategyAlgorithms Problem-solving procedures or formulas that guarantee a correct outcome if correctly appliedHeuristics Cognitive strategies used as shortcuts to solve complex mental tasks; they do not guarantee a correct solution</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>HeuristicsUseful heuristics include:Working backwardSearching for analogiesBreaking a big problem into smaller problems</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Working Backwards</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Obstacles to Problem SolvingMental set Tendency to respond to a new problem in the manner used for a previous problemFunctional fixedness Inability to perceive a new use for an object associated with a different purpose</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Unscramble These Wordsnelinenscesdlenlecamslfaldlchineque raspeklstanolemdlscohsflenaorgegsta</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Unscrambled WordslinenscenelendscamelfallschildqueenpearstalksmeloncoldsshelfgroangatesThe algorithm you used to solve the first column probably kept you from seeing the multiple solutions for the words in the second column</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Obstacles to Problem SolvingOther obstacles include:Self-imposed limitationsLack of interestFatigueDrugs (legal and illegal)</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>The Nine-Dot ProblemWithout lifting your pen from the page, can you connect all nine dots with only four lines?</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Judging and Making DecisionsConfirmation BiasHindsight BiasAnchoring BiasRepresentativeness BiasAvailability Bias</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Judging and Making DecisionsIgnoring or finding fault with information that does not fit our opinions, and seeking information with which we agreeConfirmation BiasHindsight BiasAnchoring BiasRepresentativeness BiasAvailability Bias</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Judging and Making DecisionsTendency, after learning about an event, to believe that one could have predicted the event in advanceConfirmation BiasHindsight BiasAnchoring BiasRepresentativeness BiasAvailability Bias</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Judging and Making DecisionsFaulty heuristic caused by basing (anchoring) an estimate on a completely unrelated quantityConfirmation BiasHindsight BiasAnchoring BiasRepresentativeness BiasAvailability Bias</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Judging and Making DecisionsFaulty heuristic strategy based on presumption that, once a person or event is categorized, it shares all features of other members in that categoryConfirmation BiasHindsight BiasAnchoring BiasRepresentativeness BiasAvailability Bias</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Judgin...</p></li></ul>

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