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  • Chapter 7CognitionThis multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network;Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any imagesAny rental, lease or lending of the program. ISBN: 0-131-73180-7

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  • What is Memory?

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  • What is Memory?Memory Any system human, animal, or machine that encodes, stores, and retrieves information

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  • -Metaphors for MemoryCognitive psychologists see human memory more as an interpretive system, such as an artist, rather than a system that takes an accurate recording, such as a video recorder

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  • -Human Memory is Good at:Information on which attention is focusedInformation in which we are interestedInformation that arouses us emotionallyInformation that fits with our previous experiencesInformation that we rehearse

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  • Memorys Three Basic TasksEncodingStorageRetrieval

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  • Memorys Three Basic FunctionsEncodingStorageRetrievalInvolves modification of information to fit the preferred format of the memory systemElaboration Deliberate encoding in which you connect a new concept with existing information

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  • Memorys Three Basic FunctionsEncodingStorageRetrievalInvolves retention of encoded material over time

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  • Memorys Three Basic FunctionsEncodingStorageRetrievalInvolves the location and recovery of information from memory

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  • How Do WeForm Memories?

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  • The Three Stages of MemorySensory MemoryWorking MemoryLong-term Memory

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  • The Three Stages of MemorySensory MemoryWorking MemoryLong-term MemoryPreserves brief sensory impressions of stimuli

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  • The First Stage: Sensory MemoryOn the next slide, you will see a series of letters for one second

    Try to remember as many letters as you can

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  • D J BX H GC L Y

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  • The First Stage: Sensory MemoryHow many can you recall?

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  • D J BX H GC L Y

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  • The First Stage: Sensory MemoryThe actual capacity of sensory memory can be twelve or more itemsAll but three or four items disappear before they can enter consciousnessThere is a separate sensory register for each sense

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  • The First Stage: Sensory MemoryPsychologists believe that, in this stage, memory images take the form of nerve impulses

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  • The Three Stages of MemorySensory MemoryWorking MemoryLong-term MemoryPreserves recently perceived events or experiences for less than a minute without rehearsal, also called short-term memory or STM

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  • The Second Stage: Working MemoryWorking memory consists ofA central executiveA phonological loopThe sketchpad

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  • Encoding and Storage in Working MemoryChunking Organizing pieces of information into a smaller number of meaningful unitsMaintenance rehearsal Process in which information is repeated or reviewed to keep it from fading while in working memory

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  • Encoding and Storage in Working MemoryElaborative rehearsal Process in which information is actively reviewed and related to information already in LTM Acoustic encoding Conversion of information to sound patterns in working memory

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  • Encoding and Storage in Working MemoryLevels-of-processing theory Explanation for the fact that information that is more thoroughly connected to meaningful terms in LTM will be better remembered

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  • The Three Stages of MemorySensory MemoryWorking MemoryLong-term MemoryStores material organized according to meaning, also called LTM

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  • The Third Stage:Long-Term MemoryProcedural memory Division of LTM that stores memories for how things are doneDeclarative memory Division of LTM that stores explicit information (also known as fact memory)

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  • The Third Stage:Long-Term MemoryEpisodic memory Subdivision of declarative memory that stores memories for personal events, or episodes Semantic memory Subdivision of declarative memory that stores general knowledge, including meanings of words and concepts

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  • Semantic memory

    Includes memory for:language, factsgeneral knowledgeEpisodic memory

    Includes memory for:events, personal experiencesIncludes memory for:motor skills, operant and classicalconditioning Long-term memoryDeclarative memoryProcedural memory

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  • The Biological Basisof Long-Term MemoryEngram The physical trace of memoryAnterograde amnesia Inability to form memories for new informationRetrograde amnesia Inability to remember information previously stored in memory

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  • The Biological Basisof Long-Term MemoryConsolidation The process by which short-term memories are changed to long-term memories

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  • How Do WeRetrieve Memories?

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  • How Do WeRetrieve Memories?Implicit memory Memory that was not deliberately learned or of which you have no conscious awarenessExplicit memory Memory that has been processed with attention and can be consciously recalled

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  • Retrieval CuesRetrieval cues Stimuli that are used to bring a memory to consciousness or into behavior

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  • Retrieval CuesPriming Technique for retrieving implicit memories by providing cues that stimulate a memory without awareness of the connection between the cue and the retrieved memory

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  • PrimingIf you are presented with the following words:

    assassin, octopus, avocado, mystery, sheriff, climate

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  • PrimingAn hour later, you would easily be able to identify which of the following words you had previously seen:

    twilight, assassin, dinosaur, mystery

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  • PrimingHowever, an hour later, you would also have a much easier time filling in the blanks of some of these words than others:ch_ _ _ _ nk o _ t _ _ _ us _ og _ y _ _ __ l _ m _ te

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  • PrimingWhile you did not actively try to remember octopus and climate from the first list, they were primed in the reading, which made them easier to identify in this taskchipmunkoctopus bogeymanclimate

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  • Retrieving Explicit MemoriesAnything stored in LTM must be filed according to its pattern or meaning

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  • Recall and RecognitionRecall Technique for retrieving explicit memories in which one must reproduce previously presented informationRecognition Technique for retrieving explicit memories in which one must identify present stimuli as having been previously presented

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  • Other Factors Affecting RetrievalEncoding specificity principle The more closely the retrieval clues match the form in which the information was encoded, the better the information will be remembered

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  • Other Factors Affecting RetrievalMood congruent memory A memory process that selectively retrieves memories that match ones moodTOT (tip of the tongue) phenomenon The inability to recall a word, while knowing that it is in memory

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  • Why Does Memory Sometimes Fail Us?

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  • Memorys Seven SinsTransienceAbsent-MindednessBlockingMisattributionSuggestibilityBiasPersistence

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  • TransienceThe impermanence of a long-term memory; based on the idea that long-term memories gradually fade in strength over timeForgetting curve A graph plotting the amount of retention and forgetting over time for a certain batch of material

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  • Ebbinghauss Forgetting CurveRecall decreases rapidly, then reaches a plateau, after which little more is forgotten

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  • Absent-Mindedness Forgetting caused by lapses in attention

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  • BlockingForgetting that occurs when an item in memory cannot be accessed or retrievedProactive interferenceRetroactive interferenceSerial position effect

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  • MisattributionMemory fault that occurs when memories are retrieved, but they are associated with the wrong time, place, or person

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  • SuggestibilityProcess of memory distortion as a result of deliberate or inadverten

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