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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Chapter 6LearningThis multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network;Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any imagesAny rental, lease or lending of the program. ISBN: 0-131-73180-7

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007LearningLearning A process through which experience produces lasting change in behavior or mental processesThis is in contrast with instinct (species-typical behavior). Humans behavior is much more influenced by learning than instinct compared to animals.Habituation (an example of simple learning) Learning not to respond to repeated presentation of a stimulus

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Behavioral learning Forms of learning that can be described in terms of stimuli and responses (e.g. classical and operant conditioning)LearningMere exposure effect (another example of simple learning) Learned preference for stimuli to which we have been previously exposed

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007What Sort of Learning Does Classical Conditioning Explain?

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Essentials of Classical ConditioningIvan PavlovNeutral stimulus Any stimulus that produces no conditioned response prior to learningAcquisition Initial learning stage in classical conditioning; conditioned response becomes elicited by the conditioned stimulus

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Essentials of Classical ConditioningUnconditioned response (UCR)Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)Conditioned response (CR)Conditioned stimulus (CS)

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Essentials of Classical ConditioningUnconditioned response (UCR)Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)Conditioned response (CR)Conditioned stimulus (CS)The stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Essentials of Classical ConditioningUnconditioned response (UCR)Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)Conditioned response (CR)Conditioned stimulus (CS)The response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without prior learning

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Essentials of Classical ConditioningUnconditioned response (UCR)Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)Conditioned response (CR)Conditioned stimulus (CS)A previously neutral stimulus that comes to elicit the conditioned response

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Essentials of Classical ConditioningUnconditioned response (UCR)Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)Conditioned response (CR)Conditioned stimulus (CS)A response elicited by a previously neutral stimulus that has become associated with the unconditioned stimulus

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Classical ConditioningPrior to conditioningConditioningAfter conditioningNeutral stimulus(tone)(Orientation to soundbut no response)Unconditioned stimulus(food powder in mouth)Unconditioned response(salivation)Neutral stimulusCS (tone)Unconditioned stimulus(food powder)+Conditioned response(salivation)Conditioned stimulus(tone)Conditioned response(salivation)

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Classical ConditioningExtinction Weakening of a conditioned response in the absence of an unconditioned stimulusSpontaneous recovery Reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response after a time delay. Usually this reappears at a lower intensity.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Acquisition, Extinction, and Spontaneous RecoveryRest period

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Classical Conditioning:Generalization and DiscriminationStimulus generalization involves giving a conditioned response to stimuli that are similar to the CSStimulus discrimination involves responding to one stimulus but not another that is similarConfusing stimuli may cause experimental neurosisJohn Watson/Rosalie Rayner and Little Albert

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Applications of Classical ConditioningTaste-aversion learning Biological tendency in which an organism learns to avoid food with a certain taste after a single experience, if eating it is followed by illness (examples of John Garcias study and chemotherapy).

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007How Do We LearnNew Behaviors byOperant Conditioning?

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007How Do We LearnNew Behaviors byOperant Conditioning?Trial-and-error learning Learner gradually discovers the correct response by attempting many behaviors and noting which ones produce the desired consequencesLaw of effectEdward Thorndike

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Skinners Radical BehaviorismB.F. Skinner (a radical behaviorist) believed that the most powerful influences on behavior are its consequences; he called these reinforcershe developed the Skinner Box or operant chamber (a box in which an animal can press a lever for food).

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Power of ReinforcementPositive reinforcers Stimulus presented after a response that increases the probability of that response happening againNegative reinforcers Removal of an unpleasant stimulus, contingent on a particular behavior. Again this increases the probability that the behavior will occur again.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Power of ReinforcementPrimary reinforcers Reinforcers, such as food, water, and sex, that have an innate basis because of their biological value to an organism

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Power of ReinforcementSecondary reinforcers Stimuli, such as money or tokens, that acquire their reinforcing power by their learned association with primary reinforcers (also called conditioned reinforcers)

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Contingencies of ReinforcementContinuous reinforcement Reinforcement schedule in which all correct responses are reinforcedthis is best for teaching and learning new behaviorsPartial reinforcement Reinforcement schedule in which some, but not all, correct responses are reinforced (also called intermittent reinforcement)this is best to maintain behaviors already learned

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Contingencies of ReinforcementExtinction In operant conditioning, a process by which a response that has been learned is weakened by the absence or removal of reinforcement

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Schedules of Reinforcement (intermittent or partial)Ratio schedules Provide reward after a certain number of responsesInterval schedules Provide reward after a certain time intervalFixed Ratio (FR)Fixed Interval (FI)Variable Ratio (VR)Variable Interval (VI)

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Schedules of ReinforcementFixed Ratio (FR)Fixed Interval (FI)Variable Ratio (VR)Variable Interval (VI)Rewards appear after a certain set number of responsesthe rate of responding is highe.g. factory workers getting paid after every 10 cases of product that are completed

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Schedules of ReinforcementFixed Ratio (FR)Fixed Interval (FI)Variable Ratio (VR)Variable Interval (VI)Rewards appear after a certain number of responses, but that number varies from trial to trialthis keeps the number of responses highe.g. slot machine pay-offs

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Schedules of ReinforcementFixed Ratio (FR)Fixed Interval (FI)Variable Ratio (VR)Variable Interval (VI)Rewards appear after a certain fixed amount of time, regardless of number of responsesthe rate of response is lowe.g. weekly or monthly paychecks

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Schedules of ReinforcementFixed Ratio (FR)Fixed Interval (FI)Variable Ratio (VR)Variable Interval (VI)Rewards appear after a certain amount of time, but that amount varies from trial to trialthe response rate can be low or high but not as high as VRe.g. random visits from the boss who delivers praise

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Premack PrincipleDavid Premackrats learned that their running would be followed by an opportunity to drink...so this principle states that a more-preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less-preferred activity.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Problem of PunishmentPunishment An aversive stimulus which diminishes the strength of the response it followsHow does this differ from negative reinforcement?

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Punishment vs. Negative ReinforcementLoud NoisePress LeverPress LeverLoud Noise RemovedLoud Noise AppliedNegative ReinforcementPunishmentNo Noise

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Problem of PunishmentPositive punishment The application of an aversive stimulus after a responseNegative punishment (omission training) The removal of an appetitive stimulus after a response

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Four Kinds of ConsequencesSTIMULUS

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007The Use and Abuse of PunishmentPower usually disappears when threat of punishment is removedPunishmentOften triggers aggressionMay inhibit learning new and better responsesIs often applied unequallyWhen does punishment work?It should be swift, certain, limited, target the behaviorusually omission training is best

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Operant and Classical Conditioning ComparedClassical conditioning involves the association of two stimuli (UCS + CS) before the response or behavior. The learner is passive.Operant conditioning involves a reinforcing (reward) or punishing stimulus after a response or behavior. The learner is active.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007How DoesCognitive PsychologyExplain Learning?

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007How DoesCognitive PsychologyExplain Learning?Insight learning Problem solving occurs by means of a sudden reorganization of perceptions (Gestalt psychologist Wolfgang Kohler and chimpanzee experiments)Cognitive maps A mental representation of physical space (Edward Tolman)rats maneuvered blocked paths, flooding, and no reward still meant learning was taking place.

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Observational Learning: Albert Banduras Challenge to BehaviorismObservational learning (social learning) Form of cognitive learning in which new responses are acquired after watching others behavior and the consequences of their behavior (BoBo doll experiment with children watching adults)

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007Brain Mechanisms and LearningLong-term potentiation Biological process involving physical changes that strengthen the synapses in groups of nerve cells; believed to be the neural basis of learningThere may be two different circuits for learning in our brains; different perspectives of learning might be right in their own way

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  • Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2007End of Chapter 6

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