Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 12 Problems in Education This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following.

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<ul><li><p>Chapter 12Problems in EducationThis multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>What is Education?Education is the social institution responsible for transmitting knowledge, skills, and cultural values in a formally organized structure</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Functionalist Perspective on EducationEducation is functional for society when it fulfills its manifest functionsSocialization The student role, academic subjects, and the democratic process </p><p>Transmission of culture To assimilate children to the norms and values of a culture </p><p>Social controlSuch as encouraging respect and obedience</p><p>Social placement Through identifying the most qualified people</p><p>Change and innovationMeeting the needs of a multicultural society </p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Conflict Perspectives on EducationSchools perpetuate inequalities based on class, race, and gender</p><p>Students possess different levels of cultural capital Low-income children come to school with different competencies in language and culture</p><p>A hidden curriculum teaches students to be obedient and patriotic, perpetuating the status quoTracking teaches different skills </p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Symbolic Interactionist Perspective on Education Focus on the affects of labeling and classroom interaction Standardized testing and IQ tests lead to labeling Self-fulfilling prophecyChildren see themselves based on the unsubstantiated beliefs and predictions of others Herrnsteins and Murrays (1994) The Bell Curve Argued intelligence is purely genetic and some groups (Asians) are inherently smarter than others (African Americans) Labels such as learning-disabled and gifted greatly affect ones academic experience </p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Illiteracy and SolutionsFunctional illiteracy is being unable to read or write at a level necessary for everyday tasksReading a bus schedule, filling out a blank check, or computing the cost of having work done </p><p>National levelNo Child Left Behind Act of 2001</p><p>Local levelBusiness and Industry spend billions annually to educate workers</p><p>Volunteer organizations</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Figure 12.1: Percentage of Persons Not Completing High School by Race and Hispanic Origin, 1975, 1985, and 2003Source: U.S. Census Bureau</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Immigration and School ProblemsMost immigrants have limited education and few job skills</p><p>Many are children with language differences</p><p>Some schools offer bilingual educationCritics say this is a form of segregation</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Race, Class, and Gender and Educational OpportunitiesFifty years after Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954), schools are still racially segregated </p><p>Schools for minorities High teacher-student ratiosLess qualified teachersLower expectations of studentsHigh dropout rates</p><p>Latino/a students face educational obstaclesFew school-readiness programsFew Latino/a teachers as role modelsFewer than 6% of public school teachers are Latino/aHigh dropout rates</p><p>Teachers treat boys and girls differently, with females self-esteem suffering</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Figure 12.2:Education Spending and Reading Scores for Thirteen-Year-Olds, 1990-2004</p><p>Source: U.S. Department of Education, 2004, 2005</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Violence and the SchoolsViolence is a growing problem in schools.</p><p>Many schools use metal detectors and guards to screen students.</p><p>Some schools require uniforms to lessen the possibility of killing for shoes, jewelry, or designer clothes. </p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Problems in School FinancingMost educational funds come from state appropriations and local property taxesTax base in central cities is erodingMany schools are overcrowded and need major repairsOne proposed solution is a Voucher system, whereby families can buy education at their school of choiceCritics say it offers better schools to a limited number; will not solve funding problem</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Major Problems in Higher Education Soaring cost of a college educationAffirmative action Taking race, gender, and ethnicity into consideration for admissions, financial aid, scholarships, and faculty hiringMinority enrollments have dropped in many schools that have eliminated affirmative actionCritics argue that its reverse discrimination against white students US Supreme Court (2003) ruled that race can be a factor for universities in shaping admission programs</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li><li><p>Educational Problems of 21st CenturyProblemsDealing with illiteracy in adultsProviding all children with safe, high-quality education</p><p>SolutionsHolding schools and school districts accountableHome schooling or charter schools</p><p>Copyright Allyn &amp; Bacon 2007</p></li></ul>

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